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Analysis Of Structural Requirements For The Absorption Of Drugs And Macromolecules From The Nasal Cavity.

C. Mcmartin, L. Hutchinson, R. Hyde, G. Peters
Published 1987 · Chemistry, Medicine

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An octapeptide and a protein, of molecular weights 800 and 34,000, respectively, were found to have nasal bioavailabilities of 73 and 0.6%, respectively, in the rat. This data, combined with reported values for 23 other compounds, indicated good availability without adjuvants for all molecules up to 1000 molecular weight (mean 70%, SD between compounds 26%, n = 15) with a decline in availability above this value. The relationship between absorption and molecular weight was modeled assuming competition between constant clearance from the nasal cavity and molecular weight-dependent transport through the mucosa. Deviations of absorption from values predicted by this model did not correlate with factors such as charge, hydrophobicity, or susceptibility to aminopeptidases, but the relative absorption of cyclic and cross-linked peptides and proteins was significantly greater than that of linear peptides. It is argued that the most likely route for transport is through junctions between cells and that surface-active adjuvants (MW 6000) which markedly enhance insulin uptake may act by rendering hydrophobic areas of contact of the junctional proteins temporarily hydrophilic. The nasal route is suitable for efficient, rapid delivery of many molecules of molecular weight less than 1000. With the use of adjuvants, this limit can be extended to at least 6000 and possibly much higher.
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