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Transduction Methods For Cytosolic Delivery Of Proteins And Bioconjugates Into Living Cells

M. Chiper, K. Niederreither, G. Zuber
Published 2018 · Chemistry, Medicine

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The human organism and its constituting cells rely on interplay between multiple proteins exerting specific functions. Progress in molecular biotechnologies has facilitated the production of recombinant proteins. When administrated to patients, recombinant proteins can provide important healthcare benefits. To date, most therapeutic proteins must act from the extracellular environment, with their targets being secreted modulators or extracellular receptors. This is because proteins cannot passively diffuse across the plasma membrane into the cytosol. To expand the scope of action of proteins for cytosolic targets (representing more than 40% of the genome) effective methods assisting protein cytosolic entry are being developed. To date, direct protein delivery is extremely tedious and inefficient in cultured cells, even more so in animal models of pathology. Novel techniques are changing this limitation, as recently developed in vitro methods can robustly convey large amount of proteins into cell cultures. Moreover, advances in protein formulation or protein conjugates are slowly, but surely demonstrating efficiency for targeted cytosolic entry of functional protein in vivo in tumor xenograft models. In this review, various methods and recently developed techniques for protein transport into cells are summarized. They are put into perspective to address the challenges encountered during delivery.
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