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Molecular Materials For Second‐order Nonlinear Optical Applications

S. Marder, J. Perry
Published 1993 · Materials Science

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Since the advent of lasers there has been an explosion in concepts for using light to carry and process information. The current push to exploit photonic technologies has created a need for high performance nonlinear optical (NLO) materials whose properties are very sensitive to applied fields. Organic molecules and molecular materials are known to exhibit large nonlinearities and are amenable to optimization of their properties by rational modification of their structures." -41 But, in addition to high NLO activity, materials must also satisfy stringent requirements on optical absorption, scamring loss, processibility, and mechanical, thermal, and environmental stability. By the mid-1980s NLO chromophores based on stilbene-type conjugated structures were shown to have hyperpolarizability (/I) values of up to about 100 x esu, which were considered to be quite large. Also, powder second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiencies of 100 times urea for crystalline organic materials based on p-nitroaniline (p-NA) chromophores were known and considered to be high nonlinearities; only one material with a powder SHG efficiency of >200 times urea was known. In the last few years considerable progress has been made in our understanding of significant questions in the field. such as: 0 Is there a fundamental limit to the magnitude of ji' for a molecule of a given length, and if so how does one design a molecule with optimized p? 0 Can approaches be developed toward obtaining an ideal noncentric packing of molecules in a crystal to optimize specific second-order NLO properties?
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