Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Violating The Psychological Contract: Not The Exception But The Norm

S. Robinson, D. Rousseau
Published 1994 · Psychology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The occurrence and impact of psychological contract violations were studied among graduate management alumni (N = 128) who were surveyed twice, once at graduation (immediately following recruitment) and then two years later. Psychological contracts, reciprocal obligations in employment developed during and after recruitment, were reported by a majority of respondents (54.8 per cent) as having been violated by their employers. The impact of violations are examined using both quantitative and qualitative data. Occurrence of violations correlated positively with turnover and negatively with trust, satisfaction and intentions to remain.
This paper references
10.2307/256773
CHANGING OBLIGATIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY
S. Robinson (1994)
10.2307/2393223
The Influence of Prior Commitment to an Institution on Reactions to Perceived Unfairness: The Higher They Are, the Harder They Fall
J. Brockner (1992)
10.1002/JOB.4030110506
New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts
D. Rousseau (1990)
The centrality of interpersonal trust in group processes
R. Golembiewski (1975)
10.2307/2522342
Personnel / Human Resource Management
H. G. Heneman (1989)
10.1111/J.1744-6570.1955.TB01189.X
The Construction of a New Type of Attitude Measure
Theodore Kunin (1955)
10.1002/JOB.4030120404
Fairness and implied contract obligations in job terminations: The role of contributions, promises, and performance
D. Rousseau (1991)
Exit, Voice, and Loyalty
A. Hirschman (1970)
10.2307/2348581
Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions
L. Aiken (1991)
10.2307/2391000
Cosmopolitans and locals : toward an analysis of latent social roles-II
A. Gouldner (1957)
10.1207/S15327043HUP0104_4
Fairness and Implied Contract Obligations in Job Terminations: A Policy-Capturing Study
D. Rousseau (1988)
10.1007/BF01384942
Psychological and implied contracts in organizations
D. Rousseau (1989)
The contracts of individuals and organizations
D. Rousseau (1993)
10.5465/AME.1988.4275605
Pack Your Own Parachute
J. W. Slocum (1988)
10.1037/0033-2909.84.4.601
Organizational entry: Newcomers moving from outside to inside.
J. P. Wanous (1977)
10.2307/2393957
Trust and Managerial Problem Solving
Dale E. Zand (1972)
10.1037/0021-9010.61.1.99
Relationships among components of credibility and communication behaviors in work units.
C. A. O'Reilly (1976)
10.1177/002114008305000102
Friendship and Love
J. McEvoy (1983)
Theories of Group Processes
C. Cooper (1976)
Behavior in Organizations
L. Porter (1986)
10.1207/S15327043HUP0602_3
Fairness and Implied Contract Obligations in Job Terminations: The Role of Remedies, Social Accounts, and the Procedural Justice
D. Rousseau (1993)
10.1037/0021-9010.77.3.288
The effects of met expectations on newcomer attitudes and behaviors: a review and meta-analysis.
J. P. Wanous (1992)
10.1037/H0037495
Expectancy models of job satisfaction, occupational preference and effort: A theoretical, methodological, and empirical appraisal.
T. Mitchell (1974)
Canadian personnel/human resource management : a diagnostic approach
G. T. Milkovich (1988)
10.2307/2090533
Understanding organizational behavior
C. Argyris (1961)
10.2307/2391269
Managerial attitudes and performance
L. Porter (1968)
10.1177/002188637801400403
The Effects of Leader Absence on a Confrontation Team-Building Design
R. Boss (1978)
10.2307/2982522
The Resolution of Conflict
M. Nicholson (1967)
10.1037/H0036305
Effects of a realistic job preview on job acceptance, job attitudes, and job survival
J. P. Wanous (1973)
10.1037/H0032135
Effects of perceptions of equity and inequity on worker performance and satisfaction.
R. Pritchard (1972)
10.1037/0033-2909.94.1.18
Behavioral Development and Construct Validity: The Principle of Aggregation
J. Rushton (1983)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(1998)19:1+<679::AID-JOB971>3.0.CO;2-N
Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives and measures.
D. Rousseau (1998)
10.1016/S0149-2063(01)00106-4
Do “high commitment” human resource practices affect employee commitment? A cross-level analysis using hierarchical linear modeling
E. Whitener (2001)
10.1023/A:1014090411946
Ethics and HRM: A Review and Conceptual Analysis
M. Greenwood (2002)
10.1002/JOB.139
A daily diary study of affective responses to psychological contract breach and exceeded promises.
N. Conway (2002)
10.1002/JOB.173
A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behavior
Jacqueline A-M. Coyle-Shapiro (2002)
10.1016/S0749-5978(02)00518-6
Betrayal Aversion: When Agents of Protection Become Agents of Harm
J. Koehler (2003)
The research on construct of knowledge employee’s psychological contract in China
Zhu Xiao-mei (2005)
10.1111/J.1748-8583.2006.00003.X
Relational quality and innovative performance in R&D based science and technology firms
M. Thompson (2006)
10.1097/01.HMR.0000267788.79190.F4
Predictors of registered nurses' organizational commitment and intent to stay.
D. Gregory (2007)
10.1108/02683940810849639
The affective underpinnings of psychological contract fulfilment
S. Guerrero (2008)
10.1108/13527600910953928
Person/organization job‐fitting and affective commitment to the organization
M. Behery (2009)
10.1016/J.HRMR.2008.11.002
Creating psychological and legal contracts through human resource practices: A signaling theory perspective
Mark M. Suazo (2009)
10.1016/J.PROEPS.2009.09.265
Regulation strategy design of coalmine management staff's psychological contract violation
C. Hong (2009)
10.1108/01425451011002761
The changing nature of the traditional expatriate psychological contract
J. Pate (2009)
In Theory Essence of Negotiation: Understanding Appeasement and "The Great
Munich Stereotype (2010)
10.1177/0170840610380811
Psychological Contracts across Cultures
D. Thomas (2010)
The relationship between reward system and employee motivation in civil service employees in Kenya government ministries
J. Njoroge (2012)
World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF) : Expectations of Hosts and Volunteers
M. A. V. Alvarez (2012)
Communicative strategies for organizational survival : an analysis of stereotype threat of women in petroleum engineering
Abigail Heller (2012)
10.15706/JKSMS.2012.13.2.011011
The perceived unfairness and job behaviors in organization: Focused on the mediation effect of attitude variables
Yi Hyun Shin (2012)
Copenhagen Business School 2013 Master's Thesis Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration Strategy, Organisation and Leadership (SOL) Hiring the Good Consultant The formation of Psychological Contracts in a small Danish consulting company
Louise Lykke Stryhn (2013)
10.2190/WR.17.2.F
"Union Yes": The Moderating Effects of Union Instrumentality on Psychological Contract Violations
K. Braekkan (2013)
10.1007/978-3-531-19152-2_7
Vielfalt und Bindung am Beispiel von Managern im Auslandseinsatz
Heiner Minssen (2013)
10.15843/KPAPR.25.2.201106.129
A reciprocal perspective on career commitment and turnover intention
기호익 (2011)
10.1108/S0742-730120150000033002
Employee Maintenance: Examining Employment Relationships from the Perspective of Managerial Leaders
B. J. Tepper (2015)
The Antecedents of Employee Engagement: a Comparative Analysis between Finland and Asia
Junhui Wang (2016)
10.6007/IJARBSS/V3-I9/186
Effects of retrenchment on the morale and job security of surviving employees of Telkom Kenya Limited
Duncan Nyakundi Nyaberi (2013)
10.1177/1521025115571252
Great Expectations
Jacob D. Pleitz (2015)
Voices From the Frontlines: How Rehired Teachers in Turnaround Settings Experience the Reform
M. R. Weeks (2016)
Employee perceptions of the psychological contract are not symmetrical : cautions derived from analyses of the dimensionality of the psychological contract inventory
D. Jepsen (2006)
10.4314/AJPSSI.V20I3
BEHAVIOURAL AND ATTITUDINAL OUTCOMES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION AMONG SOME SELECTED SMEs WORKERS: A Psychological Appraisal of Operational Challenges of SME’s in Nigeria
A. A. Gabriel (2017)
10.1111/J.2044-8325.2011.02024.X
Sensemaking during organizational entry: Changes in newcomer information seeking and the relationship with psychological contract fulfilment
A. D. Vos (2011)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar