Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Apoptosis And Hepatobiliary Disease

T. Patel, Gregory J. Gores
Published 1995 · Biology

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
In this review we have attempted to summarize recent information on the role of apoptosis in normal liver biology and as a pathophysiological mechanism of cell death during hepatobiliary disease. Apoptosis is an important mechanism of cell injury and death in pathogenic settings as diverse as cell-mediated cytotoxicity, drug and chemical toxicity, carcinogenesis, viral disease, and autoimmune disease. Several factors account for the widespread attention and flurry of investigative activity into the phenomenon of apoptosis including the following: (1) realization that apoptosis is an important component of the behavior of all cells; (2) increasing evidence supporting a role for apoptotic cell death in diverse pathological settings; (3) elucidation of the biochemical pathways and insight into the genetic and molecular regulation of the process; and (4) development of new techniques to identify cells undergoing apoptosis. Recognition of the importance and role of apoptosis in hepatobiliary disease should stimulate interest and promote basic research toward understanding the mechanisms involved. Subsequent investigation into defining the cellular regulatory mechanisms and biochemical processes involved will be fertile ground for future research that may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and viral disease.
This paper references
Apoptosis II: The Molecular Basis of Apoptosis in Disease
L. D. Tomei (1994)
10.1016/0270-9139(93)92061-4
Hepatocyte apoptosis is triggered by galactosamine or cycloheximide, and associated with expression of the RP-8 gene
M. Czaja (1993)
10.1002/PATH.1710970314
An electron‐microscope study of liver cell necrosis due to heliotrine
J. Kerr (1969)
10.1084/JEM.175.2.553
A natural killer cell granule protein that induces DNA fragmentation and apoptosis
L. Shi (1992)
10.1289/EHP.8457313
1,1-Dichloroethylene: an apoptotic hepatotoxin?
E. S. Reynolds (1984)
10.1111/j.1440-1746.1987.tb00152.x
The significance of cell death by apoptosis in hepatobiliary disease
J. Searle (1987)
Important advances in oncology 1986
V. D. Vita (1986)
10.1002/HEP.1840050603
Histopathology of early and late human hepatic allograft rejection: Evidence of progressive destruction of interlobular bile ducts
J. Vierling (1985)
10.1016/0006-291X(74)90662-7
Isolation and purification of calcium and magnesium dependent endonuclease from rat liver nuclei.
R. Ishida (1974)
10.1016/S0046-8177(81)80081-0
Ultrastructural lesions of bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis. A comparison with the lesions observed in graft versus host disease.
D. Bernuau (1981)
Induction of two different modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, in rat liver after a single dose of thioacetamide.
G. M. Ledda-Columbano (1991)
10.1038/350427A0
Mutational hot spot in the p53 gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas
I. C. Hsu (1991)
10.1073/PNAS.88.8.3412
Coordinated regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation by transforming growth factor beta 1 in cultured uterine epithelial cells.
R. Rotello (1991)
10.1073/PNAS.90.3.786
Toward an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of physiological cell death.
D. Vaux (1993)
10.1073/PNAS.91.1.73
Induction of apoptotic DNA damage and cell death by activation of the sphingomyelin pathway.
W. D. Jarvis (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90326-L
Molecular cloning and expression of the fas ligand, a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor family
T. Suda (1993)
10.1038/356215A0
Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours
L. Donehower (1992)
10.1126/SCIENCE.2787530
Monoclonal antibody-mediated tumor regression by induction of apoptosis.
B. Trauth (1989)
10.1172/JCI117579
Increases of intracellular magnesium promote glycodeoxycholate-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.
T. Patel (1994)
Characterization of the transglutaminase-mediated large molecular weight polymer from rat liver; its relationship to apoptosis.
R. L. Knight (1993)
10.1038/ICB.1977.37
An electron microscopic study of the mode of donor cell death in unmodified rejection of pig liver allografts.
J. Searle (1977)
10.1182/BLOOD.V80.4.879.BLOODJOURNAL804879
Bcl-2 initiates a new category of oncogenes: regulators of cell death.
Sj Korsmeyer (1992)
10.1007/BF01121789
Decreased protein kinase C activity is associated with programmed cell death (apoptosis) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes
Víctor Sánchez (1992)
Non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogenesis in vitro: the FaO hepatoma line responds to peroxisome proliferators and retains the ability to undergo apoptosis.
A. C. Bayly (1993)
10.1016/S0074-7696(08)62312-8
Cell death: the significance of apoptosis.
A. Wyllie (1980)
10.1002/PATH.1711580314
Apoptosis—the mechanism of cell death in dimethylnitrosamine‐induced hepatotoxicity
D. Pritchard (1989)
10.1038/269518a0
Extreme sensitivity of some intestinal crypt cells to X and γ irradiation
CHRISTOPHER S. Potten (1977)
Rapid induction of apoptosis in rat liver by cycloheximide.
G. M. Ledda-Columbano (1992)
10.1038/361739A0
Conversion of lytic to persistent alphavirus infection by the bcl-2 cellular oncogene
B. Levine (1993)
10.1111/J.1530-0277.1995.TB01527.X
Mechanisms of acetaldehyde-mediated growth inhibition: delayed cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis.
B. Zimmerman (1995)
10.1038/356397A0
Social controls on cell survival and cell death
M. Raff (1992)
Specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: an early marker of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
S. Kaufmann (1993)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90486-A
Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by IL-1β-converting enzyme, a mammalian homolog of the C. elegans cell death gene ced-3
M. Miura (1993)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7518614
Fas and perforin pathways as major mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
D. Kägi (1994)
10.1385/1597453390
Apoptosis and cancer.
D. Green (1994)
10.1016/0955-0674(93)90118-A
Apoptosis and signal transduction: clues to a molecular mechanism.
S. Lee (1993)
Induction of endonucleolytic DNA cleavage in human acute myelogenous leukemia cells by etoposide, camptothecin, and other cytotoxic anticancer drugs: a cautionary note.
S. Kaufmann (1989)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1378649
Role for c-myc in activation-induced apoptotic cell death in T cell hybridomas.
Y. Shi (1992)
Hormone-regulated apoptosis results from reentry of differentiated prostate cells onto a defective cell cycle.
M. Colombel (1992)
10.1126/SCIENCE.8235659
Bcl-2 inhibition of neural death: decreased generation of reactive oxygen species.
D. J. Kane (1993)
10.1038/284555A0
Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation
A. Wyllie (1980)
p53 gene mutation spectrum in hepatocellular carcinoma.
T. Oda (1992)
10.1016/0014-5793(92)80373-O
The clearance of apoptotic cells in the liver is mediated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor
L. Dini (1992)
10.1210/MEND-3-10-1515
Expression of transforming growth factor-β in the rat ventral prostate during castration-induced programmed cell death
N. Kyprianou (1989)
10.1111/J.1600-0676.1988.TB00972.X
The streaming liver. II. Hepatocyte life history.
N. Arber (1988)
10.1073/PNAS.90.18.8479
Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death.
S. Henderson (1993)
Anti-Fas on nonhematopoietic tumors: levels of Fas/APO-1 and bcl-2 are not predictive of biological responsiveness.
L. Owen-Schaub (1994)
10.1055/S-2008-1040480
Role of cytochromes P450 in drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity.
P. Watkins (1990)
10.1172/JCI114328
Phagocytosis of aged human neutrophils by macrophages is mediated by a novel "charge-sensitive" recognition mechanism.
J. Savill (1989)
10.1038/364806A0
Lethal effect of the anti-Fas antibody in mice
J. Ogasawara (1993)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90464-2
A novel domain within the 55 kd TNF receptor signals cell death
L. A. Tartaglia (1993)
10.1038/bjc.1993.98
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 as a signal for induction of cell death by apoptosis.
W. Bursch (1993)
10.1021/BI00086A018
Ca2+/Mg(2+)-dependent endonuclease from human spleen: purification, properties, and role in apoptosis.
J. M. Ribeiro (1993)
10.1073/PNAS.88.16.6961
BCL2 protein is topographically restricted in tissues characterized by apoptotic cell death.
D. Hockenbery (1991)
Galactose-specific receptor modulation related to the onset of apoptosis in rat liver.
L. Dini (1993)
10.1111/j.1600-065X.1991.tb00822.x
Cell Death Mechanisms and the Immune System
P. Golstein (1991)
Condensation of the chromatin at the membrane of an apoptotic nucleus is not associated with activation of an endonuclease.
F. Oberhammer (1993)
Inhibitors of proteases prevent endonucleolysis accompanying apoptotic death of HL-60 leukemic cells and normal thymocytes.
S. Bruno (1992)
10.1021/BI00522A018
Purification and some properties of a deoxyribonucleic acid endonuclease endogenous to rat liver chromatin.
G. Machray (1981)
In vitro apoptosis in the human hepatoma cell line induced by transforming growth factor beta 1.
J. Lin (1992)
10.1002/PATH.1711050103
Shrinkage necrosis: A distinct mode of cellular death
J. Kerr (1971)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)80066-N
Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis
D. Hockenbery (1993)
Immunohistochemical detection of bcl-2 protein in normal and pathological human liver.
F. Charlotte (1994)
10.1111/J.1600-0676.1983.TB00874.X
Electron microscopic observation of destruction of biliary epithelium in primary biliary cirrhosis.
Y. Nakanuma (1983)
Perspectives on mammalian cell death.
C. Potten (1987)
10.1002/HEP.1840200129
Heterogeneity in hepatic transport of somatostatin analog octapeptides
Fricker (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(77)90058-7
Terminal differentiation of cultured human epidermal cells
H. Green (1977)
10.1002/HEP.1840180533
Apoptosis is induced by transforming growth factor‐β1 within 5 hours in regressing liver without significant fragmentation of the DNA
F. Oberhammer (1993)
10.1001/JAMA.1983.03330310070041
The Liver: Biology and Pathobiology
William D. Carey (1983)
10.1097/00002371-199310000-00011
Fas/APO-1 expression and function on malignant cells of hematologic and nonhematologic origin.
L. Owen-Schaub (1993)
WAF1/CIP1 is induced in p53-mediated G1 arrest and apoptosis.
W. El-Deiry (1994)
10.1006/ABBI.1993.1060
Identification of deoxyribonuclease II as an endonuclease involved in apoptosis.
M. Barry (1993)
Constitutive and induced expression of APO-1, a new member of the nerve growth factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, in normal and neoplastic cells.
F. Leithäuser (1993)
Programmed cell death : the cellular and molecular biology of apoptosis
M. Lavin (1993)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)82075-0
A novel protein domain required for apoptosis. Mutational analysis of human Fas antigen.
N. Itoh (1993)
10.1080/09553009214551201
Internucleosomal DNA cleavage should not be the sole criterion for identifying apoptosis.
R. Collins (1992)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7510905
Protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis by a soluble form of the Fas molecule.
J. Cheng (1994)
Occurrence of cell death (apoptosis) in preneoplastic and neoplastic liver cells. A sequential study.
A. Columbano (1984)
10.1073/PNAS.85.5.1539
Transforming growth factor beta mRNA increases during liver regeneration: a possible paracrine mechanism of growth regulation.
L. Braun (1988)
10.1016/B978-0-12-364932-4.50010-1
Apoptosis: mechanisms and roles in pathology.
M. Arends (1991)
10.1073/PNAS.89.12.5408
Induction of apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes and in regressing liver by transforming growth factor beta 1.
F. Oberhammer (1992)
10.1016/0041-008X(91)90028-D
Acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse hepatocytes: correlation of nuclear Ca2+ accumulation and early DNA fragmentation with cell death.
W. Shen (1991)
10.1002/HEP.1840180428
Induction of apoptosis by transforming growth factor‐β1 in the rat hepatoma cell line MCA‐RH7777: A possible association with tissue transglutaminase expression
K. Fukuda (1993)
10.1016/0092-8674(91)90614-5
The polypeptide encoded by the cDNA for human cell surface antigen Fas can mediate apoptosis
N. Itoh (1991)
10.1016/S0168-8278(88)80004-7
Preferential distribution of apoptotic bodies in acinar zone 3 of normal human and rat liver.
A. Benedetti (1988)
10.1016/s0021-9258(19)36956-x
Expression and involvement of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes in programmed cell death induced by growth factor deprivation in lymphoid cell lines.
F. Colotta (1992)
Microtubule antagonists activate programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cultured rat hepatocytes.
K. Tsukidate (1993)
10.1038/358015A0
p53, guardian of the genome
D. Lane (1992)
10.1016/0167-5699(90)90048-E
Cellular signalling in programmed cell death (apoptosis).
D. McConkey (1990)
10.1016/0092-8674(86)90004-8
Genetic control of programmed cell death in the nematode C. elegans
H. Ellis (1986)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb05666.x
Characterization of the endogenous deoxyribonuclease involved in nuclear DNA degradation during apoptosis (programmed cell death).
M. Peitsch (1993)
10.1084/JEM.178.5.1541
Mechanisms of class I restricted immunopathology. A transgenic mouse model of fulminant hepatitis
K. Ando (1993)
10.1096/fasebj.6.7.1563596
Apoptosis: a different type of cell death
L. Gerschenson (1992)
10.1038/343170A0
Vitronectin receptor-mediated phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis
J. Savill (1990)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)35653-9
An involucrin-like protein in hepatocytes serves as a substrate for tissue transglutaminase during apoptosis.
E. Taresa (1992)
10.1016/0378-4274(92)90233-A
Programmed cell death and its protective role with particular reference to apoptosis.
R. Schulte-Hermann (1992)
10.1111/j.1365-2184.1991.tb01150.x
Dose‐dependent induction of apoptosis in human tumour cell lines by widely diverging stimuli
S. Lennon (1991)
10.1126/SCIENCE.8108732
Premature p34cdc2 activation required for apoptosis.
L. Shi (1994)
10.1093/GERONJ/45.5.B135
Programmed cell death: new thoughts and relevance to aging.
R. Lockshin (1990)
10.1016/0270-9139(93)92135-M
Mechanisms of acetaldehyde mediated growth inhibition: Delayed cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis
B. Zimmerman (1993)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb06042.x
Apoptotic death in epithelial cells: cleavage of DNA to 300 and/or 50 kb fragments prior to or in the absence of internucleosomal fragmentation.
F. Oberhammer (1993)
10.1101/GAD.7.4.546
Wild-type p53 mediates apoptosis by E1A, which is inhibited by E1B.
M. Debbas (1993)
Cytotoxic effects of cell cycle phase specific agents: result of cell cycle perturbation.
A. Kung (1990)
Occurrence of cell death (apoptosis) during the involution of liver hyperplasia.
A. Columbano (1985)
10.1111/J.1600-0676.1985.TB00254.X
Deletion of hyperplastic biliary epithelial cells by apoptosis following removal of the proliferative stimulus.
P. Bhathal (1985)
10.1083/JCB.119.2.463
Expression of tissue transglutaminase in Balb-C 3T3 fibroblasts: effects on cellular morphology and adhesion
V. Gentile (1992)
10.1016/S0168-8278(88)80024-2
Subcellular changes and apoptosis induced by ethanol in rat liver.
A. Benedetti (1988)
10.1002/HEP.1840180219
Activin induces cell death in hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro
Ralph H. Schwall (1993)
10.1021/BI00683A006
Purification and characterization of a major endonuclease from rat liver nuclei.
G. Cordis (1975)
10.1002/HEP.1840040620
Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: A Pathological Study of 63 Serial Liver Biopsies from 17 Patients with Special Reference to the Diagnostic Features and Natural History of Rejection
D. Snover (1984)
10.1038/348334A0
Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death
D. Hockenbery (1990)
10.1038/352345A0
Wild-type p53 induces apoptosis of myeloid leukaemic cells that is inhibited by interleukin-6
E. Yonish-Rouach (1991)
10.1016/0014-5793(89)80210-8
Apoptotic hepatocytes become insoluble in detergents and chaotropic agents as a result of transglutaminase action
L. Fesus (1989)
10.1083/JCB.125.1.197
Suppression of liver cell apoptosis in vitro by the non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen and peroxisome proliferator nafenopin
A. C. Bayly (1994)
Fifth annual Pezcoller symposium: apoptosis.
R. Schimke (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90509-O
Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programed cell death
Zoltán N. Oltval (1993)
10.1002/JCB.240390413
TGFβ gene transcription in normal and neoplastic liver growth
B. Carr (1989)
10.1038/bjc.1972.33
Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
J. Kerr (1972)
10.1083/JCB.124.1.1
Bcl-2 and the regulation of programmed cell death
J. C. Reed (1994)
10.1016/0167-4781(91)90068-W
A nuclease from rat-liver nuclei with endo- and exonucleolytic activity.
Y. Hibino (1991)
10.1002/HEP.1840190606
Immunohistochemical detection of Fas antigen in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis C
N. Hiramatsu (1994)
10.1016/0955-0674(92)90037-D
The role of cytosolic Ca2+ in cell injury, necrosis and apoptosis.
B. Trump (1992)
10.1016/0014-5793(91)80773-V
Degradation of cells dying by apoptosis leads to accumulation of ε(γ‐glutamyl)lysine isodipeptide in culture fluid and blood
L. Fesus (1991)
10.1016/0167-4781(89)90018-3
Purification and properties of an endonuclease endogenous to rat-liver nuclei.
Y. Hibino (1989)
10.1038/351453A0
The p53 tumour suppressor gene
A. Levine (1991)
10.1016/0008-8749(90)90106-2
Protein kinase-C involvement in thymocyte apoptosis induced by hydrocortisone.
F. Ojeda (1990)
10.1128/MCB.9.8.3473
Induction of the TRPM-2 gene in cells undergoing programmed death.
R. Buttyan (1989)
Agents that elevate cAMP stimulate DNA fragmentation in thymocytes.
D. McConkey (1990)
10.1093/CARCIN/5.4.453
Controlled death (apoptosis) of normal and putative preneoplastic cells in rat liver following withdrawal of tumor promoters.
W. Bursch (1984)
10.1002/PATH.1711710115
Apoptotic bodies in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease: Reversibility of ethanol‐induced changes
R. Goldin (1993)
10.1073/PNAS.89.16.7295
Overexpressed full-length human BCL2 extends the survival of baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells.
E. Alnemri (1992)
10.1172/JCI117043
Human clusterin gene expression is confined to surviving cells during in vitro programmed cell death.
L. French (1994)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12363594
Cell death by apoptosis in epidermal biology.
A. Haake (1993)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb06202.x
The c‐Myc protein induces cell cycle progression and apoptosis through dimerization with Max.
B. Amati (1993)
10.1055/S-2008-1040602
Necroinflammatory liver diseases.
L. Bianchi (1986)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90457-2
Molecular regulation of apoptosis: Genetic controls on cell death
G. Williams (1993)
10.1016/0016-5085(95)90032-2
Liver cell necrosis: cellular mechanisms and clinical implications.
B. Rosser (1995)
10.1093/NAR/21.18.4206
DNA fragmentation during apoptosis is caused by frequent single-strand cuts.
M. Peitsch (1993)
10.1016/0092-8674(92)90123-T
Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by c-myc protein
G. Evan (1992)
10.1111/J.1600-0676.1988.TB00987.X
A quantitative evaluation of apoptotic bodies in rat liver.
A. Benedetti (1988)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/S0016-5085(98)70643-2
Hydrogen peroxide derived from hepatocytes induces sinusoidal endothelial cell apoptosis in perfused hypoxic rat liver.
S. Motoyama (1998)
10.11480/JMDS.470302
Apoptosis in acute hepatic failure: histopathological study of human liver tissue using the tunel method and immunohistochemistry.
I. Kasahara (2000)
10.1007/S001470050008
Increased apoptosis of hepatocytes in vascular occlusion after orthotopic liver transplantation
B. Gollackner (2000)
10.1016/S1572-5995(01)80015-6
Hepatoprotective effect of plant components: Inhibition of tumornecrosis factor-α-dependent inflammatory liver injury
K. Hase (2001)
10.1007/1-4020-2217-4_4
Apoptosis in Hepatocytes
N. T. Mukwena (2004)
10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00263-5
Acteoside inhibits apoptosis in D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury.
Q. Xiong (1999)
10.1002/cncr.10748
DNA fragmentation and cell proliferation correlated with tumor grade in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
A. Kalogeraki (2002)
10.1007/s10517-008-0014-9
Relationship between parameters of lipid peroxidation during obstructive jaundice and after bile flow restoration
L. Dudnik (2008)
Einfluss der Organtemperatur auf den mikrovaskulären Ischämie- Reperfusionsschaden der Leber
B. Luchting (2007)
10.1002/LT.500040106
Apoptosis in liver transplantation: a mechanism contributing to immune modulation, preservation injury, neoplasia, and viral disease.
T. Patel (1998)
10.1016/S1089-3261(05)70318-4
Pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
R. P. González-Peralta (1995)
10.1097/00007890-199803150-00019
Human hepatocytes produce an isoform of FAS that inhibits apoptosis.
S. Krams (1998)
10.1097/00007890-199605150-00015
Early graft loss secondary to massive hemorrhagic necrosis following orthotopic liver transplantation. Evidence for cytokine-mediated univisceral Shwartzman reaction.
G. Burke (1996)
10.1053/JHEP.2001.26380
The mitochondrial permeability transition contributes to acute ethanol‐induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes
H. Higuchi (2001)
10.1007/978-3-540-93842-2_23
Liver Cell Degeneration and Cell Death
H. Dancygier (2010)
10.1054/FIPR.2001.0097
Impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in plasminogen deficient mice
M. Tanaka (2001)
CD8+ cells are not necessary for allograft rejection or the induction of apoptosis in an experimental model of small intestinal transplantation.
S. Krams (1998)
10.1006/SCBI.2000.0318
Apoptosis and the liver.
S. Kanzler (2000)
10.1046/j.1365-2893.2001.00316.x
Fas‐mediated hepatocyte apoptosis is increased by hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol consumption, and may be associated with hepatic fibrosis: mechanisms of liver cell injury in chronic hepatitis C virus infection
S. Pianko (2001)
10.1080/109158198226701
Dose-Dependent Modulation of Cell Death: Apoptosis Versus Necrosis in Thioacetamide Hepatotoxicity
R. Mangipudy (1998)
10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80360-2
Withdrawal of life support, altruistic suicide, fratricidal killing and euthanasia by lymphocytes: different forms of drug-induced hepatic apoptosis.
D. Pessayre (1999)
Neutrophil-mediated liver injury during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
Y. Chen (2006)
10.1016/S0531-5565(03)00164-5
Long-living Ames dwarf mouse hepatocytes readily undergo apoptosis
M. A. Kennedy (2003)
10.1006/JSRE.1999.5703
Hepatic apoptotic activity following transient normothermic inflow occlusion and reperfusion in the swine model.
T. Helling (1999)
10.1016/S1089-3261(05)70112-4
Apoptosis in hepatic pathophysiology.
T. Patel (2000)
10.1016/S1590-8658(01)80109-2
Relationship between apoptosis, tumour necrosis factor, and cell proliferation in chronic cholestasis.
A. Floreani (2001)
10.1002/HEP.510250115
Cytoprotection by fructose and other ketohexoses during bile salt‐induced apoptosis of hepatocytes
I. M. Zeid (1997)
10.1097/00007890-199502270-00031
Apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death in liver allograft rejection.
S. Krams (1995)
10.1016/S0344-0338(99)80089-2
Bcl-2 protein expression in acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
L. Nakopoulou (1999)
10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01369-7
Ultrastructural observations in hepatitis C virus-infected lymphoid cells.
A. Steffan (2001)
10.1007/PL00012410
CD4 T lymphocytes cause hepatocyte apoptosis by releasing Th1 cytokines in cellular immunological liver injury
Q. Xu (2002)
10.1111/J.1530-0277.1999.TB04121.X
Modulation of caspase-3 activity and Fas ligand mRNA expression in rat liver cells in vivo by alcohol and lipopolysaccharide.
I. Deaciuc (1999)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar