Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Risk And Protective Factors For Physical And Emotional Abuse Victimisation Amongst Vulnerable Children In South Africa

F. Meinck, L. Cluver, M. Boyes, Lodrick D. Ndhlovu
Published 2015 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
Little is known about risk and protective factors for emotional and physical child abuse in South Africa. Existing research has focused largely on sexual abuse and relied on recollections of childhood abuse from university and high-school students or data from criminal reports. The objective of this study was to establish risk and protective factors for severe physical and emotional abuse amongst a large cross-sectional community sample of South African youth. Confidential self-report questionnaires were completed by children aged 13–19 (n = 603, 47.9% female) with local interviewers in deprived areas of South Africa. Standardised measures of abuse, hypothesised risk factors and socio-demographic variables were used. Factors associated with severe physical and emotional child abuse were experience of family conflict (p = 0.003), unequal food distribution (p < 0.014), inconsistent discipline (p = 0.012), number of caregiver changes (p = 0.022), living with a step-parent (p = 0.034), caregiver disability (p = 0.004), food insecurity (p = 0.006), bullying (p < 0.001), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related stigma (p < 0.001), sexual abuse (p = 0.003), school non-attendance (p = 0.006) and non-achievement (p = 0.015). These identified risk and protective factors at community, school, caregiver and household levels have the potential to affect the risk of abuse for children in South Africa, and may be valuable fields for future intervention efforts. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ‘The objective of this study was to establish risk and protective factors for severe physical and emotional abuse amongst a large cross-sectional sample of South African youth’ Key Practitioner Messages Risk and protective factors for physical and emotional child abuse have not been thoroughly studied in South Africa. Risk and protective factors for child abuse in South Africa include poverty, AIDS-related stigma, bullying, school non-attendance and achievement, sexual abuse, caregiver disability, inconsistent discipline, family conflict and living with a step-parent. Future research should focus on longitudinal data to establish causality and to examine the relationship between child abuse and caregiver AIDS sickness.
This paper references
Child maltreatment: an ecological integration.
J. Belsky (1980)
The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design: by Urie Bronfenbrenner Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979, 330 + p.
J. Garbarino (1980)
A forty year perspective on effects of child abuse and neglect.
J. McCord (1983)
Defending the mentally disabled.
F. Cournos (1984)
Levonn: A cartoon-based interview for assessing children's distress symptoms
J Richters (1990)
Social support scale: Psychometric development summary
Adolescent Pathways Project. (1992)
Long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: perceived family environment, psychopathology, and dissociation.
M. R. Nash (1993)
Etiology of child maltreatment: a developmental-ecological analysis.
J. Belsky (1993)
Physically and sexually abused children: A comparative analysis of 200 reported cases
S. Collings (1993)
The association of physical and sexual abuse with HIV risk behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood: implications for public health.
Renee M. Cunningham (1994)
For Whom the Bell Tolls: Parenting Decisions and Challenges Faced by Mothers Who Are HIV Seropositive
L. Armistead (1995)
Multiple Comparisons: Theory and Methods
J. Hsu (1996)
Community and dating violence among adolescents: perpetration and victimization.
S. Malik (1997)
The Role of Family Processes and Coping Strategies in the Relationship Between Parental Chronic Illness and Childhood Internalizing Problems
R. Steele (1997)
An ecological-transactional analysis of children and contexts: the longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children's symptomatology.
M. Lynch (1998)
Maltreatment by Parents and Peers: The Relationship between Child Abuse, Bully Victimization, and Psychological Distress
R. Duncan (1999)
Report of the Consultation on Child Abuse Prevention
World Health Organisation. (1999)
A. van der Merwe (2000)
Risk factors for child physical abuse
Danielle A. Black (2001)
Are Father Surrogates a Risk Factor for Child Maltreatment?
A. Radhakrishna (2001)
Risk factors for child psychological abuse
Danielle A. Black (2001)
Census 2001: Household Questionnaire
Statistics South Africa. (2001)
Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): a conceptual framework.
D. Glaser (2002)
Child abuse and neglect by parents and other caregivers.
Desmond K. Runyan (2002)
Perceived Parental Disorders as Risk Factors for Child Sexual, Physical and Emotional abuse among High School Students in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
S. Madu (2002)
Adverse Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes from Child Abuse and Witnessed Violence
Renee M. Johnsona (2002)
Social Work tools for assessment of children
A. Buchanan (2002)
The relationship between parental physical availability and child sexual, physical and emotional abuse: a study among a sample of university students in South Africa.
S. Madu (2003)
Recommendations for health and social services to address the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children in the context of HIV/AIDS in South Africa
S. Giese (2003)
National food consumption survey in children aged 1-9 years: South Africa 1999.
D. Labadarios (2003)
Levels and causes of adult mortality in rural South Africa: the impact of AIDS
V. Hosegood (2004)
Types of Trauma exposure and severity of PTSD sypmtoms amongst Langa Adolescents
K. Heath (2004)
Children on the Brink 2004: A joint report of new orphan estimates and a framework for action
UNAIDS. (2004)
"I have an evil child at my house": stigma and HIV/AIDS management in a South African community.
C. Campbell (2005)
South African Health Review 2005.
A. Gray (2005)
Ovarian cancer patients' psychological distress: the role of physical impairment, perceived unsupportive family and friend behaviors, perceived control, and self-esteem.
Tina R Norton (2005)
The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999
D. Labadarios (2005)
Measuring child maltreatment in the United Kingdom: a study of the prevalence of child abuse and neglect.
C. May-Chahal (2005)
The relationship between maternal chronic pain and child adjustment: the role of parenting as a mediator.
S. Evans (2006)
Young Lives. An international study of child poverty
S. Galab (2006)
Creating and Validating an Algorithm to Measure AIDS Mortality in the Adult Population using Verbal Autopsy
B. Lopman (2006)
Understanding the Ecology of Child Maltreatment: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research
B. Freisthler (2006)
Psychosocial Vulnerability and Resilience Measures For NationalLevel Monitoring of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children: Recommendations for Revision of the UNICEF Psychological Indicator
L. Snider (2006)
Child and partner abuse: self-reported prevalence and attitudes in the north of Portugal.
C. Machado (2007)
Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire
F. Elgar (2007)
Risk and protective factors for psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town: a qualitative study of children and caregivers’ perspectives
L. Cluver (2007)
Factors Affecting Resilience in Children Exposed to Violence
C. L. Ward (2007)
Psychological distress amongst AIDS-orphaned children in urban South Africa.
L. Cluver (2007)
Children's court inquiries in the Western Cape
M. Makoae (2008)
Orphanhood and Completion of Compulsory School Education Among Young People in South Africa: Findings From a National Representative Survey
D. Operario (2008)
Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa.
L. Cluver (2009)
Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey.
D. W. Brown (2009)
Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents: risk factors versus resilience moderation.
D. Fincham (2009)
Stigma, bullying, poverty and AIDS-orphanhood: Interactions mediating psychological problems for children in South Africa
L. Cluver (2009)
Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature.
S. Stith (2009)
Determinants of knowledge of HIV status in South Africa: results from a population-based HIV survey
K. Peltzer (2009)
Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries
R. Gilbert (2009)
, Annual Report For 2009 - 2010
Gopal Krishna Gokhale (2010)
Risk and protective factors for bullying victimization among AIDS-affected and vulnerable children in South Africa.
L. Cluver (2010)
Transactional Sex Amongst AIDS-Orphaned and AIDS-Affected Adolescents Predicted by Abuse and Extreme Poverty
L. Cluver (2011)
Child maltreatment at home: Prevalence among orphans and vulnerable children in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
T Thurman (2011)
Persisting mental health problems among AIDS-orphaned children in South Africa.
L. Cluver (2012)
Validation of a brief stigma-by-association scale for use with HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa
M. Boyes (2013)
Survey examines South Africa's attitude towards corporal punishment
A. Dawes (2015)
Bridging the gap: The impact of home visiting programs for orphans and vulnerable children on social grant uptake in South Africa
T. Thurman (2015)

This paper is referenced by
Factors associated with knowledge on risk factors of sexual abuse among house girls and house boys in Singida Municipality, Central zone Tanzania: A cross-sectional study
Filmon Emily (2021)
Factors Associated With Violence Against Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression of Nationally Representative Data
Ilan Cerna-Turoff (2021)
Child Maltreatment and associated Sociodemographic factors among Children affected by HIV/AIDS in Ghana: A Multi-Informant Perspective
Doku Pn (2021)
The Concept of Childhood Trauma in Psychopathology: Definitions and Historical Perspectives
Gretchen Buchanan (2020)
“I Grew Up… I Was Still Small”: Experiences before and after Juvenile Incarceration in South Africa
Joseph Calvin Gagnon (2020)
Childhood Trauma in Mental Disorders: A Comprehensive Approach
D. Janiri (2020)
An Evaluation of a School-Based Savings Program and Its Effect on Sexual Risk Behaviors and Victimization Among Young Ghanaians
Rainier Masa (2020)
Youth food insecurity in Ghana and South Africa: Prevalence, socioeconomic correlates, and moderation effect of gender
R. Masa (2020)
Moderators of treatment effects in a child maltreatment prevention programme in South Africa.
Y. Shenderovich (2020)
Marianne Strydom (2020)
Profile of repeat victimisation within multi-agency referrals
Sarah Shorrock (2020)
Bir Grup Lise Öğrencisinde Çocukta Fiziksel ve Duygusal İstismar Risk ve Koruyucu Faktörlerinin Taranması
S. Inanici (2020)
Direct and Indirect Associations of Food Insecurity, Adolescent–Parent Relationship, and Adolescent Future Orientation
R. Masa (2020)
Barriers and Challenges to Service Delivery and Funding: A Case Study of a Nonprofit Organization in the Western Cape, South Africa
Simone Martin-Howard (2019)
Violence against children and natural disasters: A systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative evidence
Ilan Cerna-Turoff (2019)
“Between a child who wants to tell and an adult who does not want to hear”. Arts Therapists’ Dilemmas in the Application of Arts Therapy with Children from Arab Society Who Suffered Abuse
Amani Mussa (2019)
Factors and effects of work-related stress and burnout on the well-being of social workers in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa
J. Kheswa (2019)
Intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment: Predictors of child emotional maltreatment among 11 to 17 years old children residing in communities of Karachi, Pakistan.
M. Lakhdir (2019)
Social cohesion and violence in South Africa: constructing a puzzle with missing pieces
G. Lamb (2019)
Effect of Childhood Poverty and Trauma on Adult Depressive Symptoms Among Young Men in Peri-Urban South African Settlements.
A. Hatcher (2019)
Does a history of sexual and physical childhood abuse contribute to HIV infection risk in adulthood? A study among post-natal women in Harare, Zimbabwe
S. Shamu (2019)
South Africa: Family Life as the Mirror of a Society
Clara Gerhardt (2018)
Risk factors and health consequences of physical and emotional violence against children in Zimbabwe: a nationally representative survey
Handrick Chigiji (2018)
What can social work do to mitigate caregiver-perpetrated physical aggression? A study among caregivers of orphaned and vulnerable female adolescents in South Africa
Alexandra Spyrelis (2018)
Can supportive parenting protect against school delay amongst violence-exposed adolescents in South Africa?
Rocio Herrero Romero (2018)
Types of Abuse Experienced by Adolescents Living in Charitable Children’s Institutions in Nairobi County, Kenya
S. Nyagwencha (2018)
How Does Exposure to Violence Affect School Delay and Academic Motivation for Adolescents Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Communities in South Africa?
Rocio Herrero Romero (2018)
Does a history of sexual and physical childhood abuse contribute to HIV infection risk in adulthood? A study among post-natal women in Harare, Zimbabwe
S. Shamu (2018)
HIV, blame and shame: internalised HIV stigma among South African adolescents living with HIV
Marija Pantelic (2017)
What explains childhood violence? Micro correlates from VACS surveys
S. Ravi (2017)
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Township Mothers in South Africa Over 5 Years
Emily C. Davis (2017)
Violence and alternative care: a rapid review of the evidence
I. Brodie (2017)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar