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New Quality Of Assessment Of Microbial Diversity In Arable Soils Using Molecular And Biochemical Methods

M. Schloter, L. Zelles, A. Hartmann, J. C. Munch
Published 1998 · Chemistry

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New molecular and biomarker approaches allow now a better understanding of the microbial diversity in soils. Examples are presented to demonstrate the new performance of these approaches and the quality of results. Investigations of the diversity of a bacterial indicator genus as well as studies of the whole microbial community structure are presented. Genotypes of Ochrobactrum were isolated by immunotrapping and characterized by PCR — fingerprinting. On a fallow land no significant changes in the intragenus diversity of this indicator bacterium was observed over a period of one year. In contrast, crop rotation was accompanied by a shift in the dominant genotypes of Ochrobactrum, while the genetic potential was not affected. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)-pattern revealed significant shifts in the structure of the whole microbial community in a soil of a hop plantation as compared to a similar soil with crop rotation. The quantity of anaerobic bacteria, represented by the non-ester linked fatty acids were lower in soil samples derived from crop rotation as compared to a former hop plantation soil, which was contaminated with copper. In contrast, the ester linked fatty acids which are present in a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, exhibited a reverse relation. Soil samples of the hop plantation contained low amounts of saturated ester linked fatty acids branching on the 10th C atom. This indicates that actinomycetes are present in relative small proportions in the hop plantation soil. Erfassung der mikrobiellen Diversitat in Ackerboden mit Hilfe von modernen molekularbiologischen und biochemischen Methoden Durch den Einsatz moderner molekularer und biochemischer Methoden ist ein besseres Verstandnis der in Boden ablaufenden mikrobiellen Prozesse moglich geworden. In dieser Arbeit werden zwei Beispiele dieser neuen Techniken beschrieben, welche einerseits Untersuchungen der gesamten mikrobiellen Gemeinschaft mittels Analyse der Phospholipidfettsauren (PLFA), andererseits die Beschreibung der Diversitat innerhalb einer Bakteriengattung erlauben. Durch eine Immunoanreicherung mit Hilfe gattungsspezifischer monoklonaler Antikorper konnten Ochrobactrum-Genotypen gewonnen und mit Hilfe von PCR-Fingerprinting charakterisiert werden. An einem Brachestandort waren keine wesentlichen Anderungen in der Diversitat von Ochrobactrum im jahreszeitlichen Verlauf zu beobachten. Dagegen fuhrte eine veranderte landwirtschaftliche Nutzung des Bodens zu einer Verschiebung der dominanten Genotypen von Ochrobactrum. Das genetische Potential des Bodens blieb dabei unverandert. Die Phospholipid-Fettsaure (PFLA)-Muster zeigten signifikante Unterschiede zwischen einem Hopfengartenboden und einem vergleichbaren Standort mit ublicher Fruchtfolge. Wahrend in dem Hopfengartenboden anaerobe Bakterien, fur die nicht estergebundene Fettsauren ein gutes Mas darstellen, in hoheren Mengen nachgewiesen wurden, dominierten in dem Vergleichsboden Gram-positive und Gram-negative Bakterien, fur die estergebundene Fettsauren typisch sind. Verzweigte Fettsauren, welche die Verzweigungen am 10. C-Atom aufweisen (charakeristisch fur Actinomyceten), waren in dem Hopfengartenboden in signifikant geringeren Anteilen vorhanden.
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