Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

The Developmental Biology Of Cereal Endosperm

R. Brown, B. Lemmon
Published 2007 · Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
This chapter summarizes the current understanding of structural aspects of cereal endosperm development with emphasis on the cytoskeleton and its role in morphogenesis. The developmental pathway of nuclear-type endosperm includes unusual cell and microtubule cycles and methods of wall placement. After double fertilization, the primary endosperm nucleus divides repeatedly without cytokinesis resulting in a large syncytium that lines the periphery and surrounds the central vacuole. During interphase this “liquid” endosperm is elegantly organized into functional units termed nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs) by radial microtubule systems (RMSs) emanating from the nuclei. Cellularization is driven by the RMS microtubule cycle in which hoop-like cortical microtubules and preprophase microtubule bands (PPBs) are absent. It comprises alternation of two stages: deposition of anticlinal walls without mitosis leading to formation of alveoli, and periclinal walls following mitosis in the alveoli. Following centripetal cellularization, three principal tissues are differentiated: the central endosperm in which food reserves are stored, a transfer region specialized for uptake of metabolites, and the peripheral aleurone that releases enzymes to mobilize reserves at germination. The PPB microtubule cycle typical of meristematic growth replaces the RMS cycle when cell divisions associated with aleurone expansion and grain enlargement occur in the peripheral layers.
This paper references
10.1007/s004970050169
Development of endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana
R. Brown (1999)
10.1126/science.269.5228.1262
Endoreduplication in Maize Endosperm: Involvement of M Phase—Promoting Factor Inhibition and Induction of S Phase—Related Kinases
G. Grafi (1995)
The rice grain and its gross composition
B. O. Juliano (1985)
10.1007/978-1-4612-2694-9_9
Overview of Key Steps in Aleurone Development
V. Walbot (1994)
Chemistry and organization of aleurone cell wall components from wheat triticum aestivum cultivar insignia and barley hordeum vulgare cultivar clipper
A. Bacic (1981)
10.1007/BF00383859
Histochemistry and fine structure of developing wheat aleurone cells
I. N. Morrison (2004)
The rice kernel.
D. Bechtel (1980)
10.1139/B84-379
Interactions between embryo and endosperm during early developmental stages of maize caryopses (Zea mays L.)
J. Schel (1984)
10.2307/2656933
The cytoplast concept in dividing plant cells: cytoplasmic domains and the evolution of spatially organized cell.
J. Pickett-Heaps (1999)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.AOB.A087479
The Fine Structure of the Developing Euphorbia dulcis Endosperm
P. Gori (1987)
10.1111/J.1365-313X.1992.TB00135.X
Endosperm differentiation in barley wild-type and sex mutants
M. Bosnes (1992)
10.1007/978-94-011-5298-3_4
Deposition of storage proteins
K. Müntz (1998)
10.1007/s00425-003-1116-2
The maize disorganized aleurone layer 1 and 2 (dil1, dil2) mutants lack control of the mitotic division plane in the aleurone layer of developing endosperm
S. E. Lid (2004)
10.1007/BF01354291
Structure and function of the microtubular cytoskeleton during endosperm development in wheat: an immunofluorescence study
A. Lammeren (2005)
10.1105/tpc.11.3.407
Mutations in FIE, a WD Polycomb Group Gene, Allow Endosperm Development without Fertilization
N. Ohad (1999)
10.1007/BF00390845
Cytokinesis in the developing wheat grain; Division with and without a phragmoplast
I. N. Morrison (2004)
10.1105/tpc.017111
Nuclear Endosperm Development in Cereals and Arabidopsis thaliana
O. Olsen (2004)
10.1093/JXB/49.325.1293
Spatial and temporal regulation of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone of germinating barley
M. Wang (1998)
Populus nigra L.
W. Gerlāch (1969)
10.1038/415522a
Identification of diploid endosperm in an early angiosperm lineage
J. H. Williams (2002)
10.1007/978-94-017-1203-3
Current Trends in the Embryology of Angiosperms
S. Bhojwani (2001)
10.1016/J.TPLANTS.2004.08.007
More than a yolk: the short life and complex times of the plant endosperm.
Liliana M. Costa (2004)
10.1007/BF00386827
The structure and composition of Aleurone grains in the Barley Aleurone layer
J. Jacobsen (2004)
10.5962/bhl.title.5681
An introduction to the embryology of angiosperms
P. Maheshwari (1950)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.1994.6060849.X
The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.
R. Kalla (1994)
10.2135/CROPSCI1972.0011183X001200040012X
Maize with Multilayer Aleurone of High Protein Content1
M. Wolf (1972)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.2003.01713.X
TETRASPORE encodes a kinesin required for male meiotic cytokinesis in Arabidopsis.
C-Y Yang (2003)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.1997.12010235.X
ZmEsr, a novel endosperm-specific gene expressed in a restricted region around the maize embryo.
H. Opsahl-Ferstad (1997)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.AOB.A088339
Early Endosperm Development in Ovules of Soybean, Glycine max (L) Merr. (Fabaceae)
R. Dute (1992)
10.1086/317898
Patterns of Cytoskeletal Organization Reflect Distinct Developmental Domains in Endosperm of Coronopus didymus (Brassicaceae)1
H. Nguyen (2001)
10.1111/j.1365-2818.1992.tb01509.x
Confocal laser microscopy and three‐dimensional reconstruction of nucleus‐associated microtubules in the division plane of vacuolated plant cells
C. Lloyd (1992)
10.1104/PP.123.4.1235
A germination-specific endo-beta-mannanase gene is expressed in the micropylar endosperm cap of tomato seeds.
H. Nonogaki (2000)
10.1105/tpc.10.5.685
Barley Aleurone Cells Contain Two Types of Vacuoles: Characterization of Lytic Organelles by Use of Fluorescent Probes
S. Swanson (1998)
10.1007/BF01247900
“Transfer cells” Plant cells with wall ingrowths, specialized in relation to short distance transport of solutes—Their occurrence, structure, and development
B. E. Gunning (2005)
10.1186/1741-7007-3-11
Microtubule plus-ends reveal essential links between intracellular polarization and localized modulation of endocytosis during division-plane establishment in plant cells
P. Dhonukshe (2005)
10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83538-4
Structural features of rice bran hemicellulose
N. Shibuya (1985)
10.1073/PNAS.96.7.4186
Control of fertilization-independent endosperm development by the MEDEA polycomb gene in Arabidopsis.
T. Kiyosue (1999)
10.1104/PP.118.4.1169
Nucellain, a barley homolog of the dicot vacuolar-processing protease, is localized in nucellar cell walls.
C. Linnestad (1998)
10.1007/BF01273889
Polarization predicts the pattern of cellularization in cereal endosperm
R. Brown (2005)
10.1007/978-1-4612-2694-9
The Maize Handbook
M. Freeling (1994)
10.1007/BF02344477
Development of the endosperm in rice (Oryza sativa L.): Cellularization
R. Brown (2006)
Rice : chemistry and technology
B. O. Juliano (1985)
10.1104/pp.106.080945
Surface Position, Not Signaling from Surrounding Maternal Tissues, Specifies Aleurone Epidermal Cell Fate in Maize[OA]
D. Gruis (2006)
10.1071/PP9810475
Chemistry and Organization of Aleurone Cell Wall Components From Wheat and Barley
A. Bacic (1981)
10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00072-0
Polycomb group genes control pattern formation in plant seed
M. Sørensen (2001)
Embryology of gymnosperms
Hardev Singh (1978)
10.1105/tpc.6.9.1241
Endosperm Development in Barley: Microtubule Involvement in the Morphogenetic Pathway.
R. Brown (1994)
10.1016/S1369526602000043
Endosperm: the crossroad of seed development.
F. Berger (2003)
10.1002/J.1537-2197.1941.TB07965.X
DIVISION IN VACUOLATE PLANT CELLS
E. W. Sinnott (1941)
10.1007/s00344-005-0110-2
Role of Abscisic Acid in Seed Dormancy
A. Kermode (2005)
10.1007/s00709-003-0010-x
Events during the first four rounds of mitosis establish three developmental domains in the syncytial endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana
R. Brown (2003)
10.1002/JSFA.2740310904
The distribution of acyl lipids in the germ, aleurone, starch and non-starch endosperm of four wheat varieties.
K. D. Hargin (1980)
10.1086/317579
Evolution of Endosperm Developmental Patterns among Basal Flowering Plants
S. Floyd (2000)
10.1105/tpc.8.11.2003
EF-1[alpha] Is Associated with a Cytoskeletal Network Surrounding Protein Bodies in Maize Endosperm Cells.
A. M. Clore (1996)
10.1007/BF00388149
Development of aleurone and sub-aleurone layers in maize
D. Kyle (2004)
10.1105/tpc.5.10.1383
Endosperm origin, development, and function.
M. A. Lopes (1993)
Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton
X. Xuhan (1995)
10.1073/pnas.0732023100
sal1 determines the number of aleurone cell layers in maize endosperm and encodes a class E vacuolar sorting protein
B. Shen (2003)
10.1105/tpc.12.6.933
Syncytial-Type Cell Plates: A Novel Kind of Cell Plate Involved in Endosperm Cellularization of Arabidopsis
M. Otegui (2000)
10.1139/B90-063
A light and electron microscope investigation of the transfer cell region of maize caryopses
R. Davis (1990)
10.1007/BF00381284
The fine structure of barley aleurone cells
R. Jones (2004)
10.1007/s10265-002-0056-4
The microtubule cycle during successive mitotic waves in the syncytial female gametophyte of ginkgo
R. Brown (2002)
Endosperm development in Zea mays; implication of gametic imprinting and paternal excess in regulation of transfer layer development
W. Charlton (1995)
10.1007/BF00390017
Gibberellin-induced separation of cells in isolated endosperm of celery seed
J. Jacobsen (2004)
10.1105/tpc.8.6.971
The Miniature1 Seed Locus of Maize Encodes a Cell Wall Invertase Required for Normal Development of Endosperm and Maternal Cells in the Pedicel.
W. Cheng (1996)
10.1007/s00425-006-0244-x
Temporal and spatial appearance of wall polysaccharides during cellularization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm
S. M. Wilson (2006)
10.1002/BIES.950170910
Pattern and process of wall formation in developing endosperm
O. Olsen (1995)
10.1139/B82-225
Initial wall formation in the endosperm of wheat, Triticum aestivum: a reevaluation
B. A. Fineran (1982)
10.1007/s004250050145
Cell wall (1 → 3)- and (1 → 3, 1 → 4)-β-glucans during early grain development in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
R. Brown (1997)
10.1105/tpc.4.3.297
The Maize Invertase-Deficient miniature-1 Seed Mutation Is Associated with Aberrant Pedicel and Endosperm Development.
M. E. Miller (1992)
10.1104/pp.115.2.737
Ethylene-Mediated Programmed Cell Death during Maize Endosperm Development of Wild-Type and shrunken2 Genotypes
T. E. Young (1997)
10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00088-3
Esr genes show different levels of expression in the same region of maize endosperm.
J. F. Bonello (2000)
10.1073/PNAS.97.9.4535
The origin of plants: body plan changes contributing to a major evolutionary radiation.
L. E. Graham (2000)
10.1073/pnas.042098799
The defective kernel 1 (dek1) gene required for aleurone cell development in the endosperm of maize grains encodes a membrane protein of the calpain gene superfamily
S. E. Lid (2002)
10.1007/BF01280302
The cytoskeleton and spatial control of cytokinesis in the plant life cycle
R. Brown (2005)
10.1007/BF01403687
Nucellar projection transfer cells in the developing wheat grain
H. Wang (2005)
10.1006/ANBO.1998.0702
From storage compartment to lytic organelle: the metamorphosis of the aleurone protein storage vacuole
P. Bethke (1998)
10.1007/BF00197947
The microtubular cytoskeleton during development of the zygote, proemhryo and free-nuclear endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh
M. C. Webb (1991)



This paper is referenced by
10.1007/s00425-009-1051-y
The expression of Orysa;CycB1;1 is essential for endosperm formation and causes embryo enlargement in rice
J. Guo (2009)
10.1007/978-3-642-35227-0_10
DNA Demethylation and Gene Imprinting in Flowering Plants
J. H. Huh (2013)
10.1651/08-2982.1
Description of Naupliar Stages in Acartia steueri Smirnov (Copepoda: Calanoida)
N. Okada (2009)
10.1007/978-3-642-35227-0
Epigenetic Memory and Control in Plants
G. Grafi (2013)
10.1146/annurev-genet-112414-055135
Brachypodium distachyon as a Genetic Model System.
E. Kellogg (2015)
10.1016/j.plantsci.2012.11.004
Proteomic and histological analyses of endosperm development in Cyclamen persicum as a basis for optimization of somatic embryogenesis.
Jenniffer Wamaitha Mwangi (2013)
10.1016/S1875-2780(09)60029-8
Analysis of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Six Mutants with Stable High Percentage of Chalkiness in Rice Grains
Tian-Yun Jin (2010)
10.1016/B978-0-12-373971-1.00012-1
Callose in Cell Division
R. Brown (2009)
10.1016/j.cell.2008.02.018
Cellular Programming of Plant Gene Imprinting
J. H. Huh (2008)
10.2988/0006-324X-126.4.329
Naupliar development of Nitocra karanovici (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)
Bong-Rae Kim (2014)
10.1016/j.gene.2013.07.088
Genome-wide analysis of endosperm-specific genes in rice.
Dong-Ming Nie (2013)
10.1111/tpj.12177
The role of the cytoskeleton and associated proteins in determination of the plant cell division plane.
Carolyn G. Rasmussen (2013)
10.1002/9781119616801.ch6
The Use of Endosperm Genes for Sweet Corn Improvement: A review of developments in endosperm genes in sweet corn since the seminal publication in Plant Breeding Reviews, Volume 1, by Charles Boyer and Jack Shannon (1984)
William F. Tracy (2019)
Endosperm carbohydrate composition and kernel characteristics of shrunken2-intermediate (sh2- i/sh2-i Su1/Su1 ), shrunken2-intermediate, sugary1 (sh2-i/sh2-i su1/su1) and shrunken2- intermediate/shrunken2-reference, sugary1 (sh2-i/sh2-r su1/su1) sweet corn ( Zea mays mays.)
H. G. Dodson (2013)
10.1002/9780470958636.CH13
The Development, Structure, and Composition of the Barley Grain
S. Gubatz (2010)
Molecular and genetic characterisation of early aleurone development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Matthew K. Aubert (2018)
10.1080/00222933.2011.626530
The generic concept of Allocyclops Kiefer, 1932: (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Cyclopidae) an alternative view
F. Fiers (2012)
10.1007/s10750-010-0096-z
Review of naupliar development among Miraciidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) with a naupliar description of Paramphiascellachoi sp. nov. from Thailand
Supawadee Chullasorn (2010)
10.1007/s10152-009-0164-9
Pseudocyclops schminkei (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pseudocyclopidae): a new species from Okinawa
S. Chullasorn (2009)
10.1186/s40529-019-0271-0
Dye- and fluorescence-based assay to characterize symplastic and apoplastic trafficking in soybean (Glycime max L.) endosperm
Ming-der Shih (2019)
10.1016/J.FLORA.2018.06.006
Embryo and endosperm development in Pitcairnia encholirioides (Pitcairnioideae – Bromeliaceae): An endangered species of the Atlantic Forest
Simone P. Mendes (2018)
10.1007/s10750-011-0631-6
Effects of food and light on naupliar swimming behavior of Apocyclops royi and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Crustacea, Copepoda)
C.-H. Wu (2011)
10.1007/s11103-013-0049-9
Plant species and organ influence the structure and subcellular localization of recombinant glycoproteins
E. Arcalís (2013)
10.1007/7089_2007_108
Aleurone Cell Development
P. Becraft (2007)
10.1016/J.JCS.2016.07.010
Application of whole sections of mature cereal seeds to visualize the morphology of endosperm cell and starch and the distribution of storage protein
L. Zhao (2016)
10.4161/PSB.6.6.15305
Shrinkage and fragmentation of the trans-Golgi network in non-meristematic plant cells
Byung-Ho Kang (2011)
10.1093/jxb/erp343
The syncytium-specific expression of the Orysa;KRP3 CDK inhibitor: implication of its involvement in the cell cycle control in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) syncytial endosperm
Masanori Mizutani (2010)
10.1071/IS10007
Cladistic analysis of the calanoid Copepoda
J. Bradford‐Grieve (2010)
Active DNA Demethylation in the Arabidopsis Endosperm
Christian Ibarra (2012)
10.1017/s096025852000015x
Gene expression prior to post-zygotic endosperm collapse in tetraploid bahiagrass
F. I. Pozzi (2020)
10.1016/J.JCS.2019.04.010
Morphological characteristics of endosperm in different regions of maize kernels with different vitreousness
Ahui Xu (2019)
10.1007/s10681-011-0506-y
Grain development and endoreduplication in maize and the impact of heat stress
T. Bringezu (2011)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar