Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

LC-MS In Analytical Toxicology: Some Practical Considerations.

L. Couchman, P. Morgan
Published 2011 · Medicine, Chemistry

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Liquid chromatography, coupled with single-stage or tandem mass spectrometry, is a powerful tool increasingly used in analytical toxicology. However, the atmospheric pressure ionization processes involved are complex, and subject to interference from matrix components, for example. Further, the techniques used in sample preparation, chromatography and mass analysis are developing rapidly. An understanding of the advantages and limitations of LC-MS ensures appropriate analyses are performed, and that reliable results are generated. Consideration should be given to the influence of the sample preparation and chromatographic conditions on the ionization of the analyte at the mass spectrometer interface. This review aims to provide some practical guidance and examples to aid method development for commonly encountered analytes in analytical toxicology.
This paper references
10.1351/pac200274050835
Harmonized guidelines for single-laboratory validation of methods of analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)
M. Thompson (2002)
10.1016/j.chroma.2009.11.001
Fast analysis of doping agents in urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. II: Confirmatory analysis.
F. Badoud (2010)
10.1007/S00216-006-0634-8
Combined use of ESI–QqTOF-MS and ESI–QqTOF-MS/MS with mass-spectral library search for qualitative analysis of drugs
M. Pavlic (2006)
10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00574-9
Matrix effect in bio-analysis of illicit drugs with LC-MS/MS: Influence of ionization type, sample preparation, and biofluid
R. Dams (2003)
10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00169-9
Sensitive determination of buprenorphine and its N-dealkylated metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
A. Ceccato (2003)
10.1002/bmc.1122
Simultaneous determination of benzodiazepines and their metabolites in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a high-resolution octadecyl silica column compatible with aqueous compounds.
M. Nakamura (2009)
10.1007/s00216-010-4031-y
Simultaneous determination of six alkaloids in blood and urine using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry
Ximei Wu (2010)
10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00511-9
Before the injection--modern methods of sample preparation for separation techniques.
R. Smith (2003)
10.1016/S0378-4347(00)86080-6
Evaluation of the relative efficacy of various techniques for deproteinizing plasma samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.
J. Blanchard (1981)
10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00208-3
Suitability testing of commercial solid-phase extraction sorbents for sample clean-up in systematic toxicological analysis using liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry.
T. Decaestecker (2003)
10.1002/rcm.3545
Towards a universal product ion mass spectral library - reproducibility of product ion spectra across eleven different mass spectrometers.
C. Hopley (2008)
10.1023/A:1007669411738
Bioanalytical Method Validation—A Revisit with a Decade of Progress
V. Shah (2004)
10.1016/j.aca.2008.04.043
Interferences and contaminants encountered in modern mass spectrometry.
B. Keller (2008)
10.1093/JAT/31.8.497
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple hallucinogens, chlorpheniramine, ketamine, ritalinic acid, and metabolites, in urine.
M. del Mar Ramírez Fernández (2007)
10.1016/S0165-9936(04)00201-8
Validation of qualitative analytical methods
E. Trullols (2004)
10.1016/J.JPBA.2005.11.016
Simple method for determination of triazolam in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
X. Lee (2006)
10.1002/rcm.3383
Effect of collision-activated dissociation gas and collision energy on the fragmentation of dipyridamole and its rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric determination in human plasma.
M. Yadav (2008)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.12.011
Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of piperaquine in plasma stable isotope labeled internal standard does not always compensate for matrix effects.
N. Lindegårdh (2008)
10.1016/J.JPBA.2006.08.010
Does a stable isotopically labeled internal standard always correct analyte response? A matrix effect study on a LC/MS/MS method for the determination of carvedilol enantiomers in human plasma.
S. Wang (2007)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.06.039
Evaluation of automated micro solid phase extraction tips (micro-SPE) for the validation of a LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method.
J. Shen (2006)
10.1093/JAT/31.5.237
Modern instrumental methods in forensic toxicology.
M. Smith (2007)
10.1093/JAT/32.7.491
Quantitation of benzodiazepines in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium by LC-MS-MS.
S. J. Marin (2008)
10.1002/chir.20745
Fast chiral separation of drugs using columns packed with sub-2 microm particles and ultra-high pressure.
Davy Guillarme (2010)
10.1093/JAT/27.1.7
A general unknown screening procedure for drugs and toxic compounds in serum using liquid chromatography-electrospray-single quadrupole mass spectrometry.
N. Venisse (2003)
10.1002/dta.134
Differentiation of structural isomers in a target drug database by LC/Q-TOFMS using fragmentation prediction.
Elli Tyrkkö (2010)
10.1002/RCM.876
Investigation of matrix effects in bioanalytical high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric assays: application to drug discovery.
H. Mei (2003)
10.1093/JAT/32.2.192
A fatal case of bupropion (Zyban) overdose.
M. Mercerolle (2008)
10.1007/s11095-007-9291-7
Workshop/conference report—Quantitative bioanalytical methods validation and implementation: Best practices for chromatographic and ligand binding assays
C. T. Viswanathan (2007)
10.1016/j.aca.2009.06.068
Development of a broad toxicological screening technique for urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Hon Kit Lee (2009)
10.1016/J.ACA.2003.12.023
High-throughput chromatographic approaches to liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric bioanalysis to support drug discovery and development
M. Berna (2004)
10.1016/S1044-0305(02)00801-2
Evaluation of an improved general unknown screening procedure using liquid-chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry by comparison with gas chromatography and high-performance liquid-chromatography—diode array detection
F. Saint‐Marcoux (2003)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.01.003
Validation of bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays: evaluation of matrix effects.
A. Van Eeckhaut (2009)
10.1007/s00216-009-3305-8
New trends in fast and high-resolution liquid chromatography: a critical comparison of existing approaches
D. Guillarme (2010)
10.1002/BMC.883
Sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of azithromycin in human plasma.
Fei Liu (2007)
10.1373/clinchem.2008.103952
Evaluation of a deuterium-labeled internal standard for the measurement of sirolimus by high-throughput HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
S. O'halloran (2008)
10.1002/jms.1436
A high-throughput multicomponent screening method for diuretics, masking agents, central nervous system (CNS) stimulants and opiates in human urine by UPLC-MS/MS.
John-Olof Thörngren (2008)
10.1002/rcm.3747
Reducing glycerophosphocholine lipid matrix interference effects in biological fluid assays by using high-turbulence liquid chromatography.
L. Du (2008)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.02.011
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method development for drug metabolism studies: Examining lipid matrix ionization effects in plasma.
J. L. Little (2006)
10.1002/JSSC.200600199
Hydrophilic interaction chromatography.
P. Hemström (2006)
10.1093/JAT/29.4.234
Application of direct urine LC-MS-MS analysis for screening of novel substances in drug abusers.
Helena K Nordgren (2005)
10.1093/JAT/32.8.570
Rapid analysis of cocaine and metabolites in urine using a completely automated solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.
Eshwar Jagerdeo (2008)
10.1373/clinchem.2009.126508
More on methanol-associated matrix effects in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Kimberly L. Napoli (2009)
10.1080/10826076.2010.484375
HANDLING DRAWBACKS OF MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION COUPLED TO LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY IN BIOANALYSIS
A. Medvedovici (2010)
10.1093/JAT/29.7.599
Investigation of an LC-MS-MS (QTrap) method for the rapid screening and identification of drugs in postmortem toxicology whole blood samples.
G. Herrin (2005)
10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2008.02.017
A decade of HPLC-MS/MS in the routine clinical laboratory--goals for further developments.
M. Vogeser (2008)
10.1016/j.jpba.2008.10.009
Shell and small particles; evaluation of new column technology.
S. Fekete (2009)
10.1093/jat/33.4.198
Therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine and norclozapine in human serum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry.
Dong Sheng Ming (2009)
10.1520/JFS14840J
Analysis of biofluids for flunitrazepam and metabolites by electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
M. Lebeau (2000)
10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00150-8
How to validate analytical methods
R. Wood (1999)
10.1002/dta.133
Identification of etamiphylline and metabolites in equine plasma and urine by accurate mass and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Miki Wieder (2010)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2004.07.043
Substance identification : the weak link in analytical toxicology
R. Zeeuw (2004)
10.1016/j.aca.2009.10.004
A review of current trends and advances in modern bio-analytical methods: chromatography and sample preparation.
L. Nováková (2009)
10.1016/S1570-0232(02)00400-2
Simultaneous, quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in oral fluid by liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
K. Mortier (2002)
10.1021/AC0205457
Combined electrospray ionization-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for use in high-throughput LC-MS applications.
R. Gallagher (2003)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2007.11.025
Direct injection LC-MS/MS method for identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine drug testing.
M. Andersson (2008)
10.1002/RCM.1934
Development of a multi-target screening analysis for 301 drugs using a QTrap liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry system and automated library searching.
C. Mueller (2005)
10.1002/JMS.1219
Validation of direct injection electrospray LC-MS/MS for confirmation of opiates in urine drug testing.
E. Gustavsson (2007)
10.1016/j.cca.2010.05.046
Performance evaluation of three liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods for broad spectrum drug screening.
K. Lynch (2010)
10.1093/CLINCHEM/46.8.1179
Validation of an assay for routine monitoring of sirolimus using HPLC with mass spectrometric detection.
D. Holt (2000)
10.1093/JAT/31.9.573
Determination of illicit drugs and their metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry including relative ion intensity criterion.
M. Concheiro (2007)
10.1002/bmc.1394
Quantification of midazolam, morphine and metabolites in plasma using 96-well solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Maurice J. Ahsman (2010)
10.1016/j.chroma.2009.03.033
Fast analysis of doping agents in urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry I. Screening analysis.
F. Badoud (2009)
10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181678ecb
High-Speed Simultaneous Determination of Nine Antiepileptic Drugs Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
M. Subramanian (2008)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.12.048
Simultaneous LC-MS-MS determination of cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, and sirolimus in whole blood as well as mycophenolic acid in plasma using common pretreatment procedure.
M. Bogusz (2007)
10.1007/s00216-009-3076-2
Recent developments and applications of microextraction techniques in drug analysis
H. Kataoka (2010)
10.1016/j.chroma.2009.11.060
Signal suppression/enhancement in high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
F. Gosetti (2010)
10.1016/J.CCA.2007.07.018
A direct screening procedure for diuretics in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with information dependent acquisition.
L. Politi (2007)
10.1002/jssc.200900749
Evaluation of various HILIC materials for the fast separation of polar compounds.
Bénédicte Chauve (2010)
10.1007/S00216-004-2774-Z
Advances in analytical toxicology: the current role of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in drug quantification in blood and oral fluid
H. Maurer (2005)
10.1016/J.TRAC.2009.07.010
Sorptive microextraction for liquid-chromatographic determination of drugs in urine
M. Cruz-Vera (2009)
10.1016/J.TRAC.2004.04.001
Trends in quality in the analytical laboratory. II. Analytical method validation and quality assurance
I. Taverniers (2004)
10.1093/JAT/34.6.312
Vitreous humor as an alternative matrix for comprehensive drug screening in postmortem toxicology by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Anna Pelander (2010)
10.1080/15563650500514434
Interference By Venlafaxine Ingestion in the Detection of Tramadol By Liquid Chromatography Linked to Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Screening of Illicit Drugs in Human Urine
K. Allen (2006)
10.1093/JAT/32.2.147
Quantitation of seven low-dosage antipsychotic drugs in human postmortem blood using LC-MS-MS.
M. Roman (2008)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.03.045
A demonstration of the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [UPLC/MS] in the determination of amphetamine-type substances and ketamine for forensic and toxicological analysis.
Luigino G Apollonio (2006)
10.2165/00139709-200524010-00005
Analytical Toxicology
R. Flanagan (2005)
10.1097/00007691-200402000-00017
Multicomponent Screening for Drugs of Abuse: Direct Analysis of Urine by LC-MS-MS
Helena K Nordgren (2004)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.12.052
Determination of opiates and cocaine in urine by high pH mobile phase reversed phase UPLC-MS/MS.
Thomas M. Berg (2009)
10.1093/JAT/31.7.359
Simultaneous determination of multiple drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in urine by LC-MS-MS.
June Feng (2007)
10.1373/clinchem.2009.138602
Pitfalls associated with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory.
M. Vogeser (2010)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2007.03.017
Reconsideration of sample pH adjustment in bioanalytical liquid-liquid extraction of ionisable compounds.
G. Hendriks (2007)
10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00318-2
Rapid identification and quantitation of compounds with forensic interest using fast liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and library searching.
K. Pihlainen (2003)
10.1002/JMS.1191
Detection and validated quantification of toxic alkaloids in human blood plasma--comparison of LC-APCI-MS with LC-ESI-MS/MS.
J. Beyer (2007)
10.1002/RCM.1492
Reproducible product-ion tandem mass spectra on various liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry instruments for the development of spectral libraries.
A. Bristow (2004)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2007.06.018
Analysis of [3',3'-d(2)]-nicotine and [3',3'-d(2)]-cotinine by capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.
S. Murphy (2007)
10.1016/J.CLINBIOCHEM.2004.11.007
Matrix effects: the Achilles heel of quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.
P. Taylor (2005)
10.1016/J.ACA.2003.09.062
Rapid screening method for diuretics in doping control using automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry
C. Goebel (2004)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2004.10.035
Simultaneous determination of morphine, oxycodone, morphine-3-glucuronide, and noroxycodone concentrations in rat serum by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
S. Edwards (2005)
10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00071-0
Comparison of a preliminary procedure for the general unknown screening of drugs and toxic compounds using a quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometer with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reference technique.
P. Marquet (2003)
10.1016/j.aca.2009.07.060
Combating matrix effects in LC/ESI/MS: the extrapolative dilution approach.
A. Kruve (2009)
10.1093/JAT/28.1.50
Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction procedures for the determination of MDMA and metabolites in urine using LC-MS, LC-UV, or GC-NPD.
K. Jenkins (2004)
10.1002/rcm.4492
Comprehensive plasma-screening for known and unknown substances in doping controls.
A. Thomas (2010)
10.1016/J.CHROMA.2007.08.032
High throughput liquid chromatography with sub-2 microm particles at high pressure and high temperature.
D. Nguyen (2007)
10.1002/JMS.623
Distinguishing N-oxide and hydroxyl compounds: impact of heated capillary/heated ion transfer tube in inducing atmospheric pressure ionization source decompositions.
Dilrukshi M. Peiris (2004)
10.1093/JAT/29.7.616
Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of 26 benzodiazepines and metabolites, zolpidem and zopiclone, in blood, urine, and hair.
M. Laloup (2005)
10.1093/JAT/31.2.81
Electrospray LC-MS method with solid-phase extraction for accurate determination of morphine-, codeine-, and ethylmorphine-glucuronides and 6-acetylmorphine in urine.
J-O Svensson (2007)
10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181897cfa
Screening for Basic Drugs in Hair of Drug Addicts by Liquid Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
A. Pelander (2008)
10.1002/RCM.1477
Unexpected observation of ion suppression in a liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric bioanalytical method.
Tim P Sangster (2004)
10.1002/bmc.999
Determination of the lipophilic antipsychotic drug ziprasidone in rat plasma and brain tissue using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
G. Zhang (2008)
10.1093/JAT/31.5.265
A validated liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and 2-Ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyroline (EMDP) in human breast milk.
R. Choo (2007)
10.1007/s00216-010-3484-3
Generic sample preparation combined with high-resolution liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry for unification of urine screening in doping-control laboratories
Ruud J. B. Peters (2010)
10.1093/JAT/34.2.64
Antidepressant drugs in oral fluid using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Cynthia M. Coulter (2010)
10.1021/AC020361S
Strategies for the assessment of matrix effect in quantitative bioanalytical methods based on HPLC-MS/MS.
B. Matuszewski (2003)
10.1016/J.CHROMA.2004.11.101
Operational options to reduce matrix effects in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of aqueous environmental samples.
A. Kloepfer (2005)
10.1007/s12272-001-2163-5
Simultaneous determination of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine, and their metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry
Jin Young Kim (2008)
10.1002/jms.1433
Formation of the N-methylpyridinium derivative to improve the detection of buprenorphine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
D. Thieme (2008)
10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00458-3
HPLC of basic drugs on microparticulate strong cation-exchange materials - a review.
R. Flanagan (2001)
10.1080/10826076.2010.484314
MATRIX EFFECTS IN LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY
A. Cappiello (2010)
10.1002/RCM.260
Toxicological screening of urine for drugs by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with automated target library search based on elemental formulas.
M. Gergov (2001)
10.1373/49.7.1041
Ion suppression in mass spectrometry.
T. Annesley (2003)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.11.030
Simultaneous determination of 6 beta-blockers, 3 calcium-channel antagonists, 4 angiotensin-II antagonists and 1 antiarrhythmic drug in post-mortem whole blood by automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Method development and robustness testing by experimental d
L. Kristoffersen (2007)
10.1007/S00216-007-1245-8
Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in oral fluid
N. Samyn (2007)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.03.051
LC/MS/MS analysis of quaternary ammonium drugs and herbicides in whole blood.
M. Ariffin (2006)
10.1016/J.CLINBIOCHEM.2004.11.003
LC-MS/MS systematic toxicological analysis: comparison of MS/MS spectra obtained with different instruments and settings.
R. Jansen (2005)
10.1039/B209521C
Internal standard signal suppression by co-eluting analyte in isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS.
Luis E Sojo (2003)
10.1016/j.jpba.2009.05.037
A novel strategy for reducing phospholipids-based matrix effect in LC-ESI-MS bioanalysis by means of HybridSPE.
V. Pucci (2009)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2004.03.058
High-throughput liquid chromatography for drug analysis in biological fluids: investigation of extraction column life.
Wei Zeng (2004)
10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181dca295
Perspectives of Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Low- and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Screening, Identification, and Quantification of Drugs in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology
Hans H Maurer (2010)
10.1002/RCM.1139
Matrix effects during analysis of plasma samples by electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: practical approaches to their elimination.
J. Schuhmacher (2003)
10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00506-5
Progress in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry instrumentation and its impact on high-throughput screening.
W. M. Niessen (2003)
10.1002/RCM.1445
Comparison of product ion spectra obtained by liquid chromatography/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry for library search.
M. Gergov (2004)
10.1258/acb.2009.009172
Measurement of benzodiazepines in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: confirmation of samples screened by immunoassay
Sarah J Glover (2010)
10.1093/JAT/32.8.577
Complete automation of solid-phase extraction with subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, and norbenzoylecgonine in urine--application to a high-throughput urine analysis laboratory.
Paul P Robandt (2008)
10.1097/01.ftd.0000245779.64080.30
Determination of Lamotrigine and its Metabolites in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
O. Beck (2006)
10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.043
Ethyl glucuronide determination in meconium and hair by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Isabela Ţârcomnicu (2010)
10.1016/J.TRAC.2008.08.005
Electrical potential can drive liquid-liquid extraction for sample preparation in chromatography
S. Pedersen-Bjergaard (2008)
10.1039/B200849A
Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric studies of ginkgolides and bilobalide using simultaneous monitoring of proton, ammonium and sodium adducts.
X. Li (2002)
10.1373/CLINCHEM.2007.090811
Methanol-associated matrix effects in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
T. Annesley (2007)
10.1373/CLINCHEM.2006.067116
Screening of drugs and toxic compounds with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.
François‐Ludovic Sauvage (2006)
10.1002/BMC.579
Screening for anabolic steroids in doping analysis by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.
K. Deventer (2006)
10.1021/AC971078+
Matrix effect in quantitative LC/MS/MS analyses of biological fluids: a method for determination of finasteride in human plasma at picogram per milliliter concentrations.
B. Matuszewski (1998)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.08.032
Monitoring phospholipids for assessment of ion enhancement and ion suppression in ESI and APCI LC/MS/MS for chlorpheniramine in human plasma and the importance of multiple source matrix effect evaluations.
Omnia A. Ismaiel (2008)
10.1258/0004563054255632
Replacement of immunoassay by LC tandem mass spectrometry for the routine measurement of drugs of abuse in oral fluid
K. Allen (2005)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2003.09.046
Measurement of total mirtazapine and normirtazapine in plasma/serum by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
P. Morgan (2003)
10.1093/JAT/26.6.325
A general screening method for acidic, neutral, and basic drugs in whole blood using the Oasis MCX column.
J. Yawney (2002)
10.1016/j.chroma.2010.04.073
Enantiomeric analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
B. Kasprzyk-Hordern (2010)
10.1093/JAT/32.8.605
Validation of analysis of amphetamines, opiates, phencyclidine, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine in oral fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
S. V. Kala (2008)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2005.11.009
Standard line slopes as a measure of a relative matrix effect in quantitative HPLC-MS bioanalysis.
B. Matuszewski (2006)
10.1365/S10337-005-0562-3
A Parallel Micro Turbulent Flow Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Analysis of a Pharmaceutical Compound in Plasma
C. Chassaing (2005)
10.1002/jssc.200900692
Recent advances in application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography for quantitative bioanalysis.
W. Jian (2010)
10.1016/j.chroma.2009.11.068
The challenges of the analysis of basic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography: some possible approaches for improved separations.
D. V. Mccalley (2010)
10.1093/JAT/33.8.447
Sensitive method for detection of cocaine and associated analytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in urine.
L. Langman (2009)
10.1097/01.ftd.0000180224.19384.f0
Toward High-Throughput Drug Screening Using Mass Spectrometry
H. Maurer (2005)
10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00889-4
Criteria for the identification of compounds by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–multiple mass spectrometry in forensic toxicology and doping analysis
L. Rivier (2003)
10.3109/15376516.2010.497976
Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology
R. Dinis-Oliveira (2010)
10.1093/JAT/29.7.704
Direct analysis of opiates in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
L. Edinboro (2005)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.05.031
Quantitative determination of forty-eight antidepressants and antipsychotics in human serum by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry: a multi-level, single-sample approach.
H. Kirchherr (2006)
10.1016/J.JPBA.2004.01.005
A study of matrix effects on an LC/MS/MS assay for olanzapine and desmethyl olanzapine.
C. Chin (2004)
10.1007/s00216-008-2305-4
Two new techniques for sample preparation in bioanalysis: Microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS) and use of a bonded monolith as sorbent for sample preparation in polypropylene tips for 96-well plates
L. Blomberg (2009)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.05.033
Development and validation of a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl in urine and whole blood in forensic context.
Ruth Verplaetse (2010)
10.1002/bmc.1152
Dodging matrix effects in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric assays--compilation of key learnings and perspectives.
N. Srinivas (2009)
10.1016/j.chroma.2008.08.095
Effect of eluent on the ionization process in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
R. Kostiainen (2009)
10.1093/CHROMSCI/48.5.386
Halo columns: new generation technology for high speed liquid chromatography.
Imran Ali (2010)
10.1007/s00216-009-3393-5
Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) determination of cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene in hair samples
Óscar Quintela (2010)
10.1007/s00216-008-2498-6
Comparison of extraction efficiencies and LC–MS–MS matrix effects using LLE and SPE methods for 19 antipsychotics in human blood
Eva Saar (2009)
10.1002/jssc.200700630
The advantages of ESI-MS detection in conjunction with HILIC mode separations: Fundamentals and applications.
Hien P. Nguyen (2008)
10.1002/rcm.4459
Systematic investigation of ion suppression and enhancement effects of fourteen stable-isotope-labeled internal standards by their native analogues using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization and the relevance for multi-analyte liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric
D. Remane (2010)
10.1016/j.aca.2010.07.011
Micro-solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of stimulants, hallucinogens, ketamine and phencyclidine in oral fluids.
M. Sergi (2010)
10.1002/BMC.671
Micro-extraction techniques in analytical toxicology: short review.
R. Flanagan (2006)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.08.019
Internal standard response variations during incurred sample analysis by LC-MS/MS: Case by case trouble-shooting.
Aimin Tan (2009)
10.1007/S00216-007-1294-Z
Recent developments in extraction procedures relevant to analytical toxicology
S. Wille (2007)
10.1002/BMC.863
Signal suppression/enhancement in HPLC-ESI-MS/MS from concomitant medications.
Rachael Leverence (2007)
10.1051/ANALUSIS:2000280925
In-source CID mass spectral libraries for the “general unknown” screening of drugs and toxicants
P. Marquet (2000)
10.1002/RCM.2429
Isotopic pattern and accurate mass determination in urine drug screening by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
S. Ojanperä (2006)
10.1097/00007691-200210000-00011
Direct Quantification of Ethyl Glucuronide in Clinical Urine Samples by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
N. Stephanson (2002)
10.1016/J.JASMS.2003.12.013
Adduct formation in quantitative bioanalysis: Effect of ionization conditions on paclitaxel
K. Mortier (2004)
10.1002/RCM.888
Performance of an ultra-low elution-volume 96-well plate: drug discovery and development applications.
C. Mallet (2003)
10.1016/S0731-7085(00)00529-X
Guidance for robustness/ruggedness tests in method validation.
Y. Vander Heyden (2001)
10.1097/00007691-200202000-00020
Is LC-MS Suitable for a Comprehensive Screening of Drugs and Poisons in Clinical Toxicology?
P. Marquet (2002)
10.1007/s00216-009-3036-x
Determination of basic drugs of abuse in human serum by online extraction and LC–MS/MS
Nerea Ferreirós Bouzas (2009)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2006.12.030
Systematic and comprehensive strategy for reducing matrix effects in LC/MS/MS analyses.
E. Chambers (2007)
10.1002/jssc.200900660
Influence of stationary phase chemistry and mobile-phase composition on retention, selectivity, and MS response in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.
K. Fountain (2010)
10.1021/ac800071n
Implementation and performance evaluation of a database of chemical formulas for the screening of pharmaco/toxicologically relevant compounds in biological samples using electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
A. Polettini (2008)
10.1258/acb.2008.008104
Criteria for opiate identification using liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry: problems in routine practice
E. J. S. Fox (2009)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.09.036
Detection of ketamine and its metabolites in urine by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
M. Parkin (2008)
10.1016/S0731-7085(98)00048-X
Effect of the sample matrix on the determination of indinavir in human urine by HPLC with turbo ion spray tandem mass spectrometric detection.
I. Fu (1998)
10.1002/JMS.299
Effects of liquid chromatography mobile phase buffer contents on the ionization and fragmentation of analytes in liquid chromatographic/ionspray tandem mass spectrometric determination.
J. Zhao (2002)
10.1016/J.TRAC.2009.10.003
Liquid-phase microextraction
A. Sarafraz-yazdi (2010)
10.1002/bmc.987
Simultaneous determination of beta-blockers in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Hironobu Umezawa (2008)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2004.04.039
Confirmatory analysis for drugs of abuse in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with respect to criteria for compound identification.
Barbora Maralíková (2004)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0231(19990630)13:12<1175::AID-RCM639>3.0.CO;2-0
The effects of sample preparation methods on the variability of the electrospray ionization response for model drug compounds.
Bonfiglio (1999)
10.1016/S0379-0738(02)00163-9
Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair by SPE and LC-MS/MS.
I. Janda (2002)
10.1002/jms.1525
On the inter-instrument and the inter-laboratory transferability of a tandem mass spectral reference library: 2. Optimization and characterization of the search algorithm.
H. Oberacher (2009)
10.1007/s11419-009-0076-z
Application of thermoresponsive HPLC to forensic toxicology: determination of barbiturates in human urine
Sanae Kanno (2009)
10.1002/bmc.1373
Systematic LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development that incorporates plasma phospholipids risk avoidance, usage of incurred sample and well thought-out chromatography.
Mohammed Jemal (2010)
10.1007/s00216-010-3485-2
Detection and identification of 700 drugs by multi-target screening with a 3200 Q TRAP® LC-MS/MS system and library searching
Sebastian Dresen (2010)
10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.07.019
Drugs of abuse testing by tandem mass spectrometry: a rapid, simple method to replace immunoassays.
Jeff C Eichhorst (2009)
10.1007/s00216-009-3084-2
ESI-MS/MS library of 1,253 compounds for application in forensic and clinical toxicology
Sebastian Dresen (2009)
10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00147-4
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: potential in forensic and clinical toxicology.
P. Marquet (1999)
10.1002/RCM.1098
Urine drug testing for opioids, cocaine, and metabolites by direct injection liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
R. Dams (2003)
10.2116/ANALSCI.26.715
Elimination technique for alkali metal ion adducts from an electrospray ionization process using an on-line ion suppressor.
Kazuyoshi Nozaki (2010)
10.1002/JSSC.200600189
Fast analysis in liquid chromatography using small particle size and high pressure.
D. Nguyen (2006)
10.1007/s00216-008-2456-3
Multiclass analysis of illicit drugs in plasma and oral fluids by LC-MS/MS
M. Sergi (2009)
10.1021/AC030162O
Toxicological screening with formula-based metabolite identification by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
A. Pelander (2003)
10.1002/RCM.1268
Ionization enhancement in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and suppression in electrospray ionization between target drugs and stable-isotope-labeled internal standards in quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
H. Liang (2003)
10.1016/J.CLINBIOCHEM.2004.12.003
Assessing analytical specificity in quantitative analysis using tandem mass spectrometry.
M. Kushnir (2005)
10.1002/RCM.2037
High-throughput biological sample analysis using on-line turbulent flow extraction combined with monolithic column liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Shaolian Zhou (2005)
10.1002/MAS.10008
Practical implications of some recent studies in electrospray ionization fundamentals.
N. Cech (2001)
10.1373/clinchem.2008.105478
Pitfalls and prevention strategies for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction-monitoring mode for drug analysis.
François‐Ludovic Sauvage (2008)
10.1039/C0AY00206B
Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determination of phencyclidine in human serum and its application to human drug abuse cases.
Krishna C Chimalakonda (2010)
10.1007/S00216-007-1248-5
Current role of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in clinical and forensic toxicology
H. Maurer (2007)
10.1093/JAT/29.7.652
Quantitative and isomeric determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine from urine using a nonprotic elution solvent and R(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid chloride derivatization.
Justin M. Holler (2005)
10.1021/ac901599d
Development of an information-rich LC-MS/MS database for the analysis of drugs in postmortem specimens.
Hsiu-Chuan Liu (2009)
10.1016/J.FORSCIINT.2006.02.053
Electrospray-ionization MS/MS library of drugs as database for method development and drug identification.
S. Dresen (2006)
10.1021/AC991050T
Evaluation of electrospray transport CID for the generation of searchable libraries.
J. Hough (2000)
10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00039-4
Sensitive and specific determination of eight antiretroviral agents in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
K. Rentsch (2003)
10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00304-0
Simple method for the determination of benzodiazepines in human body fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
X. Lee (2003)
10.1016/S0378-4347(01)00249-3
Methodology for the development of a drug library based upon collision-induced fragmentation for the identification of toxicologically relevant drugs in plasma samples.
A. Lips (2001)
10.1002/RCM.1790
Stable isotopically labeled internal standards in quantitative bioanalysis using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: necessity or not?
E. Stokvis (2005)
10.1016/J.JPBA.2007.02.006
Recent advances in high-throughput quantitative bioanalysis by LC-MS/MS.
R. N. Xu (2007)
10.1016/j.chroma.2009.08.061
Characterization and classification of matrix effects in biological samples analyses.
I. Marchi (2010)
10.1002/JMS.1112
Hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques-indispensable tools in clinical and forensic toxicology and in doping control.
H. Maurer (2006)
10.1093/JAT/30.8.524
LC-MS-(TOF) analysis method for benzodiazepines in urine samples from alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault victims.
M. ElSohly (2006)
10.1093/JAT/29.1.34
Application of accurate mass measurement to urine drug screening.
I. Ojanperä (2005)
10.1016/J.JCHROMB.2005.12.047
Determination of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An application to 156 road fatalities.
M. Concheiro (2006)
10.1002/RCM.2132
A new method for measurement of (-)-sophocarpine, a candidate therapeutic for viral myocarditis, in plasma: application to a toxicokinetic study in beagle dogs.
B. Guo (2005)
10.1016/S0021-9673(00)96972-3
Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography for the separation of peptides, nucleic acids and other polar compounds.
A. Alpert (1990)
10.1002/BMC.201
Screening for 18 diuretics and probenecid in doping analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
K. Deventer (2002)
10.1002/rcm.4432
Mass spectrometric characterization of tamoxifene metabolites in human urine utilizing different scan parameters on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Monica Mazzarino (2010)
10.1002/jssc.200700673
The application of novel 1.7 microm ethylene bridged hybrid particles for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.
Eric S. Grumbach (2008)
10.1016/j.chroma.2009.11.061
Solid-phase microextraction in bioanalysis: New devices and directions.
D. Vuckovic (2010)
10.1093/jat/33.8.456
Automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in human urine specimens: application to a high-throughput urine analysis laboratory.
Paul V. Robandt (2009)
10.1002/RCM.3060
An electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric investigation of selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals and its application in drug and metabolite profiling by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.
Bernadette Doherty (2007)
10.1016/S1570-0232(02)00345-8
Automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the determination of flunitrazepam and its metabolites in human urine and plasma samples.
N. Jourdil (2003)
10.1002/rcm.4365
Rapid screening and confirmation of drugs and toxic compounds in biological specimens using liquid chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry and automated library search.
Hsiu-Chuan Liu (2010)
10.1016/J.CHROMA.2004.08.118
Matrix effect in LC-ESI-MS and LC-APCI-MS with off-line and on-line extraction procedures.
S. Souverain (2004)
10.1093/JAT/34.5.261
Direct determination of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem urine specimens using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
Ahmed I Al-Asmari (2010)
10.1006/ABIO.2002.5673
A liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of buprenorphine, its metabolite, norbuprenorphine, and a coformulant, naloxone, that is suitable for in vivo and in vitro metabolism studies.
D. Moody (2002)
10.1016/J.ACA.2005.09.012
A brief review: HPLC methods to directly detect drug glucuronides in biological matrices (Part I)
R. Kaushik (2006)
10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00498-7
Simultaneous screening for 238 drugs in blood by liquid chromatography-ion spray tandem mass spectrometry with multiple-reaction monitoring.
M. Gergov (2003)
10.1016/J.FORSCIINT.2006.05.021
Validation of new methods.
F. Peters (2007)
Fused core particles for HPLC columns
J. Kirkland (2007)
10.1021/AC0492315
Information-dependent acquisition-mediated LC-MS/MS screening procedure with semiquantitative potential.
T. Decaestecker (2004)
10.1002/jms.1710
Screening for pharmaco-toxicologically relevant compounds in biosamples using high-resolution mass spectrometry: a 'metabolomic' approach to the discrimination between isomers.
Eloisa Liotta (2010)



This paper is referenced by
10.1155/2018/9053561
Determination of β-Agonist Residues in Animal-Derived Food by a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method Combined with Molecularly Imprinted Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction
Jiwang Tang (2018)
10.1007/s00216-013-7361-8
A novel approach to quantitative LC-MS/MS: therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine and norclozapine using isotopic internal calibration
Lewis Couchman (2013)
10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.07.024
Analytical aspects in doping control: challenges and perspectives.
F. Badoud (2011)
10.1016/j.vascn.2015.06.002
Determination of dopamine concentrations in brain extracellular fluid using microdialysis with short sampling intervals, analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
A. Gottås (2015)
10.1080/22297928.2016.1210021
Cyclodextrin-Promoted Detection of Aromatic Toxicants and Toxicant Metabolites in Urine
Dana J. DiScenza (2016)
10.1002/bmc.2769
Turbulent flow chromatography in bioanalysis: a review.
Lewis Couchman (2012)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.01.019
Analysis of cocaine/crack biomarkers in meconium by LC-MS.
Felipe Bianchini D'avila (2016)
10.1002/bmc.2772
Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of haem biosynthetic intermediates: a review.
Christopher M Benton (2012)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.03.033
Small molecule adduct formation with the components of the mobile phase as a way to analyse valproic acid in human serum with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Marek Dziadosz (2014)
10.1016/j.aca.2013.01.057
Detection and identification of drugs and toxicants in human body fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry under data-dependent acquisition control and automated database search.
H. Oberacher (2013)
Development and validation of an analytical method for quantification of dopamine metabolism in plasma samples by LC-MS/MS
A. S. A. Dias (2019)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.12.039
Quantitative determination of fifteen basic pharmaceuticals in ante- and post-mortem whole blood by high pH mobile phase reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Inge Amundsen (2013)
10.1016/j.chmed.2019.02.002
Network toxicology and LC-MS-based metabolomics: New approaches for mechanism of action of toxic components in traditional Chinese medicines
Xin-Yu Li (2019)
10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2016.01.019
Cocaine and crack cocaine abuse by pregnant or lactating mothers and analysis of its biomarkers in meconium and breast milk by LC-MS-A review.
Felipe Bianchini D'avila (2016)
10.1016/J.TRAC.2016.01.028
Knowing the unknown – State of the art of LCMS in toxicology
K. Rentsch (2016)
10.4155/bio.11.225
Impact of disease on interferences in blood bioanalysis.
Albert Wolthuis (2011)
Simultaneous detection of drugs of abuse in waste water using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Ellen Musili Mwenesongole (2015)
10.1007/978-1-4614-3828-1_12
Analysis of Illicit Drugs in Human Biological Samples by LC-MS n
Manuel Sergi (2012)
10.1007/s10337-011-2156-6
Determination of Illicit Drugs in Urine and Plasma by Micro-SPE Followed by HPLC–MS/MS
Sabino Napoletano (2011)
10.1007/s11094-015-1161-8
Determination of Buprenorphine and Naloxone in Patient Blood Plasma Using HPLC-MS
Inna K. Zhurkovich (2015)
10.1007/s00216-012-6035-2
Aspects of matrix effects in applications of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to forensic and clinical toxicology—a review
F. Peters (2012)
10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.121726
Development of a liquid chromatography Q Exactive high resolution mass spectrometry method by the Box-Behnken design for the investigation of sibutramine urinary metabolites.
Carina de Souza Anselmo (2019)
10.1007/s00216-012-6403-y
Fast screening of 88 pharmaceutical drugs and metabolites in whole blood by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
Marco Vincenti (2012)
10.1016/J.TRAC.2016.09.011
Drugs of abuse in drinking water – a review of current detection methods, occurrence, elimination and health risks
Y. Peng (2016)
10.1097/FTD.0000000000000429
A High-throughput HPLC-MS/MS Assay for the Detection, Quantification and Simultaneous Structural Confirmation of 136 Drugs and Metabolites in Human Urine
Jacek Klepacki (2017)
10.1016/j.chroma.2011.10.081
¹³C labelled internal standards--a solution to minimize ion suppression effects in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of drugs in biological samples?
T. Berg (2011)
10.4155/bio.13.275
Alternative sample diluents in bioanalytical LC-MS.
V. David (2013)
10.1007/s12272-018-1010-x
Spectroscopic methods to analyze drug metabolites
Jong-Jae Yi (2018)
10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.020
Evaluation of ¹³C- and ²H-labeled internal standards for the determination of amphetamines in biological samples, by reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
T. Berg (2014)
10.12816/0011254
Quality Assurance of Forensic-Toxicological Analysis: Selected Issues
Maciej J. Bogusz (2015)
10.1142/9781783264940_0009
Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry: Quantification and Confirmation Aspects
J. Aceña (2015)
10.1016/j.aca.2012.01.024
Prediction of liquid chromatographic retention for differentiation of structural isomers.
Elli Tyrkkö (2012)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar