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Laser-induced Release Of Encapsulated Materials Inside Living Cells.

A. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, Alicia Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. Parak, G. Sukhorukov
Published 2006 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Drug delivery into biological cells is an important and growing area of application. Among other systems, such as gels, polymeric micelles, liposomes, and colloids, nanoengineered polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules offer a unique opportunity to combine surface multifunctionality with design flexibility for the delivery of encapsulated materials into designated compartments and cells. Furthermore, microcapsules can be arranged in arrays for imaging, could be appropriate candidates for a cell-sorting system, and serve as fluorescence markers for the characterization of cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The capsules are fabricated using the layer-bylayer (LbL) method by alternately adsorbing oppositely charged polymers on colloidal templates followed by core dissolution. In this regard, proteins and biocompatible polymers have also received increased interest. The main advantage of such a method is the precise control over the chemical composition of the surfaces. In the area of biomedical applications, polyelectrolytemultilayer capsules are envisioned for the delivery of encapsulated materials into biological cells. Recently, we have presented the real-time monitoring and remote release of encapsulated materials from polyelectrolyte-multilayer capsules on the single-capsule level. Such an approach is different from the studies reported by other research groups in that it is performed on a single-capsule level, which is the method ideally suited to applications where precise control is necessary. In addition, the distinctive feature reported in reference [10b] is the measurement of the temperature rise induced locally by absorption of laser light by nanoparticles. In general, nanoparticles are becoming ubiquitous components that link chemistry and physics with biology and biochemistry. They can be embedded in the walls of capsules to provide functionality, and they are also finding increasing interest for biological imaging. Herein, we show that polyelectrolyte-multilayer capsules containing metallic nanoparticles in their walls can be remotely activated to release encapsulatedmaterial inside living cells. Fluorescently labeled polymers were chosen as a model system for encapsulated materials. The remote-release experiments were conducted according to the following scheme. The polyelectrolyte-multilayer shells were doped with metal nanoparticles, which served as absorption centers for energy supplied by a laser beam. These absorption centers cause local heating that disrupts the local polymer matrix and allows the encapsulated material to leave the interior of the capsule. When using lasers with biological objects, it is important to minimize the absorption of laser light by cells and tissue. This can be accomplished by choosing the laser wavelength in the biologically “friendly” window—the near-infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. Usually the spectral properties of water serve as a good criterion, as it constitutes 80–85% of eukaryotic cells. Indeed, in water the temperature rise in the focus of a laser diode with wavelength 850 nm and operating at optical powers up to 100 mW during less than 1 s exposure time was reported to be under 1 K. Other important parameters that control the interaction of laser light with the absorption centers are the size of the nanoparticles and their concentration on the microcapsules. The concentration of metal nanoparticles plays an important role for two reasons: 1) when the distance between the two adjacent nanoparticles is of the order of their size, the thermal effects produced by [*] Dr. A. G. Skirtach, Dr. O. Kreft, K. K hler, Prof. Dr. H. M hwald, Prof. Dr. G. B. Sukhorukov Institut f+r Grenzfl-chen Max-Planck-Institut f+r Kolloidund Grenzfl-chenforschung Am M+hlenberg 1, 14424 Golm/Potsdam (Germany) Fax: (+49)331-567-9202 E-mail: andre.skirtach@mpikg-golm.mpg.de
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