Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Prevalence And Correlates Of Drug Use And Dependence In The United States. Results From The National Comorbidity Survey.

L. A. Warner, R. Kessler, M. Hughes, J. Anthony, C. Nelson
Published 1995 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
OBJECTIVES To analyze nationally representative data on the lifetime and 12-month prevalences of use of and dependence on illegal drugs (marijuana/hashish, cocaine/crack, heroin, hallucinogens), nonmedical prescription psychotropic drugs (sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, analgesics), and inhalants; and to examine data on the sociodemographic correlates of use and dependence. METHODS The data come from the National Comorbidity Survey, a structured diagnostic interview administered to persons aged 15 to 54 years that generates reliable diagnoses according to the definitions and criteria of DSM-III-R. RESULTS Of the respondents, 51.0% used one of the above drugs at some time in their lives, and 15.4% did so in the past 12 months. These estimates are similar to those obtained in the 1991 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, where lifetime prevalence was 45.2% and 12-month prevalence was 16.7% among respondents in the age range 15 to 54 years. Of National Comorbidity Survey respondents, 7.5% (14.7% of lifetime users) were dependent at some time in their lives and 1.8% were dependent in the past 12 months. The prevalence estimate for lifetime dependence was reduced to 5.3% when calculated the percentage of respondents in the age range of 28 to 54 years who reported an onset of dependence as of 10 years earlier (ie, when they were 18 to 44 years old) was computed. This is similar to the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study estimate of 5.1% among respondents in the age range 18 to 44 years, a comparison that matches the two studies on year of assessment, age of risk, and cohort. Males were significantly more likely to report both lifetime and 12-month use and dependence. Use and dependence were found to be more common in cohorts born after World War II than those born before the end of the war. The demographic predictors of lifetime use differed from the predictors of lifetime dependence among users, and these, in turn, differed from the predictors of recent dependence among people with a lifetime history of dependence. CONCLUSIONS Drug use and dependence are highly prevalent in the general population. The fact that there are differences in the correlates of first use, dependence among users, and persistence of dependence means that future research aimed at pinpointing modifiable risk factors must be based on disaggregated analyses of separate stages of progression.
This paper references
10.3109/10826089209068769
Trends in illicit drug use in the United States: conflicting results from national surveys.
L. Harrison (1992)
10.1016/0376-8716(92)90103-J
Cocaine use and dependence in young adults: associated psychiatric disorders and personality traits.
M. Kilbey (1992)
10.1037/0278-6133.10.2.121
Some gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users.
B. Lex (1991)
10.3109/00952999309002675
A comparison of ICD-10 and DSM-III-R criteria for substance abuse and dependence.
M. Rapaport (1993)
10.1037/e472252004-001
Age of onset of drug use as a factor in drug and other disorders.
L. Robins (1985)
10.3109/00952999309002682
Alcohol and heroin use patterns of narcotics addicts: gender and ethnic differences.
Y. Almog (1993)
10.1192/bjp.159.5.645
Cross-cultural feasibility, reliability and sources of variance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The Multicentre WHO/ADAMHA Field Trials.
H. Wittchen (1991)
10.1080/02791072.1993.10472287
Gender differences among African-American substance abusers.
C. Boyd (1993)
10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810050051009
Recall and dating of psychiatric symptoms. Test-retest reliability of time-related symptom questions in a standardized psychiatric interview.
H. Wittchen (1989)
10.2105/AJPH.79.8.1006
Psychoactive drug use in a general population sample, Sweden: correlates with perceived health, psychiatric diagnoses, and mortality in an automated record-linkage study.
C. Allgulander (1989)
Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among black adolescents: a comparison across gender, grade, and school environment.
S. M. Thomas (1990)
10.1192/bjp.158.2.177
Comparison of CATEGO-derived ICD-8 and DSM-III classifications using the composite international diagnostic interview in severely ill subjects.
A. Farmer (1991)
10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116252
Reevaluation of secular trends in depression rates.
G. Simon (1992)
10.3109/10826089709035572
Quantitative and qualitative changes in cocaine use among American high school seniors, college students, and young adults.
P. O'Malley (1991)
10.1192/bjp.159.5.653
The CIDI-core substance abuse and dependence questions: cross-cultural and nosological issues. The WHO/ADAMHA Field Trial.
L. Cottler (1991)
10.1001/ARCHPSYC.1994.03950010008002
Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey.
R. Kessler (1994)
10.1192/bjp.160.6.815
Clinical observation of assessment using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). An analysis of the CIDI Field Trials--Wave II at the St Louis site.
A. Janca (1992)
10.1037/e467802004-001
Developmental patterns of the use of legal, illegal, and medically prescribed psychotropic drugs from adolescence to young adulthood.
D. Kandel (1985)
10.1037/e469462004-001
The etiology and prevention of substance use: what can we learn from recent historical changes?
L. Johnston (1985)
10.1080/01621459.1976.10480338
Computerized Method for Approximating the Variance of a Complicated Estimate
Ralph S. Woodruff (1976)
10.1097/00005053-198812000-00004
Psychopathology in Cocaine Abusers: Changing Trends
R. Weiss (1988)
SPSS/PC+ Advanced Statistics V2.0 for the IBM PC/XT/AT and PS/2
M. Norusis (1988)
10.1037/0022-006X.61.6.952
Investigating onset, cessation, relapse, and recovery: why you should, and how you can, use discrete-time survival analysis to examine event occurrence.
J. Willett (1993)
10.1126/science.3490691
Epidemiology of drug abuse: an overview.
N. Kozel (1986)
10.1080/01621459.1972.10481293
An Application of Multivariate Analysis to Complex Sample Survey Data
G. Koch (1972)
10.1016/0010-440X(88)90054-5
Procedural validity of standardized symptom questions for the assessment of psychotic symptoms--a comparison of the DIS with two clinical methods.
P. A. Spengler (1988)
10.1016/0277-9536(82)90143-5
Research on psychotropic drug use. A review of findings and methods.
R. Cooperstock (1982)
10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760250115013
Sequence and stages in patterns of adolescent drug use.
D. Kandel (1975)
10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800240038006
A comparison between the Present State Examination and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
A. Farmer (1987)
10.3109/00952998709001500
Sex differences in addict careers. 2. Becoming addicted.
M. Anglin (1987)
Epidemiology of drug abuse in the United States: a summary of methods and findings.
N. Kozel (1990)
10.1037/1064-1297.2.3.244
Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey.
J. Anthony (1994)
10.1037/e496882006-011
Gender differences in drug use: an epidemiological perspective.
R. Clayton (1986)
10.1080/01621459.1970.10481145
Balanced Repeated Replications for Standard Errors
L. Kish (1970)
10.2105/AJPH.81.8.1064
Decline in the use of illicit drugs by high school students in New York State: a comparison with national data.
D. Kandel (1991)
10.1080/00401706.1982.10487769
The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data
J. Klein (1982)
10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810330013002
Comparing age at onset of major depression and other psychiatric disorders by birth cohorts in five US community populations.
K. C. Burke (1991)
Estimating addiction rates and locating target populations. How decomposition into stages helps.
Robins Ln (1977)
Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study
D. Regier (1990)
10.2307/3350102
The social demography of drug use.
D. Kandel (1991)
10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800360017003
The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic Instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures.
L. Robins (1988)
10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116399
Psychopathology and attrition in the epidemiologic catchment area surveys.
W. Eaton (1992)
10.1007/978-1-4615-7737-9_12
Dependence on Psychotropic Drugs and Analgesics in Men and Women
D. Bell (1980)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb21003.x
Epidemiology of substance abuse including alcohol and cigarette smoking.
E. H. Adams (1989)



This paper is referenced by
10.1037/H0080155
Women with co-occurring addictive and mental disorders: an emerging profile of vulnerability.
M. Alexander (1996)
Alla ricerca di fattori patogenetici comuni tra dipendenze e disturbi mentali: disedonia e comorbidità psichiatrica
V. Manna (2006)
10.1016/B978-0-12-496736-6.00017-7
Legal Authority, Medical Basis and Public Policy for Controlling and Scheduling Controlled Substances
Norman S. Miller (2010)
10.1080/0886571X.2013.819273
Effectiveness of Residential Treatment for Substance Abusing Youth: Benefits of the Pine River Institute Program
Laura Mills (2013)
10.1037/0002-9432.73.4.381
Cumulative adversity and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence from a diverse community sample of young adults.
D. A. Lloyd (2003)
10.1001/ARCHPSYC.59.1.77
Perceived need and help-seeking in adults with mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders.
R. Mojtabai (2002)
10.1007/s11524-007-9206-2
Cross-boundary Substance Uses Among Hong Kong Chinese Young Adults
J. Lau (2007)
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.05.006
Female-male differences in prescription pain reliever dependence levels: Evidence on newly incident adolescent and young adult users in the United States, 2002-2014.
Hui G Cheng (2019)
10.2105/AJPH.88.4.581
Substance use among nurses: differences between specialties.
A. Trinkoff (1998)
10.1080/10550887.2011.642753
Comparison of Substance Use Milestones in Cannabis- and Cocaine-Dependent Patients
Jonathan T Horey (2012)
10.1177/002204260103100412
Drug Use and Treatment Initiation Patterns: Differences by Birth-Cohorts
V. Joshi (2001)
10.1016/S0885-3924(03)00219-7
Definitions related to the medical use of opioids: evolution towards universal agreement.
S. Savage (2003)
10.1016/J.JADOHEALTH.2003.08.011
Mental disorder and comorbidity among runaway and homeless adolescents.
L. Whitbeck (2004)
10.1177/1363459305050586
Understanding variations in exposure to social stress
H. Turner (2005)
10.1016/J.AMJOPHARM.2006.10.002
Psychoactive drug abuse in older adults.
L. Simoni-Wastila (2006)
10.1093/SLEEP/27.6.1181
What keeps us awake: the neuropharmacology of stimulants and wakefulness-promoting medications.
B. Boutrel (2004)
10.1177/002204260103100210
Substance Use and Self-Reported Mental Health: The Moderating Effect of Acquaintance Use Behavior among Adults
Julie Ford (2001)
10.1046/J.1360-0443.2002.00098.X
Sedative use and misuse in the United States.
R. Goodwin (2002)
10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00225-9
Substance use, abuse and dependence in adolescence: prevalence, symptom profiles and correlates.
S. Young (2002)
10.1007/0-387-25822-1_7
The Urban Environment, Drug Use, and Health
D. Ompad (2005)
10.1007/s00787-006-0597-5
Prevalence of use, abuse and dependence on legal and illegal psychotropic substances in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population
Oliver Niethammer (2006)
10.1007/978-3-642-03637-8_50
Drogen- und Medikamentenabhängigkeit
M Soyka (2011)
10.1016/B978-0-12-378638-8.00015-4
Human Brain Myelination Trajectories Across the Life Span: Implications for CNS Function and Dysfunction
J. Sherin (2011)
10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181e898b4
Alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical drug use disorders in U.S. Adults aged 65 years and older: data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.
J. C. Lin (2011)
10.1111/j.1521-0391.2011.00198.x
Implications of epidemiological data for identifying persons with substance use and other mental disorders.
Richard N. Rosenthal (2012)
10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00031
Addiction and Choice: Theory and New Data
G. Heyman (2013)
10.1007/978-1-4899-3591-5_13
The Impact of Socially Constructed Knowledge on Drug Policy
R. Degrandpre (1996)
10.1016/S0899-3289(96)90249-7
Prevalence and correlates of drug use and DSM-IV drug dependence in the United States: results of the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey.
B. Grant (1996)
10.1111/J.1360-0443.1996.TB02248.X
The conclusion? Analyses incomplete
B. M. Johnstone (1996)
10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.09.009
Improving targets for the prevention of drug use disorders: sociodemographic predictors of transitions across drug use stages in the national comorbidity survey replication.
J. Swendsen (2008)
10.1080/10673220127912
The Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse: what we have learned.
M. Tsuang (2001)
10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00137-5
The natural course of cannabis use, abuse and dependence over four years: a longitudinal community study of adolescents and young adults.
K. von Sydow (2001)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar