Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Challenging Regulations: Managing Risks In Crop Biotechnology

Huw David Jones
Published 2015 · Medicine, Biology
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Alongside other aspects of agriculture, plant breeding is pivotal to securing crop yields necessary to meet the growing demands for human food and animal feed. In addition to the important targets of yield, nutritional quality and resilience to abiotic stresses, breeding for resistance to pests and diseases will become even more critical as the availability of plant protection products is further diminished by regulation and/or the lack of new active ingredients coming to market (Chapman 2014) and by consumer preferences for fewer inputs. In this regard, it is fortuitous and timely that future crop genetic improvement will be aided by several developments in plant breeding that are underpinned by the massive increase in DNA sequence information flowing into databases from new methods of reading DNA that were developed in the mid 2000's (Moorthie et al. 2011). A stark example of this revolution in sequencing speed is seen in the progress of rice genomics where, after about three years work, the first draft genomic sequence of rice was published in 2002 (Goff et al. 2002; Yu et al. 2002). Yet, little over ten years later, IRRI published the genomic sequence of 3000 different rice varieties (Alexandrov 2015). This step‐change in sequencing and bioinformatics resulted in the generation of massive data sets that can be mined to give information about the genetic location and function of specific alleles which in turn can be used to inform and facilitate crop improvement via conventional breeding methods or via a spectrum of rapidly evolving molecular breeding technologies and concepts of synthetic biology. Two such technologies close to commercialization are genome editing and interorganism silencing which are discussed below. However, the plant breeder faces significant challenges to fully integrate these novel approaches to produce new varieties because of ambiguities and uncertainties surrounding risk assessment and regulation.
This paper references
10.1093/nar/gku1039
SNP-Seek database of SNPs derived from 3000 rice genomes
Nickolai Alexandrov (2015)
Determination of the Safety of Cibus Canada Inc. ' s Canola (Brassica napus L
(2013)
Genetically modifi ed plants and regulatory loopholes and weaknesses under the plant protection act
E. Montgomery (2013)
10.1111/pbi.12055
Intragenesis and cisgenesis as alternatives to transgenic crop development.
Inger B. Holme (2013)
A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).
Stephen A. Goff (2002)
Figure 1 . Three processes, with examples that have generated commercial herbicide tolerant crops and the EU GMO regulatory implications. Event 5715
Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 March 2001 on the Deliberate Release into the Environment of Genetically
European Parliament (2001)
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP)
Yael Kovo (2016)
10.1111/pbi.12107
Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.
William Michael Ainley (2013)
10.1126/science.1068275
A Draft Sequence of the Rice Genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica)
Jun Yu (2002)
on the Deliberate Release into the Environment of Genetically Modifi ed Organisms
European Parliament
10.1105/tpc.8.4.687
Duplications That Suppress and Deletions That Restore Expression from a Chalcone Synthase Multigene Family.
J. J. Todd (1996)
10.1038/nplants.2014.11
Regulatory uncertainty over genome editing.
Huw D Jones (2015)
10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.738.99
Transgenic rootstock protein transmission in grapevines
Manjul Dutt (2007)
Sulfonylurea-tolerant canola eyed for
Agcanada News (2014)
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Doug Hare (1997)
Plants with Novel Traits Available via http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/ plants-with-novel-traits/eng
(2015)
10.2903/J.EFSA.2012.2561
Scientific opinion addressing the safety assessment of plants developed through cisgenesis and intragenesis
H. C. Andersson (2012)
10.1007/s11568-011-9156-3
Review of massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies
Sowmiya Moorthie (2011)
10.1038/nbt.2969
Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew
Yanpeng Wang (2014)
10.1002/FES3.45
Is the regulatory regime for the registration of plant protection products in the EU potentially compromising food security
Peter M. Chapman (2014)
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology of Temperate Fruit Crops and Tropical Species
R. Scorza (2007)
Available via http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/ plants-with-novel-traits/approved-under-review/decision- documents/dd-2013-100



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar