Efficacy Of Chlorine Dioxide, Ozone, And Thyme Essential Oil Or A Sequential Washing In Killing Escherichia Coli O157:H7 On Lettuce And Baby Carrots
N. Singh, R. Singh, A. Bhunia, R. Stroshine
Published 2002 · Chemistry
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone, and thyme essential oil has been found to be effective in reducing pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, on selected produce. The efficacy of these sanitizers was evaluated, alone or through their sequential washing to achieve a 3 or more log reduction of mixed strains of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce and baby carrots. Samples sprinkle inoculated with mixed strains of E. coli O157:H7 were air-dried for 1 h at 22±2°C in a biosafety cabinet, stored at 4°C for 24 h, and then treated with different concentrations of disinfectants and exposure time. Sterile deionized water washing resulted in approximately 1log reduction ofE. coli O157:H7 after 10 min washing of lettuce and baby carrots. Gaseous treatments resulted in higher log reductions in comparison to aqueous washing. However, decolorization of lettuce leaves was observed during long exposure time. A logarithmic reduction of 1.48–1.97log10 cfu/g was obtained using aqueous ClO2 (10.0 mg/L for 10 min) ozonated water (9.7 mg/L for 10 min) or thyme oil suspension (1.0 mL/L for 5 min) on lettuce and baby carrots. Of the three sequential washing treatments used in this study, thyme oil followed by aqueous ClO2/ozonated water, or ozonated water/aqueous ClO2 were significantly (P<0.05) more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 (3.75 and 3.99log, and 3.83 and 4.34 log reduction) on lettuce and baby carrots, respectively. The results obtained from this study indicate that sequential washing treatments could achieve 3–4log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce and baby carrots.
This paper references
Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms.
B. Ouattara (1997)
A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water Treatment (PDF)
E. M. Aieta (1986)
Antibacterial activity of some essential oil components against five foodborne pathogens
Jeongmok Kim (1995)
Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes 1.
P. Aureli (1992)
Efficacy of ozonated water against various food-related microorganisms.
L. Restaino (1995)
Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatment as demonstrated by using confocal scanning laser microscopy.
K. H. Seo (1999)
Microbiological Control of Cucumber Hydrocooling Water with Chlorine Dioxide †.
L. D. Reina (1995)
Inhibition of Amino Acid Decarboxylase Activity of Enterobacter aerogenes by Active Components in Spices.
C. Wendakoon (1995)
Inhibitory effect of oregano and thyme essential oils on moulds and foodborne bacteria
N. Paster (1990)
Efficacy of plant extracts in inhibitingAeromonas hydrophilaandListeria monocytogenesin refrigerated, cooked poultry
Y. Hao (1998)
Drinking water and cancer mortality in Louisiana.
T. Page (1976)
Sequential disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum by ozone and chlorine dioxide
L. R. Liyanage (1997)
Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.
P. Taormina (1999)
Characterization and use of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer in strawberry fruits
M. V. B. Reddy (1998)
Changes in microbial populations on fresh cut spinach.
I. Babic (1996)
Rapid procedure for detecting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food.
N. V. Padhye (1991)
Shelf Stability and Safety of Fresh Produce as Influenced by Sanitation and Disinfection.
R. Brackett (1992)
Effect of inoculation and washing methods on the efficacy of different sanitizers against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce
N. Singh (2002)
Efficiency of chlorine dioxide as a bactericide.
M. A. Benarde (1965)
Improving the safety of fresh produce with antimicrobials
J. G. Cherry (1999)
Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water.
F. W. Gilcreas (1966)
Effects of essential oils from plants on growth of food spoilage yeasts
D. Conner (1984)
Comparison of the pharmacological and antimicrobial action of commercial plant essential oils
M. Lis-Balchin (1995)
Antibacterial properties of plant essential oils
S. Deans (1987)
LEVELS OF CHLORINE AND CHLORINE DIOXIDE OF EQUIVALENT BACTERICIDAL EFFECT IN POULTRY PROCESSING WATER
H. S. Lillard (1979)
Antimicrobial Activity of Some Egyptian Spice Essential Oils.
R. Farag (1989)
Extracts and fractions of Thymus capitatus exhibit antimicrobial activities.
O. Kandil (1994)
Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces applied to lettuce and the effectiveness of chlorinated water as a disinfectant.
L. Beuchat (1999)
Use of ozone for food processing
D. Graham (1997)
Use of ozone to inactivate microorganisms on lettuce
Jin-Gab Kim (1999)
Surface disinfection of raw produce
L. Beuchat (1992)
The cat and the catheter.
H. Majeed (1995)
A shigellosis outbreak traced to commercially distributed shredded lettuce.
H. Davis (1988)
Inactivation ofEscherichia coliO157:H7 by combinations of GRAS chemicals and temperature
K. S. Venkitanarayanan (1999)
Effect of Ozone Treatment on Elongation of Hypocotyl andMicrobial Counts of Bean Sprouts
S. Naito (1989)
Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer for tanks used for aseptic juice storage
Y. Han (1999)
The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens.
J. Wan (1998)
Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens.
A. Smith-Palmer (1998)
Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents.
B. Juven (1994)
Factors affecting the efficacy of washing procedures used in the production of prepared salads
M. Adams (1989)
Listeriosis traced to the consumption of alfalfa tablets and soft cheese.
J. Farber (1990)
The effects of various disinfectants againstListeria monocytogeneson fresh-cut vegetables
S. Zhang (1996)
The effects of washing and chlorine dioxide gas on survival and attachment of Escherichia coli O157: H7 to green pepper surfaces
Y. Han (2000)
Growth and Survival of Salmonella montevideo on Tomatoes and Disinfection with Chlorinated Water.
C. Wei (1995)
This paper is referenced by
Evaluation of natural antimicrobials on typical meat spoilage bacteria in vitro and in vacuum-packed pork meat.
B. C. Schirmer (2010)
Chlorophylls Reductions in Fresh-Cut Chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) with Various Sanitizing Agents
Karaca Hakan (2016)
Applications of gaseous chlorine dioxide on postharvest handling and storage of fruits and vegetables – A review
Xiuxiu Sun (2019)
Effects of food composition on the inactivation of foodborne microorganisms by chlorine dioxide.
I. Vandekinderen (2009)
Chemical composition , antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus fontanesii Boiss
Application of Predictive Inactivation Models to Evaluate Survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Fresh-Cut Apples Treated with Different Plant Hydrosols
Fatih Tornuk (2014)
Natural Preservatives from Plant in Cheese Making
Mena Ritota (2020)
Spices as Functional Foods
M. Viuda-Martos (2011)
Postharvest ozone application for the preservation of fruits and vegetables
N. Tzortzakis (2017)
Control of Pythium wilt and root rot of hydroponically grown lettuce by means of chemical treatment of the nutrient solution
Roger Cuan Bagnall (2008)
Application of Botanicals as Natural Preservatives in Food
Vibha Gupta (2012)
Development of a Chlorine Dioxide Gas Concentration Monitoring Unit and Kinetic Analysis of the Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Color and Microbial Content Change of Spinach
Ryan Anthony Gehringer (2013)
Salt addition improves the control of citrus postharvest diseases using electrolysis with conductive diamond electrodes
Frida Fallanaj (2013)
Current intervention strategies for the microbial safety of sprouts.
Adi Md Sikin (2013)
Minimal Processing of Fresh Fruit, Vegetables, and Juices
Francisco Artés (2014)
Assisted ultrasound applications for the production of safe foods.
David M. Sango (2014)
Novel Antimicrobial Treatments Based on the Interaction of Gallic Acid and UV Light: Characterization, Investigation of Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Application on Fresh Produce
Qingyang Wang (2018)
Development of sodium chlorite and glucono delta-lactone incorporated PLA film for microbial inactivation on fresh tomato.
Si-yuan Zhou (2020)
Novel disinfectants for fresh produce
Kompal Joshi (2013)
Enhanced bactericidal effect of enterocin A in combination with thyme essential oils against L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7
Taoufik Ghrairi (2013)
The effects of ozonated water on the microbial counts and the shelf life attributes of fresh‐cut spinach
M. Papachristodoulou (2018)
Effect of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide and Citric Acid Treatment on Microbial Safety and Quality Control of Minimally Processed and Refrigerated (MPR) Salad
H. Youm (2005)
Combination treatment of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat to ensure microbial safety, shelf-life and sensory quality of shredded carrots.
S. Rahman (2011)
Hurdle enhancement of slightly acidic electrolyzed water antimicrobial efficacy on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach using ultrasonication and water wash.
Fereidoun Forghani (2013)
Sanitization Potential of Ozone and Its Role in Postharvest Quality Management of Fruits and Vegetables
Raouf Aslam (2019)
Research Progress in Preservation of Postharvest Leafy Vegetables
Xiang Chen (2013)
Shelf Life Extension of Greenhouse Tomatoes Using Ozonation in Combination with Packaging under Refrigeration
Evangelia S. Karakosta (2019)
Nuevas Tendencias de Procesado y Conservación de Alimentos Vegetales de IV Gama
M.ª Isabel Gil Muñoz (2005)
Quality and Shelf Life of Minimally Processed Shredded Carrots in Modified Atmosphere Packaging
T. Mahendran (2015)
Identification and structural insights of three novel antimicrobial peptides isolated from green coconut water
S. Mandal (2009)
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.
M. S. Abu-Darwish (2012)
Chlorine dioxide for microbial decontamination of food.
V. Trinetta (2012)See more