Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Analysis Of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-time Quantitative PCR And The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

K. Livak, Thomas D. Schmittgen
Published 2001 · Medicine, Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data.
This paper references
Quantitative analysis of MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene expression in human tumors by polymerase chain reaction.
K. Noonan (1990)
Real time quantitative PCR.
C. A. Heid (1996)
using either relative or absolute quantification designing quantitative gene expression studies using
Development and Validation of Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase–Polymerase Chain Reaction for Monitoring Gene Expression in Cardiac Myocytesin Vitro☆
J. Winer (1999)
Singer, Experimental design and data analysis from real
T D Schmittgen (2000)
Quantitation of thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase, and DT-diaphorase gene expression in human tumors using the polymerase chain reaction.
T. Horikoshi (1992)
Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to study mRNA decay: comparison of endpoint and real-time methods.
Thomas D. Schmittgen (2000)
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. to a linear form using 2 ϪC T more accurately depicts the USA 87
D Robinson (1990)
J. Biochem. Biophys . Methods
T D Schmittgen (2000)
An overview of real-time quantitative PCR: applications to quantify cytokine gene expression.
Annapaula Giulietti (2001)
Selective degradation of early-response-gene mRNAs: functional analyses of sequence features of the AU-rich elements.
C. Chen (1994)
Use of the polymerase chain reaction in the quantitation of mdr-1 gene expression.
L. D. Murphy (1990)
time, quantitative PCR experiments may be achieved
the first question that an investigator 10 Bouillon, should ask is how should the data be presented
A Real-Time Pcr Giulietti (2001)
The transcriptional program in the response of human fibroblasts to serum.
V. R. Iyer (1999)
Cancer Res
T Horikoshi (1992)
Quantitation of viral load using real-time amplification techniques.
H. Niesters (2001)
Effect of experimental treatment on housekeeping gene expression: validation by real-time, quantitative RT-PCR.
Thomas D. Schmittgen (2000)
lute copy number is required, then the absolute method
individual variation among replicate reactions

This paper is referenced by
The influence of infant–caregiver experiences on amygdala Bdnf, OXTr, and NPY expression in developing and adult male and female rats
Kathryn T. Hill (2014)
Chondrocyte response to cyclic hydrostatic pressure in alginate versus pellet culture.
S. Elder (2006)
Cia27 is a novel non-MHC arthritis severity locus on rat chromosome 10 syntenic to the rheumatoid arthritis 17q22–q25 locus
M. Brenner (2006)
Chronic fluoxetine upregulates activity, protein and mRNA levels of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat frontal cortex
J. Rao (2006)
A novel missense mutation in the mouse hairless gene causes irreversible hair loss: Genetic and molecular analyses of Hrm1Enu
YoonYi Nam (2006)
Paralogous Cyp51s mediate the differential sensitivity of Fusarium oxysporum to sterol demethylation inhibitors.
Bangxian Zheng (2019)
Presence of xenogenic mouse RNA in RPE and IPE cells cultured on mitotically inhibited 3T3 fibroblasts.
S. Johnen (2011)
Visualizing pancreatic h-cell mass with ( 11 C)DTBZ
Norman R. Simpson (2006)
Increased expression of CTLA-4 in malignant T-cells from patients with mycosis fungoides -- cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
H. Wong (2006)
Dietary alpha‐ketoglutarate promotes beige adipogenesis and prevents obesity in middle‐aged mice
Q. Tian (2019)
The role of NF-κB, IRF-1, and STAT-1α transcription factors in the iNOS gene induction by gliadin and IFN-γ in RAW 264.7 macrophages
D. Stefano (2005)
Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes undergoing resistance training
F. Castañeda (2006)
Time-Dependent Effects of Localized Inflammation on Peripheral Clock Gene Expression in Rats
S. Westfall (2013)
Characterisation, analysis of expression and localisation of circadian clock genes from the perspective of photoperiodism in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.
M. Barberá (2017)
Developmental regulation of trigeminal TRPA1 by the cornea.
J. Canner (2014)
Expression of Toll-like receptors in the mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis
Yujing Fan (2015)
Maternal levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with infant cord blood DNA methylation
L. Montrose (2018)
Tumor-infiltrating immune cell profiles and their change after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predict response and prognosis of breast cancer
E. García-Martínez (2014)
Early Detection of Preeclampsia Using Circulating Small non-coding RNA
Liron Yoffe (2018)
Incorporation of branched-chain fatty acid into cellular lipids and caspase-independent apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line, SKBR-3
Sawitree Wongtangtintharn (2005)
Generation of adult human induced pluripotent stem cells using nonviral minicircle DNA vectors
Kazim H Narsinh (2011)
The RNA-Seq-based high resolution gene expression atlas of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) reveals dynamic spatio-temporal changes associated with growth and development.
H. Kudapa (2018)
Protection Against Titanium Particle-Induced Inflammatory Osteolysis by the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib In Vivo
X. Mao (2012)
Hypothalamus integrity and appetite regulation in low birth weight rats reared artificially on a high-protein milk formula.
B. Coupé (2011)
Indole signalling and (micro)algal auxins decrease the virulence of Vibrio campbellii, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms
Qian Yang (2017)
Expression of orexins and their precursor in the porcine ovary and the influence of orexins on ovarian steroidogenesis in pigs.
A. Nitkiewicz (2014)
Intravenous Administration of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces a Switch from Classical to Atypical Symptoms in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
M. Kurte (2015)
Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise.
D. Camera (2012)
Interleukin-32 promotes lipid accumulation through inhibition of cholesterol efflux.
Zonglei Xu (2017)
Impact of hot and cold exposure on human skeletal muscle gene expression.
Roksana B. Zak (2017)
Effect of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α on intestinal riboflavin uptake: inhibition mediated via transcriptional mechanism(s).
Kasin Yadunandam Anandam (2018)
Antimicrobial activity of apitoxin from Apis mellifera in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from poultry and its effects on motility, biofilm formation and gene expression.
Vicente Arteaga (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar