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Topical Treatments For Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

A. Mason, J. Mason, M. Cork, G. Dooley, H. Hancock
Published 2013 · Medicine

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BACKGROUND Chronic plaque psoriasis is the most common type of psoriasis, and it is characterised by redness, thickness, and scaling. First-line management of chronic plaque psoriasis is with topical treatments, including vitamin D analogues, topical corticosteroids, tar-based preparations, dithranol, salicylic acid, and topical retinoids. OBJECTIVES To compare the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis, relative to placebo, and to similarly compare vitamin D analogues (used alone or in combination) with other topical treatments. SEARCH METHODS We updated our searches of the following databases to February 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (from 1948), EMBASE (from 1980), Science Citation Index (from 2008), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (from 2008), BIOSIS (from 1993), Dissertation Abstracts via DialogClassic (all publication years), and Inside Conferences (all publication years).We identified ongoing and unpublished studies from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials. We checked the bibliographies of published studies and reviews for further references to relevant trials, and we contacted trialists and companies for information about newly published studies.A separate search for adverse effects was undertaken in February 2011 using MEDLINE and EMBASE (from 2005).Final update searches for both RCTs and adverse effects were undertaken in August 2012. Although it has not been possible to incorporate RCTs and adverse effects studies identified through these final searches within this review, we will incorporate these into the next update. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised trials comparing active topical treatments against placebo or against vitamin D analogues (used alone or in combination) in people with chronic plaque psoriasis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS One author extracted study data and assessed study quality. A second author checked these data. We routinely contacted trialists and companies for missing data. We also extracted data on withdrawals and on local and systemic adverse events. We defined long-term trials as those with a duration of at least 24 weeks. MAIN RESULTS This update added 48 trials and provided evidence on 7 new active treatments. In total, the review included 177 randomised controlled trials, with 34,808 participants, including 26 trials of scalp psoriasis and 6 trials of inverse psoriasis, facial psoriasis, or both. The number of included studies counted by Review Manager (RevMan) is higher than these figures (190) because we entered each study reporting a placebo and an active comparison into the 'Characteristics of included studies' table as 2 studies.When used on the body, most vitamin D analogues were significantly more effective than placebo, with the standardised mean difference (SMD) ranging from -0.67 (95% CI -1.04 to -0.30; 1 study, 119 participants) for twice-daily becocalcidiol to SMD -1.66 (95% CI -2.66 to -0.67; 1 study, 11 participants) for once-daily paricalcitol. On a 6-point global improvement scale, these effects translate into 0.8 and 1.9 points, respectively. Most corticosteroids also performed better than placebo; potent corticosteroids (SMD -0.89; 95% CI -1.06 to -0.72; I² statistic = 65.1%; 14 studies, 2011 participants) had smaller benefits than very potent corticosteroids (SMD -1.56; 95% CI -1.87 to -1.26); I² statistic = 81.7%; 10 studies, 1264 participants). On a 6-point improvement scale, these benefits equate to 1.0 and 1.8 points, respectively. Dithranol, combined treatment with vitamin D/corticosteroid, and tazarotene all performed significantly better than placebo.Head-to-head comparisons of vitamin D for psoriasis of the body against potent or very potent corticosteroids had mixed findings. For both body and scalp psoriasis, combined treatment with vitamin D and corticosteroid performed significantly better than vitamin D alone or corticosteroid alone. Vitamin D generally performed better than coal tar, but findings relative to dithranol were mixed. When applied to psoriasis of the scalp, vitamin D was significantly less effective than both potent corticosteroids and very potent corticosteroids. Indirect evidence from placebo-controlled trials supported these findings.For both body and scalp psoriasis, potent corticosteroids were less likely than vitamin D to cause local adverse events, such as burning or irritation. Combined treatment with vitamin D/corticosteroid on either the body or the scalp was tolerated as well as potent corticosteroids, and significantly better than vitamin D alone. Only 25 trials assessed clinical cutaneous dermal atrophy; few cases were detected, but trials reported insufficient information to determine whether assessment methods were robust. Clinical measurements of dermal atrophy are insensitive and detect only the most severe cases. No comparison of topical agents found a significant difference in systemic adverse effects. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroids perform at least as well as vitamin D analogues, and they are associated with a lower incidence of local adverse events. However, for people with chronic plaque psoriasis receiving long-term treatment with corticosteroids, there remains a lack of evidence about the risk of skin dermal atrophy. Further research is required to inform long-term maintenance treatment and provide appropriate safety data.
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A. Lane (1983)
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Economic impact of psoriasis treatment on the patient and on the National Health Service
T. Poyner (1999)
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M. E. Franssen (1999)
Evaluation of halobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of plaque psoriasis: report on two double-blind, vehicle-controlled studies.
J. Bernhard (1991)
A comparison of subjective and objective measures of reduction of psoriasis with the use of ultrasound, reflectance colorimetry, computerized video image analysis, and nitric oxide production.
A. Ormerod (1997)
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D. B. Buckley (1978)
No increased risk of cancer after coal tar treatment in patients with psoriasis or eczema.
J. Roelofzen (2010)
0.3% Tacrolimus gel and 0.5% Tacrolimus cream show efficacy in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis: Results of a randomized, open-label, observer-blinded study.
J. Ortonne (2006)
Assessment of the Activity of Tacalcitol on Psoriatic Plaques by Means of Colorimetry and High-Frequency Ultrasound: A Double-Blind Intrasubject Half-Side Right-Left Comparison with Betamethasone Valerate and Placebo
S. Seidenari (1997)
Epidermal cell DNA content and intermediate filaments keratin 10 and vimentin after treatment of psoriasis with calcipotriol cream once daily, twice daily and in combination with clobetasone 17‐butyrate cream or betamethasone 17‐valerate cream: a comparative flow cytometric study
C. Glade (1996)
An Update on Vitamin D3 Analogues in the Treatment of Psoriasis
P. Kerkhof (1998)
Improvement of psoriasis by a topical vitamin D3 analogue (MC 903) in a double‐blind study
K. Kragballe (1988)
Coping with psoriasis
A. Finlay (1995)
High‐dose topical calcipotriol in the treatment of extensive psoriasis vulgaris
J. Bourke (1993)
Calcitriol (1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) ointment in psoriasis, a safety tolerance and efficacy multicentre study.
J. Wishart (1994)
Cignolin als Heilmittel der Psoriasis
P. Unna (1916)
The course of psoriasis.
E. D. de Jong (1997)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Calcipotriol Ointment and ’Short-Contact’ Dithranol in Treating Mildto-Moderate Psoriasis
CI Harrington (1995)
A new scalp formulation of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate compared with each of its active ingredients in the same vehicle for the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a randomized, double‐blind, controlled trial
P. van de Kerkhof (2009)
Psoriasis : The prevalence in sex, age and occupational groups in total populations in Sweden. Morphology, inheritance and association with other skin and rheumatic diseases
L. Hellgren (1967)
Long-term effectiveness and safety of topical calcipotriene for psoriasis. Calcipotriene Study Group.
Cullen Si (1996)
A New Calcipotriol/Betamethasone Dipropionate Formulation (DaivobetTM) Is an Effective Once-Daily Treatment for Psoriasis vulgaris
R. Kaufmann (2002)
Tazarotene cream in the treatment of psoriasis: Two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies of the safety and efficacy of tazarotene creams 0.05% and 0.1% applied once daily for 12 weeks.
G. Weinstein (2003)
Calcipotriol cream and betamethasone valerate cream of equal efficacy in psoriasis
L. Molin (1995)
Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new criteria from a large international study.
W. Taylor (2006)
Double-blind comparison of halcinonide solution and placebo control in treatment of psoriasis of the scalp.
Lepaw Mi (1978)
Urine calcium excretion during treatment of psoriasis with topical calcipotriol
J. Berth-Jones (1993)
High dose topical calcipotriol consistently reduces serum parathyroid hormone levels
J. Bourke (1994)
Topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are not associated with skin atrophy
J. Bos (2002)
Combinations and comparisons.
P. V. D. van de Kerkhof (1997)
1992b (Continued) • Adults
Berth Jones (1992)
Better medication adherence results in greater improvement in severity of psoriasis
C. Carroll (2004)
Helping people to remain in control of their psoriasis.
J. Watts (1998)
Emollients, moisturizers, and keratolytic agents in psoriasis.
J. Fluhr (2008)
Comparison of cutaneous tolerance and efficacy of calcitriol 3 μg g−1 ointment and tacrolimus 0·3 mg g−1 ointment in chronic plaque psoriasis involving facial or genitofemoral areas: a double‐blind, randomized controlled trial
Y. H. Liao (2007)
Comparative study of calcipotriol (MC 903) ointment and betamethasone 17-valerate ointment in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.
W. Cunliffe (1992)
Amcinonide lotion 0.1% in the treatment of patients with psoriasis of the scalp
C. Ellis (1988)
Clobetasol Propionate 0.05% Spray vs Calcipotriene 0.005%, Betamethasone Dipropionate 0.064% Ointment for the Treatment of Plaque Psoriasis: Results from a Randomized Study
A. Menter (2009)
Prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in Italian psoriatic patients.
C. Salvarani (1995)
Long-term safety and efficacy of high-concentration (20 microg/g) tacalcitol ointment in psoriasis vulgaris.
Y. Miyachi (2002)
Efficacy and safety of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation compared with calcipotriol scalp solution in the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a randomized controlled trial
K. Kragballe (2009)
Two considerations for patients with psoriasis and their clinicians: what defines mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis? What constitutes a clinically significant improvement when treating psoriasis?
G. Krueger (2000)
Quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis treated with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation: a randomized controlled trial
J. Ortonne (2009)
On Cutaneous Diseases.
Walker A. Lea (1845)
A Comparison of Single and Multiple Applications of Halcinonide Cream
A. Sudilovsky (1981)
The pathophysiology of psoriasis
J. Barker (1991)
Assessing the preferences of patients with psoriasis. A quantitative, utility approach.
K. Zug (1995)
Adherence to treatment in patients with psoriasis
H. Richards (2006)
Calcipotriol ointment under occlusion gives a fast onset of action
M. Hindsén (2006)
Calcipotriol betamethasone ointment in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel group study.
H. Lan (2009)
An intra-individual randomized safety and efficacy comparison of clobetasol propionate 0.05% spray and its vehicle in the treatment of plaque psoriasis.
K. Beutner (2006)
Comparative efficacy of calcipotriol (MC903) cream and betamethasone 17‐valerate cream in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. A randomized, double‐blind, parallel group multicentre study
L. Molin (1997)
A Comparative Study of Maxacalcitol Monotherapy, Clobetasol Propionate Monotherapy and the Combination of Each Agent as a Premixed Ointment for the Treatment of Psoriasis
Yoshihiko Ito (2005)
The Efficacy and Tolerability of Clobetasol Propionate Foam 0.05% in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Plaque-type Psoriasis of Nonscalp Regions
A. Gottlieb (2003)
Pimecrolimus cream 1% in the treatment of intertriginous psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized study.
Carin H. Gribetz (2004)
Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Facial Psoriasis: A 16-Week Open-Label Study
A. Jacobi (2008)
Topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis.
J. Bailey (2010)
Long‐term safety of topical calcitriol 3 μg g−1 ointment
M. Gerritsen (2001)
Un nouveau traitement dans le psoriasis du cuir chevelu : Xamiol® : Résultats à court terme et à long terme
F. Cambazard (2009)
A comparison of twice‐daily calcipotriol ointment with once‐daily short‐contact dithranol cream therapy: a randomized controlled trial of supervised treatment of psoriasis vulgaris in a day‐care setting
P. V. D. van de Kerkhof (2006)
Tazarotene 0·1% gel for psoriasis of the fingernails and toenails: an open, prospective study
L. Bianchi (2003)
Identification of fifteen new psoriasis susceptibility loci highlights the role of innate immunity
L. Tsoi (2012)
Interventions for nail psoriasis.
Anna Christa Q de Vries (2013)
The economic impact of psoriasis increases with psoriasis severity.
S. Feldman (1997)
Calcipotriol cream in the morning and ointment in the evening: a novel regimen to improve compliance.
P. V. D. van de Kerkhof (2001)
M. Sørensen (2002)
Ustekinumab for plaque psoriasis
C. Roberts (2011)
reports findings for study A at 10 mths
Berth Jones (1992)
Evaluation of the atrophogenic potential of topical corticosteroid in dermatology paediatric patients
E Hong (2010)
Pilot, multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled bilateral comparative study of a combination of calcipotriene and nicotinamide for the treatment of psoriasis.
D. Levine (2010)
Topical becocalcidiol for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind, multicentre study
Y. Helfrich (2007)
A controlled trial of topical propylthiouracil in the treatment of patients with psoriasis.
A. Elias (1994)
Tacalcitol ointment is an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for psoriasis
Carmelo Scarpa (1996)
Early onset of action and efficacy of a combination of calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate in the treatment of psoriasis.
K. Papp (2003)
Comparative study of calcipotriol (0.005%) ointment and tazarotene (0.05% and 0.1%) gel in the treatment of stable plaque psoriasis.
I. Kaur (2008)
Efficacy and safety of topical WBI‐1001 in patients with mild to moderate psoriasis: results from a randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled, phase II trial
R. Bissonnette (2012)
Efficacy of once‐daily treatment regimens with calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate ointment and calcipotriol ointment in psoriasis vulgaris
K. Kragballe (2004)
Topical fish oil in psoriasis—a controlled and blind study
S. Escobar (1992)
A Double-Blind Study Comparing Oleum Horwathiensis with Placebo in the Treatment of Psoriasis
A. Lassus (1991)
Highly purified omega‐3‐polyunsaturated fatty acids for topical treatment of psoriasis. Results of a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled multicentre study
Psoriasis in an unselected series of twins.
F. Brandrup (1978)
Corneodesmosin (MHC S) gene in guttate psoriasis
R. Tazi-Ahnini (1999)
Calcipotriol ointment in nail psoriasis: a controlled double‐blind comparison with betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid
Tosti (1998)
Topical therapy for psoriasis with the use of augmented betamethasone and calcipotriene on alternate weeks.
S. Singh (2000)
Epidemiology of psoriasis.
R. Stern (1995)
Frequency of psoriatic arthritis in general population and among the psoriatics in Department of Dermatology.
V. Barišić-Druško (1994)
Systematic review of comparative efficacy and tolerability of calcipotriol in treating chronic plaque psoriasis
D. Ashcroft (2000)
Topical treatment of mild to moderate plaque psoriasis with 0·3% tacrolimus gel and 0·5% tacrolimus cream: the effect on SUM score, epidermal proliferation, keratinization, T‐cell subsets and HLA‐DR expression
W. Vissers (2008)
Comparison of tazarotene 0.1% gel plus petrolatum once daily versus calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily in the treatment of plaque psoriasis.
Tien-Yi Tzung (2005)
One-minute dithranol therapy in psoriasis: a placebo-controlled paired comparative study.
J. Jekler (1992)
Intermittent corticosteroid maintenance treatment of psoriasis: a double-blind multicenter trial of augmented betamethasone dipropionate ointment in a pulse dose treatment regimen.
H. Katz (1991)
[Treatment of scalp psoriasis. An effective and safe tacalcitol emulsion].
T. Ruzicka (2004)
The separate daily application of tacalcitol 4 µg/g ointment and budesonide 0.25 mg/g cream is more effective than the single daily application of a two compound ointment containing calcipotriol 50 µg/g and betamethasone dipropionate 0.5 mg/g.
P. Calzavara-Pinton (2011)
A new calcipotriol/betamethasone formulation with rapid onset of action was superior to monotherapy with betamethasone dipropionate or calcipotriol in psoriasis vulgaris.
W. S. Douglas (2002)
Comparative effects of calcipotriol ointment (50 micrograms/g) and 5% coal tar/2% allantoin/0.5% hydrocortisone cream in treating plaque psoriasis.
N. Pinheiro (1997)
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C. Durakovic (2004)
Long-term efficacy and tolerability of topical calcipotriol in psoriasis. Results of an open study.
K. Kragballe (1991)
A new aqueous dithranol gel for psoriasis: Comparison with placebo and calcipotriol ointment
C. Grattan (1997)
Double-blind, right/left comparison of calcipotriol and betamethasone valerate in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris
K. Kragballe (1991)
Tachyphylaxis to the action of topically applied corticosteroids.
A. du Vivier (1975)
Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo‐controlled, double‐blind study *
T. Syed (1996)
The prevalence of psoriasis in the Mongoloid race
SY Yip (1984)
The prevalence of psoriasis in the Mongoloid race.
S. Y. Yip (1984)
Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Activity of Betamethasone-17,21-Dipropionate in the Treatment of Erythematous Squamous Dermatoses
Robert Elic (1983)
Better patient compliance in psoriasis.
T. Chu (2000)
Rationale for use and clinical responsiveness of hexafluoro‐1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the treatment of plaque psoriasis: a pilot study
C. Durakovic (2001)
Efficacy Results of a 52-Week, Randomised, Double-Blind, Safety Study of a Calcipotriol/Betamethasone Dipropionate Two-Compound Product (Daivobet®/Dovobet®/Taclonex®) in the Treatment of Psoriasis Vulgaris
K. Kragballe (2006)
Economic analyses of the treatment of psoriasis
J. Lambert (1996)
Calcipotriol cream and concurrent corticosteroids in psoriasis
P. Kerkhof (1995)
Treatment of Mild to Moderate Psoriasis with Reliéva, a Mahonia aquifolium Extract—A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
S. Bernstein (2006)
Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05%: a new option to treat patients with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.
M. Jarratt (2004)
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) ointment in psoriasis
A. Langner (1992)
Efficacy and Tolerability of a Cosmetically Acceptable Coal Tar Solution in the Treatment of Moderate Plaque Psoriasis
M. Alora-Palli (2010)
Efficacy and safety of the 20-epi-vitamin D3 analogue KH 1060 in the topical therapy of psoriasis: results of a dose-ranging study.
K. Kragballe (1994)
Adherence to treatment in patients with psoriasis vulgaris: Turkish experience
G. Gokdemir (2008)
Long-term efficacy and safety of once daily treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis with tacalcitol ointment
P. Kerkhof (1997)
Duration of improvement in psoriasis after treatment with tazarotene 0.1% gel plus clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment: comparison of maintenance treatments
M. Lebwohl (2001)
A genome-wide association study identifies new psoriasis susceptibility loci and an interaction between HLA-C and ERAP1
A. Strange (2010)
Antistreptococcal interventions for guttate and chronic plaque psoriasis
Gwendy Dupire (2015)
Calcipotriol plus Betamethasone Dipropionate Gel Compared with Tacalcitol Ointment and the Gel Vehicle Alone in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
R. Langley (2011)
Per-Gram Cost of Medication is by Itself a Poor Indicator for Comparing Costs of Different Psoriasis Treatments: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Cost of Psoriasis Treatment with Topical Corticosteroids versus Topical Calcipotriene
S. Feldman (2000)
Occlusion enhances the efficacy of topical calcipotriol in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris
J. Bourke (1993)
Efficacy and safety of a new combination of calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate (once or twice daily) compared to calcipotriol (twice daily) in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized, double‐blind, vehicle‐controlled clinical trial
L. Guenther (2002)
Quality of life, health‐state utilities and willingness to pay in patients with psoriasis and atopic eczema
L. Lundberg (1999)
Psoriasis: maximizing topical treatment concordance.
G. Gupta (2007)
Topical calcitriol in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: a double‐blind study
A. Langner (1993)
Treatment of Psoriatic Nails with Topical Cyclosporin: A Prospective, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
S. Cannavó (2003)
Adherence to topical therapy increases around the time of office visits.
S. Feldman (2007)
The benefits, costs and risks of topical tar preparations in the treatment of psoriasis: considerations of cost effectiveness.
R. Stern (1988)
Preatrophy: covert sign of thinned skin.
H. Katz (1989)
Topical calcipotriene has no short-term effect on calcium and bone metabolism of patients with psoriasis.
C. Guzzo (1996)
Appendix 1. Specialised Register search strategy (RCTs) Searched 04/12/04 Search updated on 17/11/2008: from January 2005 to date Search updated on 3/02/2011
Safety and Efficacy of Combined High-Dose Treatment with Calcipotriol Ointment and Solution in Patients with Psoriasis
P. V. D. van de Kerkhof (2002)
Calcipotriene ointment and halobetasol ointment in the long-term treatment of psoriasis: effects on the duration of improvement.
M. Lebwohl (1998)
A double-blind, vehicle-controlled study of clobetasol propionate 0.05% (Temovate) scalp application in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.
E. Olsen (1991)
1% pimecrolimus, 0.005% calcipotriol, and 0.1% betamethasone in the treatment of intertriginous psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized controlled study.
A. Kreuter (2006)
Calcipotriene ointment 0.005% for psoriasis: a safety and efficacy study. Calcipotriene Study Group.
A. Highton (1995)
Clobetasol propionate lotion in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis.
J. Decroix (2004)
Gene for familial psoriasis susceptibility mapped to the distal end of human chromosome 17q.
J. Tomfohrde (1994)
Failure of topical polymyxin B to improve mild plaque psoriasis.
J. Stutz (1996)
Quality of life in 6497 Nordic patients with psoriasis
R. Zachariae (2002)
Additional studies on psoriasis in the tropics and in starvation camps.
R. Simons (1949)
A double‐blind study of topical 1α,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 in psoriasis
P. Kerkhof (1989)
The effect of severe psoriasis on the quality of life of 369 patients
A. Finlay (1995)
Dermoscopic assessment of long-term topical therapies with potent steroids in chronic psoriasis.
F. Vazquez-Lopez (2004)
Immunopathogenesis and role of T cells in psoriasis.
K. Ghoreschi (2007)
1996a (Continued) • Known allergy to study medication
Van de Kerkhof (1996)
Once daily vs. twice daily applications of topical treatments in psoriasis
P. Kerkhof (2005)
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate spray in the treatment of plaque-type psoriasis.
M. Jarratt (2006)
Clobetasol propionate 0.05% spray for the management of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis of the scalp: results from a randomized controlled trial.
H. Sofen (2011)
The Atrophogenic Potential and Dermal Tolerance of Calcipotriol/Betamethasone Dipropionate Ointment Compared with Betamethasone Dipropionate Ointment
J. Traulsen (2003)
Efficacy of 15% azelaic acid in psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.
F. Iraji (2010)
Terapia de refuerzo en pacientes con psoriasis tratada con calcipotriol
C. Ferrándiz (1998)
Short-contact treatment at home with Micanol.
G. Volden (1992)
Folate with methotrexate: big benefit, questionable cost
I. Brownell (2007)
Topical use of calcitriol 3 µg/g ointment in the treatment of mild‐to‐moderate psoriasis: results from an open‐label study
I. Carboni (2005)
An investigator‐masked comparison of the efficacy and safety of twice daily applications of calcitriol 3 µg/g ointment vs. calcipotriol 50 µg/g ointment in subjects with mild to moderate chronic plaque‐type psoriasis
X. Zhu (2007)
The immunological basis of psoriasis
C. Griffiths (2003)
Oral itraconazole for the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis: an open, noncomparative trial
O. Kose (2005)
Comparison of tacalcitol ointment with short-contact dithranol therapy in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized multicentre, open prospective study on efficacy and safety
Beatrix Farkas (1999)
The genetics of psoriasis: a complex disorder of the skin and immune system.
J. Bhalerao (1998)
Mometason und Calcipotriol optimieren den therapeutischen Initialeffekt von Dithranol auf die chronisch stationäre Psoriasis (CSP)
P. Sander (1998)
The safety and efficacy of tazarotene gel, a topical acetylenic retinoid, in the treatment of psoriasis.
G. Krueger (1998)
Clinical assessment of patients with recalcitrant psoriasis in a randomized, observer-blind, vehicle-controlled trial using indigo naturalis.
Y. Lin (2008)
M. Zanolli (1992)
A clinical study to determine the efficacy and safety of 1% methotrexate/Azone® (MAZ) gel applied topically once daily in patients with psoriasis vulgaris
L. Sutton (2001)
Evaluation of the atrophogenic potential of different glucocorticoids using optical coherence tomography, 20‐MHz ultrasound and profilometry; a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial
M. Cossmann (2006)
A classification of psoriasis vulgaris according to phenotype
C. Griffiths (2007)
Current severe psoriasis and the Rule of Tens
A. Finlay (2005)
Adverse effects of topical glucocorticosteroids.
U. Hengge (2006)
Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials
P. Jüni (2001)
Short Contact Therapy with Tazarotene in Psoriasis Vulgaris
S. Veraldi (2006)
Topical therapies for psoriasis: evidence-based review.
T. Afifi (2005)
I gave a lecture for Leo Pharmaceuticals about psoriasis and atopic eczema in 2012.
Mike Cork (2012)
Germany, sponsored the trial
Fujisawa GmbH (2008)
Topical monotherapy with clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in the COBRA trial.
A. Menter (2007)
Clobetasol propionate emollient 0.05 percent: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis safety and four-week clinical efficacy results in plaque-type psoriasis.
J. Jorizzo (1997)
A randomized double-blind comparison of the effects on systemic calcium homeostasis of topical calcitriol (3 micrograms/g) and calcipotriol (50 micrograms/g) in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis vulgaris.
J. Bourke (1997)
Development, evaluation and clinical studies of Acitretin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for topical treatment of psoriasis.
Y. Agrawal (2010)
Clinical evaluation of a PAF-antagonist in psoriasis vulgaris
H. Wolska (1995)
Clinical trial of a potent non-halogenated topical steroid, Budesonide.
G. Agrup (1981)
Validation of a general measure of treatment satisfaction, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), using a national panel study of chronic disease
M. Atkinson (2004)
The impact of a two-compound product containing calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate (Daivobet®/Dovobet®) on the quality of life in patients with psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized controlled trial
P. Kerkhof (2004)
Topical tacrolimus ointment combined with 6% salicylic acid gel for plaque psoriasis treatment.
C. Carroll (2005)
Combinations and comparisons.
P. Kerkhof (1997)
W. H. Goeckerman (1931)
The Efficacy and Safety of Topically Applied Indigo Naturalis Ointment in Patients with Plaque-Type Psoriasis
Y. Lin (2007)

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Cost per PASI-75 responder of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate cutaneous foam versus non-biologic systemic therapies for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in seven European countries.
D. Balak (2020)
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Li Ma (2016)
Safety and pharmacodynamics of dalazatide, a Kv1.3 channel inhibitor, in the treatment of plaque psoriasis: A randomized phase 1b trial
E. Tarcha (2017)
In touch with psoriasis: topical treatments and current guidelines
G. Murphy (2011)
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