Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Extraction (Liquid–Liquid)

Teh C. Lo, Malcolm H. I. Baird
Published 2007 · Chemistry

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extracting, is a well-established separation technique that depend on the unequal distribution of a solute between two immiscible liquids. The initial feed liquid containing the solute is brought into contact with a solvent which is selected to have a greater affinity for the solute. The partition of the solute can be enhanced by adding a chemical extractant to the solvent; this practice is widespread in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries. Most industrial extractors operate continuously with countercurrent flow of the two phases. In mixer-settlers, the phases are contacted as a well-agitated dispersion of drops, which are then sent to settling tanks for phase disengagement. In extraction columns, the dispersed drops move countercurrently against the flow of the second (continuous) phase. The physics, chemistry, and practice of extraction, with brief descriptions of important industrial extraction processes and equipment, are presented. Research on hydrodynamic aspects of process design such as axial mixing, drop dispersion, and coalescence is reviewed. New extraction techniques such as membrane extraction, supercritical exctraction, and two-phase aqueous extraction are discussed. Keywords: Extraction; Liquid; Principles; Mass transfer; Equipment processing; Commercial extractors; Petroleum processes; Pharmaceutical processes; Food processing; Nuclear fuel processing; Membranes; Inorganic processes
This paper references
10.1021/ie50269a013
IV. - Fundamental Design of Absorbing and Stripping Columns for Complex Vapors
Mott Sauders
10.1002/aic.690120315
Axial mixing and extraction in a mechanically agitated liquid extraction tower
R. Bibaud (1966)
10.1016/0009-2509(54)80007-8
The mechanism of mass transfer of solutes across liquid-liquid interfaces
J. Lewis (1954)
10.1021/ie50603a036
Statistical Theories of Turbulence in Predicting Particle Size in Agitated Dispersions
Reuel. Shinnar (1960)
10.1002/aic.690010222
Correlation of diffusion coefficients in dilute solutions
C. Wilke (1955)
10.1016/0009-2509(60)80007-3
Influence of mass transfer on coalescence of drops
H. Groothuis (1960)
10.1021/i260024a016
Design of Air Pulsers for Pulse Column Application
M. Weech (1967)
10.1021/i260032a014
A Liquid Extraction Column with Reciprocated Wire Mesh Packing
Robert M. Wellek (1969)
10.1080/01496398808075629
Enhanced Solvent Extraction with Water-in-Ok Microemulsions
K. Osseo-asare (1988)
10.1002/bit.260221114
Alcoholic Fermentation in an Aqueous Two‐Phase System
Inger Kuehn (1980)
10.1021/i260060a012
A Simplified Analytical Design Method for Stagewise Extractors with Backmixing
H. Pratt (1976)
10.1016/0009-2509(80)87001-1
Counter-current flow of dispersed and continuous phase—III Measurements of hold-up profiles and particle size distributions in a vibrating plate contactor
V. Jiřičný (1980)
10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00081-5
Recovery of sulfuric acid from copper tank house electrolyte bleeds
Ken Gottliebsen (2000)
10.1002/aic.690030112
Mechanics of vertical‐moving fluidized systems
L. Lapidus (1957)
10.1016/0300-9467(74)85001-X
Theory of scaling up and hydrodynamic modelling of industrial mass transfer equipment
A. Rosen (1974)
10.1016/S0376-7388(00)80313-0
Hollow fiber solvent extraction: Performances and design
Ravi Prasad (1990)
10.1021/i260076a027
Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Interphase Chemical Reaction in Agitated Columns. 1. Mathematical Models
Sukhamoy Sarkar (1980)
10.1021/ie50589a048
Activity Coefficients and Molecular Structure
G. J. Pierotti (1959)
10.1002/cjce.5450630106
Mass transfer in a reciprocating plate extraction column ― Effects of mass transfer direction and plate material
Z. Shen (1985)
10.1002/aic.690370306
Effect of unfavorable continuous phase density gradient on axial mixing
T. L. Holmes (1991)
10.1021/ie50458a010
Furans in Vegetable Oil Refining
S. W. Gloyer (1948)
10.1139/v84-083
Membrane transport systems. V. Coupled countertransport of alkaline earth cations and protons
Lynn M. Dulyea (1984)
10.1021/i260053a013
A Simplified Analytical Design Method for Differential Extractors with Backmixing. I. Linear Equilibrium Relationship
H. Pratt (1975)
10.1021/i260044a007
Development of a Laboratory-Scale Reciprocating Plate Extraction Column
T. C. Lo (1972)
10.1016/S0376-7388(00)83078-1
Hollow fiber solvent extraction of pharmaceutical products: a case study
R. Prasad (1989)
10.1080/00986449208936044
THE RECIPROCATING PLATE COLUMN—DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS
D. Othmer (1992)
10.1002/aic.690120321
Longitudinal dispersion in rotating impeller types of contactors
T. Miyauchi (1966)
10.1002/aic.690370707
Axial mixing in a reciprocating plate column with very small density gradients
Malcolm H. I. Baird (1991)
10.1016/0009-2509(76)85055-5
A contribution to the theory of fractional liquid extraction
J. Prochazka (1976)
10.1002/aic.690210115
Statistical thermodynamics of liquid mixtures: A new expression for the excess Gibbs energy of partly or completely miscible systems
D. S. Abrams (1975)
10.1002/cjce.5450540112
Axial dispersion in a reciprocating plate extraction column
S. Kim (1976)
10.1252/jcej.6.518
LIQUID-PHASE MIXING IN A MULTISTAGE VIBRATING-DISK COLUMN WITH CONCURRENT GAS-LIQUID FLOW
Kei Miyanami (1974)
10.1016/0009-2509(56)85001-X
The effect of a surface-active agent on mass transfer in falling drop extraction
K. P. Lindland (1956)
10.1002/aic.690020116
Performance of an internally baffled multistage extraction column
E. G. Scheibel (1956)
10.1002/aic.690080225
Fundamental aspects of rotating disk contactor performance
C. P. Strand (1962)
10.1002/aic.690010309
Liquid‐liquid extraction in continuous‐flow agitated extractors
A. Flynn (1955)
10.1002/aic.690170319
Backmixing in multistage agitated contactors---a correlation
H. Haug (1971)
10.1201/9780203027301
Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction : A Series of Advances, Volume 17
J. Marinsky (2004)
10.1080/14786443109461823
XLI. Theory of the velocity of diffusion of strong electrolytes in dilute solution
G. S. H. B.Sc.
10.1021/i260076a028
Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Interphase Chemical Reaction in Agitated Columns. 2. Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer in Rotating Disk and Oldshue Rushton Contactors
Sukhamoy Sarker (1980)
10.1021/ie50470a016
The Solexol Process
H. J. Passino (1949)
10.2307/1436734
The "Eastward Migration" of Terrapene ornata (Agassiz)
C. Grant
10.1080/07366290008934715
LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE SOLVENT EXTRACTION MODULES USED FOR Cr(VI) RECOVERY FROM ELECTROPLATING RINSE WATER
I. J. Youri (2000)
10.1016/0300-9467(90)80033-9
Simulation of a pneumatically pulsed liquid-liquid extraction column
J. F. Milot (1990)
10.1002/aic.690170239
Permeation through liquid surfactant membranes
N. Li (1971)
10.1002/bit.260080103
Fermentation mixing scale‐up techniques
J. Y. Oldshue (1966)
10.1002/aic.690050410
Performance of a reciprocating‐plate extraction column
A. E. Karr (1959)
10.1016/0009-2509(83)80104-3
Monte carlo simulation of mass transfer in liquid-liquid dispersions
P. M. Bapat (1983)
10.1016/0009-2509(62)80025-6
On the mechanism of mass transfer in liquid-liquid extraction
G. Thorsen (1962)
10.1002/aic.690040424
A new type of countercurrent column for the zirconium‐hafnium separation
N. Isaac (1958)
10.1149/1.2407312
Gas‐Liquid Reactions
P. V. Danckwerts (1970)
10.1016/0009-2509(81)85084-1
Drop breakage in counter current flow liquid-liquid extraction columns
J.J.C. Cruz-Pinto (1981)
10.1002/bit.260360202
Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in two‐phase aqueous extraction using spray columns
S. B. Sawant (1990)
10.1016/0005-1098(77)90029-2
Measurement, control and simulation of an industrial liquid-liquid extractor
S. Ochiai (1977)
10.1002/hlca.19550380324
Untersuchungen an Extraktionskolonnen. 1. Mitteilung
A. Guyer (1955)
10.1021/ie50486a016
Semicommercial Multistage Extraction Column - Performance Characteristics
E. G. Scheibel (1950)
10.1016/0304-386X(83)90027-0
Liquid membrane processes for copper extraction
N. Li (1983)
10.1252/jcej.7.123
GAS HOLDUP AND PRESSURE DROP IN A MULTISTAGE VIBRATING DISK COLUMN WITH COCURRENT GAS-LIOUID FLOW
K. Tojo (1974)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/J.SEPPUR.2009.03.027
Interfacial partition of plasmid DNA in aqueous two-phase systems
F. Luechau (2009)
10.7763/IJCEA.2011.V2.85
Liquid-Liquid Equilibria for Water + 2,3-Butanediol + 3- Methyl-1-Butanol at Different Temperatures of 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15 K
Sadhana Vishwakarma (2011)
10.1038/srep17509
Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant
K. Tao (2015)
10.1016/J.CEJ.2010.03.062
Hydrodynamic behavior analysis of a rotating disc contactor for aromatics extraction with 4-methyl-butyl-pyridinium·BF4 by CFD
Ferdy Onink (2010)
10.1021/ACS.JCED.5B00717
Glycerol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents as Extractants for the Separation of MEK and Ethanol via Liquid–Liquid Extraction
N. R. Rodriguez (2016)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1989. Decision Guide for Identifying Substance- Specific Data Needs Related to Toxicological Profiles; Notice. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
K. Krishnan (2012)
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFER IN MULTI-STAGE ROTATING DISC CONTACTOR COLUMN (PEMODELAN MATEMATIK BAGI PERALIHAN JISIM DALAM TURUS PENGEKSTRAKAN CAKERA BERPUTAR MULTI-TINGKAT)
Khairil Anuar Arshad (2006)
10.1007/s00253-017-8493-0
DNA extraction on bio-chip: history and preeminence over conventional and solid-phase extraction methods
A. Ayoib (2017)
10.1016/B978-0-12-396959-0.00014-8
Extraction and Leaching
James R. Couper (2010)
10.3390/MIN5020298
Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process
Fatima Arroyo Arroyo (2015)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar