Conservation And Transmission Of Seed Bacterial Endophytes Across Generations Following Crossbreeding And Repeated Inbreeding Of Rice At Different Geographic Locations
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
Abstract There are comparatively diverse bacterial communities inside seeds, which are vertically transmitted and conserved, becoming sources of endophytes in the next generation of host plants. We studied how rice seed endophyte composition changed over time following crossbreeding, repeated inbreeding, subsequent human selection and planting of different rice seeds in different ecogeographical locations. Using terminal‐restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to study bacterial communities, we observed that diversity between the original parents and their offspring may show significant differences in richness, evenness and diversity indices. Heat maps reveal substantial contributions of both or either parent in the shaping of the bacterial seed endophytes of the offspring. Most of the terminal restriction fragments (T‐RFs) of the subsequent progeny could be traced to any or both of its parents while unique T‐RFs of the offspring suggest external sources of colonization particularly when the seeds were cultivated in different locations. Many similar groups of endophytic bacteria persist in the seeds even after recultivation in different locations, indicating resilience to environmental changes and conservation of bacteria across generations. This study suggests that parent plants contributed to the shaping of seed bacterial endophytes of their offspring, although it is also possible that these soil grown rice plants recruit similar populations of endophytes from the soil generation after generation. This study also highlights some bacterial groups belonging to Herbaspirillum, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonas and Enterobacter that may be part of a transmitted and conserved “core microbiota” that are ubiquitous and dominant members of the endophytic communities of the rice seeds.