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Proof Of Concept, Design, And Manufacture Via 3‐D Printing Of A Mesh With Bactericidal Capacity: Behaviour In Vitro And In Vivo

Francisco José Calero Castro, Yaiza Yuste Herranz, S. Pereira, María Dolores Garvín, M. Á. López García, F. Padillo, F. de la Portilla
Published 2019 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Currently, hernia treatment involves implantation of a mesh prosthesis, usually made of polypropylene, and the primary complication is infection of the device, which leads to an exponential increase in morbidity. Three‐dimensional printing offers a method of dealing with complications of this magnitude. Therefore, in this study, the bactericidal properties and effectiveness of three‐dimensional‐printed meshes with polycaprolactone (PCL) and gentamicin were evaluated in vitro in Escherichia coli cultures, and their histological behaviour was examined in vivo. Different PCL meshes were implanted into four groups of rats, with 10 rats in each group: PCL meshes, PCL meshes with alginate and calcium chloride, PCL meshes with gentamicin, and PCL meshes with alginate and gentamicin. Thirty‐six microporous meshes were manufactured, and their bactericidal properties were assessed. When the meshes did not include an antibiotic, an inhibition halo was not observed; when the gentamicin was free, an asymmetric inhibition area of 5.65 ± 0.46 cm2 was present; when the gentamicin was encapsulated, a rectangular area of 5.40 ± 0.38 cm2 was observed. In the rats, macroporous and microporous mesh implants produced mild inflammation and substantial fibrosis with collagen and neovascular foci. A significant difference was observed in fibroblastic activity between the PCL with alginate group and the PCL with alginate and gentamicin group microporous meshes (p = .013) and in collagen deposits between the macroporous and microporous meshes in the PCL mesh group (p = .033). The feasibility of manufacturing drug‐doped printed PCL meshes containing alginate and gentamicin was verified, and the meshes exhibited bactericidal effects and good histopathological behaviour.
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