Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Adhesive And Sealant Interfaces For General Surgery Applications.

F. Scognamiglio, A. Travan, Isabella Rustighi, P. Tarchi, S. Palmisano, E. Marsich, M. Borgogna, I. Donati, N. de Manzini, S. Paoletti
Published 2016 · Materials Science, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The main functions of biological adhesives and sealants are to repair injured tissues, reinforce surgical wounds, or even replace common suturing techniques. In general surgery, adhesives must match several requirements taking into account clinical needs, biological effects, and material features; these requirements can be fulfilled by specific polymers. Natural or synthetic polymeric materials can be employed to generate three-dimensional networks that physically or chemically bind to the target tissues and act as hemostats, sealants, or adhesives. Among them, fibrin, gelatin, dextran, chitosan, cyanoacrylates, polyethylene glycol, and polyurethanes are the most important components of these interfaces; various aspects regarding their adhesion mechanisms, mechanical performance, and resistance to body fluids should be taken into account to choose the most suitable formulation for the target application. This review aims to describe the main adhesives and sealant materials for general surgery applications developed in the past decades and to highlight the most important aspects for the development of future formulations.
This paper references
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.09.062
Biological performance of mussel-inspired adhesive in extrahepatic islet transplantation.
C. Brubaker (2010)
10.1002/jbm.b.31368
Biomimetic sealant based on gelatin and microbial transglutaminase: an initial in vivo investigation.
Yi Liu (2009)
10.1097/SLE.0b013e31821db688
Use of Fibrin-Based Sealants and Gelatin-Matrix Hemostats in Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
R. Saif (2011)
[Effectiveness of fibrin tissue adhesive for colocolic anastomosis reliability].
H. G. Yilmaz (2001)
Subcuticular closure versus Dermabond: a prospective randomized trial.
Erin F Switzer (2003)
10.1002/adma.200900340
Aldehyde-amine chemistry enables modulated biosealants with tissue-specific adhesion.
N. Artzi (2009)
10.1002/bjs.9446
Liver retraction using n‐butyl‐2‐cyanoacrylate glue during single‐incision laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery
S. Wu (2014)
10.1016/J.BIOMATERIALS.2005.04.014
Biochemical characterization of autologous fibrin sealants produced by CryoSeal and Vivostat in comparison to the homologous fibrin sealant product Tissucol/Tisseel.
C. Buchta (2005)
Traumatic injuries. Biomaterials for clinical applications
Sujata K. Bhatia (2010)
10.1007/s10529-007-9465-8
Interactions of polysaccharide-based tissue adhesives with clinically relevant fibroblast and macrophage cell lines
S. K. Bhatia (2007)
10.1016/J.BIOMATERIALS.2007.03.027
Enzymatic formation of modular cell-instructive fibrin analogs for tissue engineering.
M. Ehrbar (2007)
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.07.032
A highly elastic tissue sealant based on photopolymerised gelatin.
Christopher M. Elvin (2010)
10.1016/J.SURNEU.2005.04.022
Overall assessment of regeneration in peripheral nerve lesion repair using fibrin glue, suture, or a combination of the 2 techniques in a rat model. Which is the ideal choice?
R. Martins (2005)
10.1186/1749-8090-7-106
Use of a sealant to prevent prolonged air leaks after lung resection: a prospective randomized study
C. Lequaglie (2012)
10.1007/S10350-006-0516-3
Therapeutic Effects of Gelatin-Resorcin-Formal Glue in the Treatment of Postoperative Fistula Following a Low Anterior Resection: Report of a Case
S. Sato (2006)
10.1089/LAP.2004.14.209
A prospective randomized trial comparing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate to conventional suturing in closure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy incisions.
N. Jallali (2004)
Fibrin-based adhesives and hemostatic agents. In: Quinn JV, editor. Tissue Adhesives in Clinical Medicine. Hamilton, Ontario: BC
WD Spotnitz (2005)
10.3109/02652048.2010.518773
Transglutaminase: New insights into gelatin nanoparticle cross-linking
S. Fuchs (2010)
10.1002/JAB.770060306
Preparation of fibrin glue: a study of chemical and physical methods.
F. Silver (1995)
10.3791/3527
A chitosan based, laser activated thin film surgical adhesive, 'SurgiLux': preparation and demonstration.
L. J. R. Foster (2012)
10.1007/12_2011_137
Chitosan and chitosan derivatives in drug delivery and tissue engineering
R. Riva (2011)
10.1016/0142-9612(95)93113-R
Preparation and use of fibrin glue in surgery.
F. Silver (1995)
10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.06.032
Optimal proportions of gelatin-resorcin-formalin components in aortic surgery.
T. Kunihara (2009)
10.1167/IOVS.04-1192
A modified chondroitin sulfate aldehyde adhesive for sealing corneal incisions.
J. M. Reyes (2005)
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.051
Toxicity of three phenolic compounds and their mixtures on the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in the aquatic environment.
H. Chen (2010)
Antimicrobial effect of medical adhesive composed of aldehyded dextran and epsilon-Poly(L-Lysine)
JH Lee (2011)
10.1007/s10856-009-3782-5
Characterisation of a new bioadhesive system based on polysaccharides with the potential to be used as bone glue
B. Hoffmann (2009)
10.1007/s00266-011-9844-3
Randomized, Prospective Study of TissuGlu® Surgical Adhesive in the Management of Wound Drainage Following Abdominoplasty
K. Walgenbach (2011)
10.1186/1749-8090-7-105
Assessment of the effect on blood loss and transfusion requirements when adding a polyethylene glycol sealant to the anastomotic closure of aortic procedures: a case–control analysis of 102 patients undergoing Bentall procedures
E. Natour (2012)
10.1097/01.sle.0000136679.77495.a8
Application of a New Collagen-Based Sealant for the Treatment of Pancreatic Injury
M. Rosen (2004)
10.1097/01.TA.0000196672.47783.FD
Making sense of the preclinical literature on advanced hemostatic products.
A. Pusateri (2006)
10.1177/159101990200800304
Glubran 2: A New Acrylic Glue for Neuroradiological Endovascular Use
M. Leonardi (2002)
10.1002/JBM.B.30439
Gelatin-based biomimetic tissue adhesive. Potential for retinal reattachment.
T. Chen (2006)
10.1002/14651858.CD004287.pub4
Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions.
J. Dumville (2014)
Cyanoacrylate-based biomaterials as tissue glues. Biomaterials for clinical applications
SK Bhatia (2010)
The proper use of glue: a 20-year experience with the GRF glue in acute aortic dissection.
J. Bachet (1997)
Clinical approaches to the use of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives
JV Quinn (2005)
Enzymatic formation of modular cellinstructive fibrin analogs for tissue
M Ehrbar (2007)
10.1007/s00464-007-9288-7
Use of fibrin glue (Tissucol) as a hemostatic in laparoscopic conservative treatment of spleen trauma
S. Olmi (2007)
10.1155/2011/693253
Synthesis, Production, and Biotechnological Applications of Exopolysaccharides and Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Archaea
A. Poli (2011)
10.1007/S00776-005-0973-X
Optimum surgical suture material and methods to obtain high tensile strength at knots: problems of conventional knots and the reinforcement effect of adhesive agent
F. Komatsu (2006)
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.04.046
Separation and characterization of dextran extracted from deteriorated sugarcane.
M. Bashari (2013)
10.1016/S1381-5148(00)00038-9
A review of chitin and chitosan applications
M. Kumar (2000)
10.1002/JBM.1066
In vivo evaluation of a new sealant material on a rat lung air leak model.
H. Kobayashi (2001)
10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.01.027
A prospective randomized study to assess the efficacy of a surgical sealant to treat air leaks in lung surgery.
A. D’Andrilli (2009)
Efficacy and safety of fibrin sealant patch in the treatment of air leakage in thoracic surgery.
C. López (2013)
10.1016/S0168-3659(00)00302-3
Dextrans for targeted and sustained delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents.
R. Mehvar (2000)
10.1007/s11605-012-1908-4
Topically Applied 2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate (Dermabond) for Prevention of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy
O. Barakat (2012)
10.3390/ma6041285
Alginate-Based Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications
Jinchen Sun (2013)
Evaluation of gelatin/resorcinol/aldehyde as a hemostatic agent and tissue adhesive: an experimental study in rat.
R. Singh (2008)
10.1016/j.otohns.2003.09.035
A Porcine Epistaxis Model: Hemostatic Effects of Octylcyanoacrylate
A. Singer (2004)
Biomedical polyurethane-based materials
P Alves (2012)
10.1002/CHIN.201335209
Sustainable Routes to Polyurethane Precursors
Oliver Kreye (2013)
10.1021/ja303369p
Polymer composition and substrate influences on the adhesive bonding of a biomimetic, cross-linking polymer.
Cristina R. Matos-perez (2012)
10.1128/MMBR.69.2.306-325.2005
Microbial Dextran-Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Fundamentals and Applications
E. Khalikova (2005)
10.1046/j.1537-2995.2000.40030302.x
An immediate, allergic skin reaction to aprotinin after reexposure to fibrin sealant
W. Beierlein (2000)
10.1007/s10350-006-0799-4
Evaluation of the Use of BioGlue® in the Treatment of High Anal Fistulas: Preliminary Results of a Pilot Study
F. Portilla (2007)
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.12.059
The development of photochemically crosslinked native fibrinogen as a rapidly formed and mechanically strong surgical tissue sealant.
C. Elvin (2009)
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.08.032
Viscoelastic adhesive mechanics of aldehyde-mediated soft tissue sealants.
T. Shazly (2008)
10.1002/JBM.A.31431
Transglutaminase crosslinked gelatin as a tissue engineering scaffold.
C. W. Yung (2007)
10.1016/J.POLYMER.2005.07.089
Synthesis and characterization of new injectable and degradable dextran-based hydrogels
J. Maia (2005)
10.1381/096089204772787266
Anastomotic Leak Prophylaxis Using a Vapor-Heated Fibrin Sealant: Report on 738 Gastric Bypass Patients
J. A. Sapala (2004)
10.1007/s13304-014-0257-0
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: efficacy of fibrin sealant in reducing postoperative bleeding. A randomized controlled trial
M. Musella (2014)
10.1086/321859
Recognition, prevention, surveillance, and management of surgical site infections: introduction to the problem and symposium overview.
W. Martone (2001)
10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01703.x
Hemostats, sealants, and adhesives: components of the surgical toolbox
W. Spotnitz (2008)
10.1002/ADMA.200700661
Ubiquitous Transference of a Free‐Standing Polysaccharide Nanosheet with the Development of a Nano‐Adhesive Plaster
T. Fujie (2007)
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.03.003
Cost-consequence analysis comparing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive and suture for closure of simple lacerations: a randomized controlled trial.
S. Man (2009)
10.1016/J.ATHORACSUR.2004.02.029
Off-pump epicardial tissue sealing--a novel method for atrioventricular disruption complicating mitral valve procedures.
A. Schütz (2004)
10.1007/s00464-004-8803-3
Sealing effect of fibrin glue on the healing of gastrointestinal anastomoses: implications for the endoscopic treatment of leaks
G. Bonanomi (2004)
10.1007/s00266-006-0139-z
Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate Adhesive for Skin Closure and Prevention of Infection in Plastic Surgery
A. Silvestri (2006)
10.1002/mabi.200800355
Characterization of star adhesive sealants based on PEG/dextran hydrogels.
N. Artzi (2009)
10.1007/s10151-010-0674-0
Protection of intestinal anastomosis with biological glues: an experimental randomized controlled trial
S. Giuratrabocchetta (2010)
10.1016/S0003-4975(03)00750-1
Closure of bronchopleural fistulas using albumin-glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive.
J. Lin (2004)
10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.09.012
Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art review.
M. Kong (2010)
10.5114/wiitm.2011.27429
The Glubran 2 glue for mesh fixation in Lichtenstein's hernia repair: a double-blind randomized study
S. Dąbrowiecki (2012)
Hemostatic effectiveness of a new application method for fibrin glue, the "rub-and-spray method", in emergency aortic surgery for acute aortic dissection.
N. Minato (2009)
10.1016/J.EURURO.2006.03.010
Autologous fibrin glue using the Vivostat system for hemostasis in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
L. Schips (2006)
10.1016/j.avsg.2010.12.016
Use of fibrin sealant as a hemostatic agent in expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft placement surgery.
S. Saha (2011)
10.1038/NMAT917
Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair
A. Geim (2003)
10.1021/BM025546N
Synthesis and gelation of DOPA-modified poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.
B. P. Lee (2002)
10.1097/PRS.0b013e31817743b8
Lysine-Derived Urethane Surgical Adhesive Prevents Seroma Formation in a Canine Abdominoplasty Model
T. W. Gilbert (2008)
10.1016/J.ADDR.2004.02.007
Potential applications of chitosan in veterinary medicine.
S. Şenel (2004)
10.1007/s10047-007-0402-3
Surgery for acute aortic dissection using gelatin-resorcin-formalin glue: perspective from 10 years of follow-up at a single center
M. Shiono (2007)
10.1615/JLONGTERMEFFMEDIMPLANTS.V15.I3.20
Fibrin sealant tissue adhesive--review and update.
W. Spotnitz (2005)
10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.06.047
Randomized prospective study comparing conventional subcuticular skin closure with Dermabond skin glue after saphenous vein harvesting.
B. Krishnamoorthy (2009)
10.1002/jbm.a.34923
Low cytotoxic tissue adhesive based on oxidized dextran and epsilon-poly-L-lysine.
S. Hyon (2014)
10.1532/HSF98.20061066
Use of BioGlue in aortic surgery: proper application techniques and results in 92 patients.
J. Fehrenbacher (2006)
10.1021/BM034529A
Mechanical properties of biomimetic tissue adhesive based on the microbial transglutaminase-catalyzed crosslinking of gelatin.
M. Mcdermott (2004)
10.1098/rsta.2011.0483
Bioadhesion: a review of concepts and applications
M. Palacio (2012)
10.1016/J.ATHORACSUR.2004.11.054
Release of glutaraldehyde from an albumin-glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive causes significant in vitro and in vivo toxicity.
W. Fürst (2005)
10.1097/SLA.0b013e31816c405f
Effect of Postoperative Morbidity on Long-term Survival After Hepatic Resection for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
H. Ito (2008)
10.1016/j.ucl.2009.02.002
Advances in bioadhesives, tissue sealants, and hemostatic agents.
J. Wheat (2009)
10.1213/ane.0b013e31817e6043
Anaphylactic reaction after systemic application of aprotinin triggered by aprotinin-containing fibrin sealant.
B. J. Kober (2008)
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.10.030
Enhanced tissue penetration-induced high bonding strength of a novel tissue adhesive composed of cholesteryl group-modified gelatin and disuccinimidyl tartarate.
M. Matsuda (2012)
10.1002/LSM.20145
Chitosan adhesive for laser tissue repair: In vitro characterization
A. Lauto (2005)
10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.12.072
Mechanical properties of surgical glues used in aortic root replacement.
A. Azadani (2009)
10.1016/j.jss.2010.05.003
Cyanoacrylate surgical glue as an alternative to suture threads for mesh fixation in hernia repair.
P. Losi (2010)
10.1021/bm1001813
Polysaccharide gels based on chitosan and modified starch: structural characterization and linear viscoelastic behavior.
A. Serrero (2010)
10.1007/S10856-007-3117-3
Development of a biodegradable bioadhesive containing urethane groups
P. Ferreira (2008)
10.5301/JABFM.5000164
Strong Adhesiveness of a New Biodegradable Hydrogel Glue, LYDEX, for Use on Articular Cartilage
H. Kazusa (2013)
Fibrin - based adhesives and hemostatic agents
WD Spotnitz
10.1007/s00464-013-2970-z
Effectiveness and safety of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate medical adhesive for noninvasive patch fixation in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair
Ming-gang Wang (2013)
10.4103/2006-8808.63727
The Use of Cyanoacrylate in Surgical Anastomosis: An Alternative to Microsurgery
G. Bot (2010)
10.1021/bm101004r
Rapidly photo-cross-linkable chitosan hydrogel for peripheral neurosurgeries.
T. Rickett (2011)
10.1038/nature12806
Nanoparticle solutions as adhesives for gels and biological tissues
S. Rose (2014)
10.1002/mabi.201200332
Design strategies and applications of tissue bioadhesives.
M. Mehdizadeh (2013)
10.4014/JMB.1105.05054
Antimicrobial effect of medical adhesive composed of aldehyded dextran and ε-Poly(L-Lysine).
J. Lee (2011)
10.1381/096089203321136575
Fibrin Glue as a Sealant for High-Risk Anastomosis in Surgery for Morbid Obesity
C. Liu (2003)
10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.12.021
Administration, distribution, metabolism and elimination of polymer therapeutics.
Ela Markovsky (2012)
10.1016/j.transproceed.2011.03.094
Absorbable cyanoacrylate surgical sealant in kidney transplantation.
J. Sageshima (2011)
10.1042/BJ20021234
Transglutaminases: nature's biological glues.
M. Griffin (2002)
10.1016/J.JAMCOLLSURG.2003.07.002
A comparison of antifibrinolytic agents used in hemostatic fibrin sealants.
R. Busuttil (2003)
10.1016/j.ejcts.2008.07.067
A novel technique to prevent intra-operative pneumothorax in awake coronary artery bypass grafting: biomaterial neo-pleura.
Y. Kato (2009)
10.1016/J.TRSL.2006.08.004
New method to prepare autologous fibrin glue on demand.
Steven M. Alston (2007)
10.1007/s11605-011-1771-8
A Highly Elastic and Adhesive Gelatin Tissue Sealant for Gastrointestinal Surgery and Colon Anastomosis
T. Vuocolo (2011)
10.1016/j.jocn.2004.06.006
Persistence of Bioglue® in spinal dural repair
Tanya I. Yuen (2005)
10.1016/J.POLYMDEGRADSTAB.2008.04.012
Synthesis and degradation behavior of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate)
M. G. Han (2008)
10.1016/J.BEHA.2005.01.009
Fibrin glues of human origin.
M. Valbonesi (2006)
10.1201/9780203493014.CH5
Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives
W. Shalaby (2003)
10.1089/end.2007.9861
Comparison of healing after cystotomy and repair with fibrin glue and sutured closure in the porcine model.
James F. Borin (2008)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/B978-0-08-100262-9.00002-1
Natural polymers: A source of inspiration
M. Bassas-Galia (2017)
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.01.040
Bioinspired baroplastic glycosaminoglycan sealants for soft tissues.
Rui R Costa (2019)
10.1016/J.EURPOLYMJ.2019.03.059
Marine-Inspired Polymers in Medical Adhesion.
Diederik W. R. Balkenende (2019)
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.208
Recent developments and clinical applications of surgical glues: An overview.
Ritu Jain (2019)
10.1007/978-981-10-3328-5_1
Polymers, Blends and Nanocomposites for Implants, Scaffolds and Controlled Drug Release Applications
K. Dubey (2017)
10.3390/polym12051113
Gelatin Hydrogels Reinforced by Absorbable Nanoparticles and Fibrils Cured In Situ by Visible Light for Tissue Adhesive Applications
Shih-Min Wei (2020)
10.1016/J.COLCOM.2016.11.002
H2O2 Causes Improved Adhesion Between a Polysaccharide-based Membrane and Intestinal Serosa
F. Scognamiglio (2016)
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.09.050
Bioadhesives for Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration.
S. Tarafder (2020)
10.1007/978-981-13-0947-2_24
Mussel-Inspired Biomaterials for Cell and Tissue Engineering.
Min Lu (2018)
10.1039/c8sc04729d
Controlled living anionic polymerization of cyanoacrylates by frustrated Lewis pair based initiators† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Devices, methods and procedures, analytical supporting material: NMR spectra, GPC traces and MALDI-TOF chromatograms. See DOI: 10.1039/c8sc0472
Rubén Sáez (2019)
10.1002/jbm.b.33949
The effect of adhesives on inflammatory immune-markers during renal injury healing.
José Miguel Lloris-Carsí (2018)
10.1039/C6MH00378H
A hydrogel sealant for the treatment of severe hepatic and aortic trauma with a dissolution feature for post-emergent care.
Marlena D. Konieczynska (2017)
10.1016/j.jcms.2016.10.008
An in vitro study of fibrin sealant as a carrier system for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-9 for bone tissue engineering.
Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi (2017)
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.08.017
Enhanced bioadhesivity of dopamine-functionalized polysaccharidic membranes for general surgery applications.
F. Scognamiglio (2016)
10.4236/JBISE.2017.105022
Isoreactive Manipulation of Bioadhesive Polymers Impacts Tissue-Specific Interactions
Jahid Ferdous (2017)
10.1002/marc.201900653
Thermally Triggered Injectable Underwater Adhesives.
M. Vahdati (2020)
10.1002/POLA.29290
In situ photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid‐based surgical glue with tunable mechanical properties and high adhesive strength
Ajeesh Chandrasekharan (2019)
Nano-engineered adhesive biomaterials for biomedical applications
F. Scognamiglio (2016)
10.21769/BioProtoc.2066
Quantitative 3D Time Lapse Imaging of Muscle Progenitors in Skeletal Muscle of Live Mice.
M. T. Webster (2016)
10.3390/cells8010056
Transected Tendon Treated with a New Fibrin Sealant Alone or Associated with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Katleen Frauz (2019)
10.3390/polym8080292
A Bio Polymeric Adhesive Produced by Photo Cross-Linkable Technique.
S. Abdalla (2016)
Phalangeal fractures : current treatments, complications and innovations
Johanna von Kieseritzky (2019)
10.1002/adhm.201901722
Engineering Tough, Injectable, Naturally Derived, Bioadhesive Composite Hydrogels.
Maryam Tavafoghi (2020)
Development of novel high performance protein materials as bioadhesives
Y. Guo (2016)
10.1126/scitranslmed.aai7466
Engineering a highly elastic human protein–based sealant for surgical applications
N. Annabi (2017)
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.04.057
Adhesive coatings based on melanin-like nanoparticles for surgical membranes.
F. Scognamiglio (2017)
10.33678/COR.2019.029
Cyanoacrylate glue in treatment of varicose veins
K. Novotný (2019)
10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.12.007
The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Z. Wang (2017)
10.3390/ma12152473
Adhesive Cements That Bond Soft Tissue Ex Vivo
Xiuwen Liu (2019)
10.1109/OI.2019.8908248
Development and utilization OF Polymers in Biomedical Applications
Idowu David Ibrahim (2019)
Fracture behaviors of epoxy adhesively bonded composite joints reinforced with graphene and nylon 6.6 nanofibers
M. Açik (2017)
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.07.028
Fibrinogen and magnesium combination biomaterials modulate macrophage phenotype, NF-kB signaling and crosstalk with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.
M. Bessa-Gonçalves (2020)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar