Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

In Search Of Definitions: Cancer‐associated Fibroblasts And Their Markers

Martin Nurmik, P. Ullmann, Fabien Rodriguez, S. Haan, E. Letellier
Published 2019 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The tumor microenvironment has been identified as one of the driving factors of tumor progression and invasion. Inside this microenvironment, cancer‐associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a type of perpetually activated fibroblasts, have been implicated to have a strong tumor‐modulating effect and play a key role in areas such as drug resistance. Identification of CAFs has typically been carried based on the expression of various “CAF markers”, such as fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), which separates them from the larger pool of fibroblasts present in the body. However, as outlined in this Review, the expression of various commonly used fibroblast markers is extremely heterogeneous and varies strongly between different CAF subpopulations. As such, novel selection methods based on cellular function, as well as further characterizing research, are vital for the standardization of CAF identification in order to improve the cross‐applicability of different research studies in the field. The aim of this review is to give a thorough overview of the commonly used fibroblast markers in the field and their various strengths and, more importantly, their weaknesses, as well as to highlight potential future avenues for CAF identification and targeting.
This paper references
10.15252/embr.201540107
Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis
Chris D. Madsen (2015)
10.4161/cbt.5.12.3354
Identification of fibroblast heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment
H. Sugimoto (2006)
10.1371/journal.pone.0076373
Understanding the Impact of 2D and 3D Fibroblast Cultures on In Vitro Breast Cancer Models
K. E. Sung (2013)
10.1016/J.CANLET.2004.06.030
Increased expression of seprase, a membrane-type serine protease, is associated with lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer.
S. Iwasa (2003)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-1770
Tumor-Driven Paracrine Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α Signaling Is a Key Determinant of Stromal Cell Recruitment in a Model of Human Lung Carcinoma
M. Tejada (2006)
10.1038/onc.2017.144
Autocrine WNT2 signaling in fibroblasts promotes colorectal cancer progression
N. Kramer (2017)
Expression of cancer-associated fibroblast 904 Cancer-associated fibroblasts and their markers
R Nishishita (2020)
10.3389/fonc.2015.00063
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Connect Metastasis-Promoting Communication in Colorectal Cancer
J. Tommelein (2015)
10.1093/eurheartj/eht547
Expression of smooth muscle cell markers and co-activators in calcified aortic valves.
N. Latif (2015)
10.1093/acref/9780199687817.001.0001
Concise Medical Dictionary
E. A. Martin (2010)
10.1080/19336918.2015.1008331
Tenascin C in metastasis: A view from the invasive front
Camille M Lowy (2015)
10.1016/j.canlet.2016.09.001
A COL11A1-correlated pan-cancer gene signature of activated fibroblasts for the prioritization of therapeutic targets.
Dongyu Jia (2016)
10.3892/ol.2018.8097
Expression of cancer-associated fibroblast markers in advanced colorectal cancer
Rie Nishishita (2018)
10.1084/jem.20131195
Chemotherapy activates cancer-associated fibroblasts to maintain colorectal cancer-initiating cells by IL-17A
F. Lotti (2013)
10.1038/nrc1456
High interstitial fluid pressure — an obstacle in cancer therapy
C. Heldin (2004)
10.1215/S1152851705000232
The role of pericytes in blood-vessel formation and maintenance.
G. Bergers (2005)
10.3791/4425
Isolation of normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts from fresh tissues by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS).
Y. Sharon (2013)
10.1007/s11481-013-9479-z
The Roles of PDGF in Development and During Neurogenesis in the Normal and Diseased Nervous System
K. Funa (2013)
10.1097/CCO.0000000000000420
Paracrine interactions of cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells: tumor allies and foes
Roberto Ronca (2018)
10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.163
Podoplanin, a novel marker of tumor-initiating cells in human squamous cell carcinoma A431.
N. Atsumi (2008)
10.18632/oncotarget.15540
Melanoma-associated fibroblasts decrease tumor cell susceptibility to NK cell-mediated killing through matrix-metalloproteinases secretion
Linda Ziani (2017)
10.1111/cas.12096
Cancer‐associated fibroblast and M2 macrophage markers together predict outcome in colorectal cancer patients
M. Herrera (2013)
10.1038/ng.3225
Stromal gene expression defines poor-prognosis subtypes in colorectal cancer
A. Calon (2015)
10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.034
Stromal Fibroblasts Present in Invasive Human Breast Carcinomas Promote Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis through Elevated SDF-1/CXCL12 Secretion
A. Orimo (2005)
IL-1-induced JAK/STAT signaling is antagonized by TGF-beta to shape CAF heterogeneity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
G Biffi (2018)
Fibroblasts for all seasons
E. Wagner (2016)
10.1073/pnas.90.2.393
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in oncogenesis: development of a vascular connective tissue stroma in xenotransplanted human melanoma producing PDGF-BB.
K. Forsberg (1993)
10.1126/science.1195300
Suppression of Antitumor Immunity by Stromal Cells Expressing Fibroblast Activation Protein–α
Matthew Kraman (2010)
10.1038/s41389-017-0011-9
The hypoxic tumour microenvironment
V. Petrova (2018)
10.1016/j.cgh.2008.05.006
The activated stroma index is a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
M. Erkan (2008)
Cancer - associated fi broblasts are activated in incipient neoplasia to orchestrate tumor - promoting in fl ammation in an NF - κ B - dependent manner
C Osterreicher (2010)
10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0710
IL1-Induced JAK/STAT Signaling Is Antagonized by TGFβ to Shape CAF Heterogeneity in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
G. Biffi (2019)
10.1007/978-94-017-9153-3_5
Integrin α11β1: a major collagen receptor on fibroblastic cells.
Cédric Zeltz (2014)
10.1038/s41598-017-09062-y
Silencing of TGF-β1 in tumor cells impacts MMP-9 in tumor microenvironment
Lakisha Moore-Smith (2017)
10.1038/ng.3818
Reference component analysis of single-cell transcriptomes elucidates cellular heterogeneity in human colorectal tumors
Huipeng Li (2017)
10.1016/j.ccr.2009.12.041
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Activated in Incipient Neoplasia to Orchestrate Tumor-Promoting Inflammation in an NF-kappaB-Dependent Manner.
Neta Erez (2010)
10.1073/pnas.1014506108
Prognostic gene-expression signature of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer
R. Navab (2011)
10.1007/s13277-015-3295-4
COL11A1/(pro)collagen 11A1 expression is a remarkable biomarker of human invasive carcinoma-associated stromal cells and carcinoma progression
F. Vázquez-Villa (2015)
10.18632/oncotarget.14374
Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote an immunosuppressive microenvironment through the induction and accumulation of protumoral macrophages
Hideyuki Takahashi (2017)
10.1371/journal.pone.0099955
The Prognostic Significance of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
S. Y. Ha (2014)
10.18632/oncotarget.22663
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitive PDGFRΑ mutations in GIST: Two cases and review of the literature
Pieter A Boonstra (2017)
Cancerassociated fibroblasts are activated in incipient neoplasia to orchestrate tumor-promoting inflammation in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Cancer Cell 2010;17:135–47
N Erez (2010)
Cancer-associated fibroblasts modify lung cancer metabolism involving ROS and TGF-β signaling
A Cruz-Bermúdez (2020)
10.1038/onc.2017.116
Stromal-derived IGF2 promotes colon cancer progression via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms
C. Unger (2017)
10.1038/ncomms8287
Vimentin filament organization and stress sensing depend on its single cysteine residue and zinc binding
D. Pérez-Sala (2015)
10.1073/pnas.1603534113
Myofibroblasts are distinguished from activated skin fibroblasts by the expression of AOC3 and other associated markers
Lin-ting Hsia (2016)
10.1186/1476-4598-9-168
Dasatinib reverses Cancer-associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) from primary Lung Carcinomas to a Phenotype comparable to that of normal Fibroblasts
Silke Haubeiss (2010)
10.1016/j.celrep.2016.04.019
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Regulate Tumor-Initiating Cell Plasticity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 Signaling.
E. Y. T. Lau (2016)
10.1038/srep24354
GPER signalling in both cancer-associated fibroblasts and breast cancer cells mediates a feedforward IL1β/IL1R1 response
P. De Marco (2016)
10.3748/wjg.v18.i8.840
Expression of fibroblast activation protein in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance.
M. Shi (2012)
10.18632/oncotarget.17941
Twist1 is highly expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with a prognostic significance.
So-Young Yeo (2017)
10.4161/15384101.2014.988106
CAF reprogramming inhibits ovarian cancer progression
Tsz-Lun Yeung (2014)
10.1038/onc.2015.254
Integrin α11β1 regulates cancer stromal stiffness and promotes tumorigenicity and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer
R. Navab (2016)
tinct populations of in fl ammatory fi broblasts and myo fi broblasts in pancreatic cancer
D Öhlund (2017)
10.1084/jem.20150576
IKKβ acts as a tumor suppressor in cancer-associated fibroblasts during intestinal tumorigenesis
C. Pallangyo (2015)
10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.009
CD10+GPR77+ Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Promote Cancer Formation and Chemoresistance by Sustaining Cancer Stemness
Shicheng Su (2018)
10.1038/srep43378
High expression of PDGFR-β in prostate cancer stroma is independently associated with clinical and biochemical prostate cancer recurrence
Y. Nordby (2017)
10.1016/j.molonc.2014.04.006
Differences between CAFs and their paired NCF from adjacent colonic mucosa reveal functional heterogeneity of CAFs, providing prognostic information.
M. Berdiel-Acer (2014)
thesis and secretion of platelet - derived growth factor by human breast cancer cell lines
C Jotzu (1987)
10.1007/s13402-011-0012-1
Adipose tissue derived stem cells differentiate into carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like cells under the influence of tumor derived factors
Constantin Jotzu (2011)
10.1038/srep28951
Capturing tumor complexity in vitro: Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D tumor models for drug discovery
Kristin Stock (2016)
10.1038/530042a
Cancer: Fibroblasts for all seasons
E. Wagner (2016)
10.1016/j.bbcan.2016.11.001
Friend or foe? The tumour microenvironment dilemma in colorectal cancer.
T. Colangelo (2017)
10.1186/1478-811X-11-97
Targeting the PDGF signaling pathway in tumor treatment
C. Heldin (2013)
10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0340
Rationale Behind Targeting Fibroblast Activation Protein–Expressing Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts as a Novel Chemotherapeutic Strategy
W. Brennen (2012)
10.1007/s00441-016-2471-1
The roles of tumor- and metastasis-promoting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in human carcinomas
Yoshihiro Mezawa (2016)
10.1073/pnas.1412062112
TSPAN12 is a critical factor for cancer–fibroblast cell contact-mediated cancer invasion
Ryo Otomo (2014)
10.1186/s12943-017-0602-2
Tumor-Initiating Cells: a criTICal review of isolation approaches and new challenges in targeting strategies
Komal Qureshi-Baig (2017)
10.1186/ar3010
Cell culture and passaging alters gene expression pattern and proliferation rate in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts
E. Neumann (2010)
10.1096/fj.03-1110fje
Tenascin‐C and SF/HGF produced by myofibroblasts in vitro provide convergent proinvasive signals to human colon cancer cells through RhoA and Rac
O. De Wever (2004)
10.1371/journal.pone.0018640
Identification of Prognostic Molecular Features in the Reactive Stroma of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer
A. Planche (2011)
10.1006/SCBI.2000.0379
Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis.
I. Stamenković (2000)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-3490
Cancer Stem Cells Regulate Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts via Activation of Hedgehog Signaling in Mammary Gland Tumors.
Giovanni Valenti (2017)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-3127
Discovery of endothelial to mesenchymal transition as a source for carcinoma-associated fibroblasts.
E. Zeisberg (2007)
10.1084/jem.20140692
Fibroblast heterogeneity in the cancer wound
D. Öhlund (2014)
10.1073/pnas.1013805107
Autocrine TGF-β and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling drives the evolution of tumor-promoting mammary stromal myofibroblasts
Yasushi Kojima (2010)
Occurence of stromal myofibroblasts in the invasive ductal breast cancer tissue is an unfavourable prognostic factor.
Paweł Surowiak (2007)
10.1038/s41467-018-03348-z
miR200-regulated CXCL12β promotes fibroblast heterogeneity and immunosuppression in ovarian cancers
Anne-Marie Givel (2018)
10.1038/ng.3224
Stromal contribution to the colorectal cancer transcriptome
C. Isella (2015)
10.4161/cbt.6.11.4874
Phase II trial of single agent Val-boroPro (talabostat) inhibiting fibroblast activation protein in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer
Kalyani Narra (2007)
CD10GPR77 Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Promote Cancer Formation and Chemoresistance by Sustaining Cancer Stemness
Shicheng Su (2018)
10.1084/jem.20162024
Distinct populations of inflammatory fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in pancreatic cancer
D. Öhlund (2017)
10.1038/301368c0
Friend or FoE?
D. Pressey (1983)
10.1101/gad.279737.116
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts: orchestrating the composition of malignancy.
Philippe Gascard (2016)
10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.05.023
Tumor-produced, active Interleukin-1 β regulates gene expression in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts
József Dudás (2011)
10.1159/000495484
Tumor-Infiltrating Podoplanin+ Fibroblasts Predict Worse Outcome in Solid Tumors
G. Hu (2018)
10.1038/ncomms10305
Tumour cell-derived Wnt7a recruits and activates fibroblasts to promote tumour aggressiveness
Alexandra Avgustinova (2016)
10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0338
Hypoxia Selectively Enhances Integrin α5β1 Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer to Promote Metastasis
Julia A Ju (2017)
10.1073/pnas.84.16.5763
Synthesis and secretion of platelet-derived growth factor by human breast cancer cell lines.
D. Bronzert (1987)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2191
Stromal Myofibroblasts Predict Disease Recurrence for Colorectal Cancer
T. Tsujino (2007)
10.1016/j.ccell.2018.01.011
Fibroblast Heterogeneity and Immunosuppressive Environment in Human Breast Cancer.
Ana Costa (2018)
CD10 + GPR77 + cancer-associated fibroblasts promote cancer formation and Chemoresistance by sustaining cancer
S Su (2018)
pression of antitumor immunity by stromal cells expressing fi broblast activation protein
M Kraman (2010)
10.1016/j.ccr.2012.08.013
Dependency of colorectal cancer on a TGF-β-driven program in stromal cells for metastasis initiation.
A. Calon (2012)
10.1186/1755-1536-5-S1-S5
The myofibroblast, multiple origins for major roles in normal and pathological tissue repair
L. Micallef (2012)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0694
Functional Heterogeneity of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts from Human Colon Tumors Shows Specific Prognostic Gene Expression Signature
M. Herrera (2013)
10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00925
Proteomic Analysis of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Reveals a Paracrine Role for MFAP5 in Human Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Simona Principe (2018)
10.1038/nrc.2016.73
The biology and function of fibroblasts in cancer
R. Kalluri (2016)
10.1016/j.vph.2016.10.004
Colon cancer-derived myofibroblasts increase endothelial cell migration by glucocorticoid-sensitive secretion of a pro-migratory factor
Z. Drebert (2017)
10.3389/fonc.2018.00055
Defining the Role of Solid Stress and Matrix Stiffness in Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis
M. Kalli (2018)
10.1007/s10616-009-9190-3
CD90 Expression on human primary cells and elimination of contaminating fibroblasts from cell cultures
Lynn Kisselbach (2009)
10.1016/j.semcancer.2014.02.006
Prognostic relevance of cancer-associated fibroblasts in human cancer.
Janna Paulsson (2014)
10.1084/jem.20150542
IKKβ in intestinal mesenchymal cells promotes initiation of colitis-associated cancer
V. Koliaraki (2015)
10.1002/path.4103
From sentinel cells to inflammatory culprits: cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumour-related inflammation.
Charlotte Servais (2013)
The basics of epithelialmesenchymal transition
R Kalluri (2010)
10.1073/pnas.1017547108
Fibroblast-specific protein 1 identifies an inflammatory subpopulation of macrophages in the liver
Christoph H. Österreicher (2010)
10.1172/JCI39104C1
The basics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (The Journal of Clinical Investigation (2009) 119, 6, (1420-1428) DOI: 10.1172/JCI39104)
R. Kalluri (2010)
10.1074/jbc.M800798200
Stromal Fibroblasts Activated by Tumor Cells Promote Angiogenesis in Mouse Gastric Cancer*
X. Guo (2008)
10.1002/cjp2.56
High expression of stromal PDGFRβ is associated with reduced benefit of tamoxifen in breast cancer
Janna Paulsson (2017)
10.18632/oncotarget.6740
A subset of myofibroblastic cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate collagen fiber elongation, which is prognostic in multiple cancers
Christopher J Hanley (2016)
10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04614.x
Podoplanin-expressing inflammatory macrophages activate murine platelets via CLEC-2
A. M. Kerrigan (2012)
10.1046/J.1523-1747.2003.12035.X
Fibroblast activation protein: differential expression and serine protease activity in reactive stromal fibroblasts of melanocytic skin tumors.
M. Huber (2003)
10.1002/path.4824
CAFs and TAMs: maestros of the tumour microenvironment.
Y. Komohara (2017)
10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0206
MicroRNAs reprogram normal fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts in ovarian cancer.
A. K. Mitra (2012)
10.1159/000069863
Stromal Antigen Targeting by a Humanised Monoclonal Antibody: An Early Phase II Trial of Sibrotuzumab in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
R. Hofheinz (2003)
10.1016/j.jprot.2014.07.031
Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.
Sun-Xia Chen (2014)
10.1016/j.coi.2014.01.001
The immune contexture of primary and metastatic human tumours.
N. Giraldo (2014)
10.1002/cyto.a.23101
The fibroblast surface markers FAP, anti‐fibroblast, and FSP are expressed by cells of epithelial origin and may be altered during epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition
Zuzana Kahounová (2018)
10.1002/jcb.25386
FGF2 Overrides TGFβ1‐Driven Integrin ITGA11 Expression in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Alexandra Grella (2016)



This paper is referenced by
10.3390/cancers11030301
Spatial Arrangements of Connexin43 in Cancer Related Cells and Re-Arrangements under Treatment Conditions: Investigations on the Nano-Scale by Super-Resolution Localization Light Microscopy
Götz Pilarczyk (2019)
10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.05.043
The effect of ALA-PDT on reversing the activation of Cancer-associated fibroblasts in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Shan-Shan Li (2019)
10.1007/978-3-030-37184-5_2
Fibroblasts in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Marta Truffi (2020)
10.1101/2020.04.21.052647
Modulation of the tumour promoting functions of cancer associated fibroblasts by phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition increases the efficacy of chemotherapy in human preclinical models of esophageal adenocarcinoma
A. Hayden (2020)
10.3389/fonc.2020.01511
Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells in the Progression to Liver Metastasis
Carlos A. Gonzalez-Villarreal (2020)
10.1002/ijc.32278
Cancer‐associated fibroblasts promote PD‐L1 expression in mice cancer cells via secreting CXCL5
Ziqian Li (2019)
10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127253
A cell-based fluorescent assay for FAP inhibitor discovery.
Bingye Zhang (2020)
10.3390/cancers11091296
What Is the Fuss about Integrins and the Tumor Microenvironment?
Johannes A Eble (2019)
10.1186/s12964-020-0530-4
Tumor microenvironment complexity and therapeutic implications at a glance
Roghayyeh Baghban (2020)
10.1177/1177932220906827
An NMF-Based Methodology for Selecting Biomarkers in the Landscape of Genes of Heterogeneous Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Populations
Flavia Esposito (2020)
10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.08.004
Cancer-associated fibroblasts in desmoplastic tumors: emerging role of integrins.
Cédric Zeltz (2019)
10.14735/amko202039
The Importance of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in the Pathogenesis of Head and Neck Cancers.
Martina Raudenská (2020)
10.3390/cancers12020319
Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer: Updates and Challenges
E. Koncina (2020)
10.3390/ijms21165656
CD36 and CD97 in Pancreatic Cancer versus Other Malignancies
C. Tanase (2020)
10.1016/j.ctro.2020.04.001
The tumor microenvironment and radiotherapy response; a central role for cancer-associated fibroblasts
M. Ansems (2020)
10.21037/apm.2020.02.29
Anti-liver fibrosis effect of total flavonoids from Scabiosa comosa Fisch. ex Roem. et Schult. on liver fibrosis in rat models and its proteomics analysis.
Hongwei Yuan (2020)
10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109021
FAP-specific PET signaling shows a moderately positive correlation with relative CBV and no correlation with ADC in 13 IDH wildtype glioblastomas.
M. Röhrich (2020)
10.3390/cells8060528
Hypoxia- and MicroRNA-Induced Metabolic Reprogramming of Tumor-Initiating Cells
P. Ullmann (2019)
10.1155/2020/6283796
Cellular and Extracellular Components in Tumor Microenvironment and Their Application in Early Diagnosis of Cancers
R. Wei (2020)
10.1186/s12885-020-07376-1
Chemotherapy-induced release of circulating-tumor cells into the bloodstream in collective migration units with cancer-associated fibroblasts in metastatic cancer patients
Nerymar Ortiz-Otero (2020)
10.3389/fmolb.2019.00070
Impact of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast on the Radiation-Response of Solid Xenograft Tumors
Alizée Steer (2019)
10.3390/ijms21030720
The Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Patients: An Overview
Barbara Bellei (2020)
10.3390/cancers12061393
Anti-EGFR Therapy Induces EGF Secretion by Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts to Confer Colorectal Cancer Chemoresistance
Colleen M. Garvey (2020)
10.1002/ijc.32987
Caveolin-1 in oncogenic metabolic symbiosis.
Martina Raudenska (2020)
10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.08.009
Gold nanoparticles inhibit activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts by disrupting communication from tumor and microenvironmental cells
Yushan Zhang (2020)
10.1007/978-3-030-37184-5
Tumor Microenvironment: Non-Hematopoietic Cells
Alexander Birbrair (2020)
10.1111/cas.14350
Expression of long noncoding RNAs in cancer‐associated fibroblasts linked to patient survival in ovarian cancer
E. Colvin (2020)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar