Fluorescence‐based Discrimination Of Breast Cancer Cells By Direct Exposure To 5‐aminolevulinic Acid
Published 2019 · Medicine
Abstract Protoporphyrin IX‐fluorescence measurement is a powerful in situ approach for cancer detection after oral/topical administration of 5‐aminolevulinic acid. However, this approach has not been clinically established for breast cancer, probably due to insufficient delivery of 5‐aminolevulinic acid to the mammary glands. In the present study, we directly exposed breast cancer cells to 5‐aminolevulinic acid to assess their discrimination via protoporphyrin IX‐fluorescence. Fluorescence intensity (FI) was measured in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA‐MB‐231 and breast epithelial cell line MCF10A by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. After 5‐aminolevulinic acid exposure for 2 hours, protoporphyrin IX‐FI in MCF7 and MDA‐MB‐231 cells significantly increased with marked cell‐to‐cell variability, whereas that in MCF10A cells increased moderately. Combined exposure of the cancer cells to 5‐aminolevulinic acid and Ko143, a specific inhibitor of ATP‐binding cassette transporter G2, further increased protoporphyrin IX‐FI and alleviated the cell‐to‐cell variability in MCF7 and MDA‐MB‐231 cells, indicating improvement in the reproducibility and accuracy for fluorescence‐based cancer detection. The increased FI by combined administration of these two drugs was also demonstrated in cells obtained via fine needle aspiration from mouse xenograft models inoculated with MDA‐MB‐231 cells. Furthermore, a cutoff value for increased protoporphyrin IX‐FI ratio, before and after exposure to these drugs, clearly discriminated between cancer and noncancer cells. Taken together, direct exposure to 5‐aminolevulinic acid and Ko143 may be a promising strategy for efficient fluorescence‐based detection of breast cancer cells ex vivo using fine needle aspiration.