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Direct Estimate Of The Strength Of Conjugation And Hyperconjugation By The Energy Decomposition Analysis Method.

I. Fernández, G. Frenking
Published 2006 · Medicine, Chemistry

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The intrinsic strength of pi interactions in conjugated and hyperconjugated molecules has been calculated using density functional theory by energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of the interaction energy between the conjugating fragments. The results of the EDA of the trans-polyenes H2C=CH-(HC=CH)n-CH=CH2 (n = 1-3) show that the strength of pi conjugation for each C=C moiety is higher than in trans-1,3-butadiene. The absolute values for the conjugation between Si=Si pi bonds are around two-thirds of the conjugation between C=C bonds but the relative contributions of DeltaE pi to DeltaE orb in the all-silicon systems are higher than in the carbon compounds. The pi conjugation between C=C and C=O or C=NH bonds in H2C=CH--C(H)=O and H2C=CH-C(H)=NH is comparable to the strength of the conjugation between C=C bonds. The pi conjugation in H2C=CH-C(R)=O decreases when R = Me, OH, and NH2 while it increases when R = halogen. The hyperconjugation in ethane is around a quarter as strong as the pi conjugation in ethyne. Very strong hyperconjugation is found in the central C-C bonds in cubylcubane and tetrahedranyltetrahedrane. The hyperconjugation in substituted ethanes X3C-CY3 (X,Y = Me, SiH3, F, Cl) is stronger than in the parent compound particularly when X,Y = SiH3 and Cl. The hyperconjugation in donor-acceptor-substituted ethanes may be very strong; the largest DeltaE pi value was calculated for (SiH3)3C-CCl3 in which the hyperconjugation is stronger than the conjugation in ethene. The breakdown of the hyperconjugation in X3C-CY3 shows that donation of the donor-substituted moiety to the acceptor group is as expected the most important contribution but the reverse interaction is not negligible. The relative strengths of the pi interactions between two C=C double bonds, one C=C double bond and CH3 or CMe3 substituents, and between two CH3 or CMe3 groups, which are separated by one C-C single bond, are in a ratio of 4:2:1. Very strong hyperconjugation is found in HC[triple bond]C-C(SiH3)3 and HC[triple bond]C-CCl3. The extra stabilization of alkenes and alkynes with central multiple bonds over their terminal isomers coming from hyperconjugation is bigger than the total energy difference between the isomeric species. The hyperconjugation in Me-C(R)=O is half as strong as the conjugation in H2C=CH-C(R)=O and shows the same trend for different substituents R. Bond energies and lengths should not be used as indicators of the strength of hyperconjugation because the effect of sigma interactions and electrostatic forces may compensate for the hyperconjugative effect.
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