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Formation And Characterization Of Cyclosporine-loaded Nanoparticles.
Published 1993 · Chemistry, Medicine
The commercially available formulations of cyclosporine (cyclosporin A, CyA) are associated with acute hemodynamic changes that result in high nephrotoxicity. Among colloidal vectors, nanoparticles (NPs) are receiving much attention as potential drug carriers that would avoid the therapeutic risks of conventional formulations. Two different mechanisms for obtaining polymeric NPs loaded with CyA were studied with regard to their preparation and physicochemical characterization. Isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate monomer (IBCA) was polymerized, whereas poly-E-caprolactone (PCL, a preformed polymer) was precipitated; both reactions took place in an aqueous medium containing Pluronic F-68 (polyoxypropylene polyoxyethylene block copolymer) as a surface active agent. The encapsulation efficiencies were 78.49 +/- 5.87 and 84.85 +/- 5.02%, respectively, and they remained stable over a wide range of drug concentrations. The polymeric NP had average sizes of 81 +/- 25 and 95 +/- 25 nm for poly-IBCA and PCL, respectively, as confirmed by photon correlation spectroscopy. Poly-IBCA NPs were built from oligomers with molecular weights of 157 to 2644 that joined to form a polymeric nanomatrix. In vitro activity of the drug and the carrier was tested by inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A. Drug-loaded PCL NPs and free CyA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation by 91.40 and 86.19%, respectively. However, drug-free NPs also exhibited statistically significant (p < 0.05) immunosuppressive activity.