Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Effect Of Combined Axial Compressive And Anterior Tibial Loads On In Situ Forces In The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Porcine Study

G. Li, T. W. Rudy, C. Allen, M. Sakane, S. Woo
Published 1998 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
This study investigated the impact of a combination of axial compressive and anterior‐posterior tibial loads on the in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament. An axial compressive load is believed to contribute to increased stability of the knee joint; however, its effect on in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament has not been clearly defined, to our knowledge. It was hypothesized that the application of an axial compressive load, when combined with an anterior tibial load, would result in larger in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament than those caused by an isolated anterior tibial load. With use of a porcine knee model, the results confirmed this hypothesis; the addition of a 200 N axial compressive load to a 100 N anterior tibial load increased knee stability by reducing anterior‐posterior tibial translation and internal‐external tibial rotation and also caused a significant increase in in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament (p < 0.05). Specifically, there was a 34% increase in the in situ force at 30° of flexion, a 68% increase at 60° of flexion, and an 84% increase at 90° of flexion compared with those for an isolated anterior tibial load of 100 N. Additionally, there was a statistically significant increase of the in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament at 60 and 90° as compared with those at 30°. These results suggest that axial compressive loads on the knee may play a role in injury of the anterior cruciate ligament when the knee is flexed.
This paper references
10.2106/00004623-199072040-00014
Direct measurement of resultant forces in the anterior cruciate ligament. An in vitro study performed with a new experimental technique.
K. Markolf (1990)
Anatomy and function of the cruciate ligaments of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica): a comparison with human cruciates.
Fuss Fk (1991)
10.1177/036354659502300122
The Influence of Muscle Forces and External Loads on Cruciate Ligament Strain
L. Dürselen (1995)
10.1177/036354659402200117
The Effect of Joint-Compressive Load and Quadriceps Muscle Force on Knee Motion in the Intact and Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Sectioned Knee
P. A. Torzilli (1994)
10.1115/1.2792266
The use of a universal force-moment sensor to determine in-situ forces in ligaments: a new methodology.
H. Fujie (1995)
10.1002/JOR.1100050208
In‐vitro ligament tension pattern in the flexed knee in passive loading
A. Ahmed (1987)
10.3109/17453678608993213
Joint forces in extension of the knee. Analysis of a mechanical model.
R. Nisell (1986)
10.1177/036354659202000311
Anterior-posterior and rotational displacement of the tibia elicited by quadriceps contraction
Shunji Hirokawa (1992)
10.1002/JOR.1100130618
Combined knee loading states that generate high anterior cruciate ligament forces
K. Markolf (1995)
10.2106/00004623-198163040-00007
The role of joint load in knee stability.
K. Markolf (1981)
10.2106/00004623-198062020-00013
Ligamentous restraints to anterior-posterior drawer in the human knee. A biomechanical study.
D. Butler (1980)
10.1177/036354659502300105
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain Behavior During Rehabilitation Exercises In Vivo
B. Beynnon (1995)
10.1002/JOR.1100150219
In situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament and its bundles in response to anterior tibial loads
M. Sakane (1997)
10.1177/036354659202000612
The anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee with varus alignment
F. Noyes (1992)
10.2106/00004623-197658010-00016
Stabilizing mechanisms of the loaded and unloaded knee joint.
H. Hsieh (1976)
10.1177/036354659702500314
The Effect of Functional Knee Bracing on the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in the Weightbearing and Nonweightbearing Knee
B. Beynnon (1997)
10.2307/2403308
The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research.
D. J. Pike (1982)
10.1016/0021-9290(96)00056-5
A combined robotic/universal force sensor approach to determine in situ forces of knee ligaments.
T. W. Rudy (1996)
10.2106/00004623-198264020-00018
An in vitro biomechanical evaluation of anterior-posterior motion of the knee. Tibial displacement, rotation, and torque.
T. Fukubayashi (1982)
10.1002/JOR.1100150218
Evaluation of the effect of joint constraints on the in situ force distribution in the anterior cruciate ligament
G. A. Livesay (1997)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/S0030-5898(02)00010-X
Anatomy and biomechanics of the anterior cruciate ligament.
M. Dienst (2002)
10.20381/RUOR-2752
PREDICTING RISK FACTORS OF NON- CONTACT ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURIES DURING SINGLE-LEG LANDING
Ali Nicholas (2015)
10.1177/03635465010290011701
Sagittal Plane Knee Translation and Electromyographic Activity during Closed and Open Kinetic Chain Exercises in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Patients and Control Subjects
J. Kvist (2001)
10.1007/978-3-642-36801-1_249-1
Orthopedic Research in the Year 2025
Savio L. C. Woo (2014)
10.1016/S0736-0266(03)00179-7
In situ forces of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments in high knee flexion: An in vitro investigation
G. Li (2004)
10.26199/5cb7ada848286
Muscle force contributions to knee joint loading
N. Maniar (2017)
10.1111/J.1532-950X.2007.00250.X
Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on cranial tibial subluxation in canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joints: an in vitro experimental study.
D. Apelt (2007)
10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.07.005
Analysis of partial meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction in knee joint biomechanics under a combined loading.
R. Shirazi (2009)
10.1016/J.JBIOMECH.2004.10.003
Excessive compression of the human tibio-femoral joint causes ACL rupture.
E. G. Meyer (2005)
10.12659/MSM.912961
Arthroscopic Fixation for Tibial Eminence Fractures: Comparison of Double-Row and Transosseous Anchor Knot Fixation Techniques with Suture Anchors
J. Li (2018)
10.1115/1.4044582
In Situ Joint Stiffness Increases During Skeletal Growth but Decreases Following Partial and Complete Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.
Stephanie G Cone (2019)
10.1177/0363546503258880
Effects of Increasing Tibial Slope on the Biomechanics of the Knee
J. Robert Giffin (2004)
10.1007/978-3-642-32592-2_1
The ACL: Anatomy, Biomechanics, Mechanisms of Injury, and the Gender Disparity
F. Noyes (2012)
10.1519/SSC.0000000000000171
Injury Risk Factors in Male Youth Soccer Players
P. Read (2015)
Regeneration of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Using Resorbable Metallic and Extracellular Matrix Bioscaffolds
Kathryn F. Farraro (2015)
10.1177/0363546508328107
Video Analysis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
B. Boden (2009)
10.1016/S0968-0160(02)00135-7
Biomechanics of passive knee joint in drawer: load transmission in intact and ACL-deficient joints.
K. Moglo (2003)
10.1139/TCSME-2011-0009
APPROACHES TO NON-CONTACT ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY STUDIES: UTILITY OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Nicholas Ali (2011)
Injury : A Cadaveric Study The Role of Axial Compressive and Quadriceps Forces in Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament
S. Wall (2012)
10.1123/JAB.20.4.450
Experimental and computational modeling of joint and ligament mechanics
R. Debski (2004)
10.1053/JVET.2001.21400
Effect of tibial plateau leveling on cranial and caudal tibial thrusts in canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifles: an in vitro experimental study.
C. C. Warzee (2001)
10.1007/s00167-004-0614-5
Thermal effects after anterior cruciate ligament shrinkage using radiofrequency technology: a porcine cadaver study
H. Ma (2004)
10.2174/1874120701004010178
Barriers to Predicting the Mechanisms and Risk Factors of Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
N. Ali (2010)
10.1115/1.4003322
Effect of surgery to implant motion and force sensors on vertical ground reaction forces in the ovine model.
Safa T. Herfat (2011)
10.1177/0363546508318046
Tibiofemoral Contact Pressures and Osteochondral Microtrauma during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture Due to Excessive Compressive Loading and Internal Torque of the Human Knee
E. G. Meyer (2008)
10.1002/jor.20664
Posterior cruciate ligament removal contributes to abnormal knee motion during posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty
Melinda J. Cromie (2008)
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.09.023
Anterior cruciate ligament injury induced by internal tibial torsion or tibiofemoral compression.
E. G. Meyer (2008)
10.1007/s40279-016-0479-z
Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players
P. Read (2016)
10.1080/02640414.2011.578146
Correlation of axial impact forces with knee joint forces and kinematics during simulated ski-landing
C. Yeow (2011)
10.5435/00124635-201009000-00003
Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Mechanisms and Risk Factors
B. Boden (2010)
10.2106/JBJS.H.01382
Evaluation of kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees with use of advanced imaging techniques, three-dimensional modeling techniques, and robotics.
S. K. van de Velde (2009)
10.1002/9781118786796.CH26
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement
R. Boudrieau (2013)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar