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Differences Between Wheat Cultivars In Acquisition And Utilization Of Phosphorus

W. Horst, M. Abdou, F. Wiesler
Published 1996 · Biology

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In an attempt to evaluate whether breeding and selection for high yielding capacity changed the P requirement of modem wheat cultivars. the response of two wheat cultivars to different levels of P supply was investigated. A traditional cultivar (‘Peragis’) and a modern spring-wheat cultivar (‘Cosir’) were cultivated in a C-loess low in available P and high in CaCO3 in 120 cm high PVC tubes. In addition and for comparison, nutrient solution experiments were also conducted. Shoot growth, root growth. P uptake. P translocation and P distribution within the shoot at different developmental stages were compared. The grain yield of the modern cultivar ‘Cosir’ was higher at limiting and non-limiting P supply and. therefore, this cultivar can be considered as more P-efficient than the traditional cultivar. Grain yield reduction at low P supply was mainly due to an inhibition of tillering and thus lower number of ears per plant, whereas the number of grains per ear was hardly affected. Reduced tillering at low P supply could not be related to P concentrations in the shoot meristematic tissues which were generally much higher than in other plant tissues and kept at an elevated level even at limiting P supply. Root branching (1st order laterals) was reduced at limiting P supply in ‘Cosir’ but not in ‘Peragis’ which, generally, had lower numbers of laterals at the beginning of tillering. From the results it can be concluded that the main factors contributing to the higher P efficiency of the modern cultivar ‘Cosir’ are (i) efficient use of assimilates for root-growth characteristics which enhance P acquisition: enhanced root branching and thus smaller mean root diameter and longer root hairs, (ii) an efficient P uptake system, (iii) efficient remobilization of P from vegetative plant organs to the grains, and most importantly (iv) lower P requirement for grain yield formation because of lower ear number per plant but higher grain number per ear. Genotypische Unterschiede im Aneignungsvermogen und der Nutzung von Phosphor bei Weizen Wachstum und Ertragsbildung von 2 Sommerweizen-Sorten wurden bei unterschiedlichem P-Angebot untersucht, um zu uberprufen, ob die Zuchtung auf hohes Ertragspotential zu einer Veranderung des P-Dungerbedarfes von modernen Weizensorten gefuhrt hat. Hierzu wurde eine traditionelle Sorte (‘Peragis’) und eine moderne Sorte (‘Cosir’) in einem C-Los mit niedrigem P-Angebot und hohem Gehalt an CaCO3 in 120 cm hohen PVC-Rohrengefasen kultiviert. Zusatzlich wurden zum Vergleich Wasserkulturversuche durchgefuhrt. Spros- und Wurzelwachstum. P-Aufnahme, -Verlagerung und -Verteilung im Spros zu verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien wurden verglichen. Der Kornertrag der modernen Sorte ‘Cosir’ war hoher bei unzureichendem und bei optimalem P-Angebot: sie kann daher als P-effizienter als die traditionelle Sorte ‘Peragis’ angesehen werden. Die Reduktion des Komertrages bei niedrigem P-Angebot war vor allen Dingen auf eine verminderte Bestockung und damit reduzierte Ahrenzahl pro Pflanze zuruckzufuhren, wahrend die Zahl der Korner pro Ahre kaum beeinflust war. Die Reduktion der Bestockung bei niedrigem P-Angebot stand nicht mit geringeren P-Gehalten in den Sprosmeristeinen in Zusammenhang. Diese waren generell sehr viel hoher als in anderen Pflanzenorganen und weniger abhangig vom P-Angebot. Die Wurzelverzweigung (Seitenwurzeln I. Ordnung) war bei niedrigem P-Angebot bei der Sorte ‘Cosir’ vermindert, nicht aber bei der Sorte ‘Peragis’, die generell weniger Seitenwurzeln bei Bestockungsbeginn aufwies. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, das die wichtigsten fur die hohere P-Effizienz der modernen Sorte ‘Cosir’ verantwortlichen Faktoren sind: (i) eine effizientere Nutzung der Assimilate fur Merkmale des Wurzelwachstums, die sich auf die P-Aneignung gunstig auswirken, wie hohere Wurzelverzweigung und dadurch ein niedrigerer mittlerer Wurzeldurchmesser und langere Wurzelhaare, (ii) ein effizientes P-Aufnahmesystem, (iii) eine effiziente Remobilisierung von P aus vegetativen Pflanzenorganen in die Korner und vor allem (iv) ein geringerer Bedarf fur die Kornbildung aufgrund einer geringeren Ahrenzahl pro Pflanze aber hoheren Kornzahl pro Ahre.
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