Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Prevalence And Correlates Of Drug Use And Dependence In The United States. Results From The National Comorbidity Survey.

L. A. Warner, Ron C Kessler, Marcus D. Hughes, James C Anthony, Christopher B. Nelson
Published 1995 · Medicine
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
OBJECTIVES To analyze nationally representative data on the lifetime and 12-month prevalences of use of and dependence on illegal drugs (marijuana/hashish, cocaine/crack, heroin, hallucinogens), nonmedical prescription psychotropic drugs (sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, analgesics), and inhalants; and to examine data on the sociodemographic correlates of use and dependence. METHODS The data come from the National Comorbidity Survey, a structured diagnostic interview administered to persons aged 15 to 54 years that generates reliable diagnoses according to the definitions and criteria of DSM-III-R. RESULTS Of the respondents, 51.0% used one of the above drugs at some time in their lives, and 15.4% did so in the past 12 months. These estimates are similar to those obtained in the 1991 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, where lifetime prevalence was 45.2% and 12-month prevalence was 16.7% among respondents in the age range 15 to 54 years. Of National Comorbidity Survey respondents, 7.5% (14.7% of lifetime users) were dependent at some time in their lives and 1.8% were dependent in the past 12 months. The prevalence estimate for lifetime dependence was reduced to 5.3% when calculated the percentage of respondents in the age range of 28 to 54 years who reported an onset of dependence as of 10 years earlier (ie, when they were 18 to 44 years old) was computed. This is similar to the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study estimate of 5.1% among respondents in the age range 18 to 44 years, a comparison that matches the two studies on year of assessment, age of risk, and cohort. Males were significantly more likely to report both lifetime and 12-month use and dependence. Use and dependence were found to be more common in cohorts born after World War II than those born before the end of the war. The demographic predictors of lifetime use differed from the predictors of lifetime dependence among users, and these, in turn, differed from the predictors of recent dependence among people with a lifetime history of dependence. CONCLUSIONS Drug use and dependence are highly prevalent in the general population. The fact that there are differences in the correlates of first use, dependence among users, and persistence of dependence means that future research aimed at pinpointing modifiable risk factors must be based on disaggregated analyses of separate stages of progression.



This paper is referenced by
10.1093/sleep/27.6.1181
What keeps us awake: the neuropharmacology of stimulants and wakefulness-promoting medications.
Benjamin Boutrel (2004)
10.1080/10550887.2011.642753
Comparison of Substance Use Milestones in Cannabis- and Cocaine-Dependent Patients
Jonathan T Horey (2012)
10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00031
Addiction and Choice: Theory and New Data
Gene M. Heyman (2013)
10.1007/s00787-006-0597-5
Prevalence of use, abuse and dependence on legal and illegal psychotropic substances in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population
Oliver Niethammer (2006)
10.1017/S0033291703008158
Primary anxiety disorders and the development of subsequent alcohol use disorders: a 4-year community study of adolescents and young adults.
Peter Von Zimmermann (2003)
10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.566
Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.
Wilson M Compton (2007)
10.1159/000018966
Psychiatric Comorbidity in Opiate Addicts
Michael Krausz (1999)
10.1037/0002-9432.73.4.381
Cumulative adversity and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence from a diverse community sample of young adults.
Donald A. Lloyd (2003)
10.1001/archpsyc.59.1.77
Perceived need and help-seeking in adults with mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders.
Ramin Mojtabai (2002)
10.1007/s11524-007-9206-2
Cross-boundary Substance Uses Among Hong Kong Chinese Young Adults
Joseph Tak-Fai Lau (2007)
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.05.006
Female-male differences in prescription pain reliever dependence levels: Evidence on newly incident adolescent and young adult users in the United States, 2002-2014.
Hui G Cheng (2019)
10.1016/j.ejpain.2006.08.004
Addiction to opioids in chronic pain patients: a literature review.
Jette Højsted (2007)
10.2105/AJPH.91.12.1987
The visibility of illicit drugs: implications for community-based drug control strategies.
Leonard Saxe (2001)
10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.00321.x
Gender differences in prevalence of substance use disorders among individuals with lifetime exposure to substances: results from a large representative sample.
Shaul Lev-Ran (2013)
10.3109/09687630902810691
Factors associated with teenage ecstasy use
Patrick McCrystal (2009)
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.10.001
Increased risk-taking decision-making but not altered response to punishment in stimulant-using young adults.
David S. Leland (2005)
10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00137-5
The natural course of cannabis use, abuse and dependence over four years: a longitudinal community study of adolescents and young adults.
Kirsten von Sydow (2001)
The Role of Maternal Psychological Distress on Neurobehavioural Disinhibition among Preschoolers Exposed Prenatally to Methamphetamine
Amy McDonald (2016)
10.1016/j.psychres.2010.09.014
Psychiatric comorbidity in methamphetamine dependence
Ruth E Salo (2011)
10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.09.009
Improving targets for the prevention of drug use disorders: sociodemographic predictors of transitions across drug use stages in the national comorbidity survey replication.
Joel Swendsen (2008)
10.1038/nrn3104
Opiate versus psychostimulant addiction: the differences do matter
Aldo Badiani (2011)
10.1002/mpr.33
Methodological studies of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in the US national comorbidity survey (NCS)
Ronald C. Kessler (1998)
Chemical dependency treatment: An examination of following continuing care recommendations
B. L. Faulkner (2002)
10.1097/ACM.0000000000000483
The prevalence of social and behavioral topics and related educational opportunities during attending rounds.
Jason M Satterfield (2014)
10.1080/02791072.2010.10400706
Predictors of Depressive Symptomatology Among Rural Stimulant Users
Raminta Daniulaityte (2010)
10.1136/jech.2010.112441
Drinking in context: the influence of gender and neighbourhood deprivation on alcohol consumption
Flora I. Matheson (2011)
10.1001/archpsyc.58.10.943
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among persons convicted of driving while impaired.
Sandra C. Lapham (2001)
10.1001/archpsyc.55.11.967
Co-occurrence of abuse of different drugs in men: the role of drug-specific and shared vulnerabilities.
Ming T Tsuang (1998)
An Examination of the Pathways of Depressive Symptoms and Heavy Drinking from Adolescence to Adulthood.
Emily Anne Gustafson (2011)
10.25148/etd.FI13080716
The Influence of Gender On Perceived Treatment Need Among a Community Sample of Substance Users
Sheila P. Vakharia (2013)
Data-Mining Approaches to Suicide and Suicidal Behavior Final Report March 2004 Submitted for Funding to Longer Life Foundation
Rumi Kato Price (2004)
10.1080/0020174X.2013.806134
A Good Enough Reason: Addiction, Agency and Criminal Responsibility
Stephen J. Morse (2013)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar