Exponential Isothermal Amplification Of Nucleic Acids And Assays For Proteins, Cells, Small Molecules, And Enzyme Activities: An EXPAR Example.
Michael Scott Reid, X Chris Le, Hongquan Zhang
Published 2018 · Chemistry, Medicine
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Isothermal exponential amplification techniques, such as strand-displacement amplification (SDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), have great potential for on-site, point-of-care, and in situ assay applications. These amplification techniques eliminate the need for temperature cycling, as required for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while achieving comparable amplification yields. We highlight here recent advances in the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) for the detection of nucleic acids, proteins, enzyme activities, cells, and metal ions. The incorporation of fluorescence, colorimetric, chemiluminescence, Raman, and electrochemical approaches enables the highly sensitive detection of a variety of targets. Remaining issues, such as undesirable background amplification resulting from nonspecific template interactions, must be addressed to further improve isothermal and exponential amplification techniques.
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