Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Antimicrobial Use And Resistance In Africa

I. Okeke, K. Ojo
Published 2010 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in high-burden infectious diseases in Africa. Resistance to affordable antimalarials and antibacterials has worsened patient prognosis, increased health-care costs, and is a barrier to effective health care. This chapter outlines the African situation for a few infectious diseases and discusses mitigating factors, particularly selective pressure from antimicrobial use. Overuse of antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of real or supposed infections, unregulated antimicrobial sales as well as poor antimicrobial quality assurance may be important contributors to the problem by providing selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains. In addition to addressing these problems, containment of resistant strains and improvement of diagnostic infrastructure are necessary interventions for resistance control.
This paper references
10.1177/004947559802800306
Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Salmonella: Comparison of Isolates from HIV-Infected and Hiv-Uninfected Patients
D. Wolday (1998)
10.1046/J.1365-3156.2003.01012.X
Prevalence of typhoid fever in febrile patients with symptoms clinically compatible with typhoid fever in Cameroon.
E. Nsutebu (2003)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1077573
A Requiem for Chloroquine
I. Hastings (2002)
10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2004.08.015
Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal salmonellae, Kenya, 1994-2003.
S. Kariuki (2005)
10.1016/J.TRSTMH.2003.10.015
The emergence of multidrug resistance to antimicrobial agents for the treatment of typhoid fever.
J. Wain (2004)
10.1046/J.1365-3156.2002.00937.X
In vitro evaluation of the quality of essential drugs on the Tanzanian market.
P. Risha (2002)
10.1086/375419
Reemergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria after cessation of chloroquine use in Malawi.
J. Kublin (2003)
10.4269/AJTMH.2004.70.245
Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XIX. Quality of antimalarial drugs used for self-medication.
L. Basco (2004)
10.1017/S0950268806007254
Multiply antibiotic-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor strains emerge during cholera outbreaks in Zambia.
J. Mwansa (2007)
10.1001/jama.1979.03290300037026
Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria from Africa.
B. H. Kean (1979)
Yaws eradication campaign in Nsukka Division, Eastern Nigeria.
A. Zahra (1956)
10.1128/CMR.17.3.612-637.2004
Therapy of Falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa: from Molecule to Policy
P. Winstanley (2004)
10.2307/217238
A History Of The Nigerian Health Services
R. Schram (1971)
10.1128/CMR.14.1.208-226.2001
Current Status of Malaria and Potential for Control
R. Phillips (2001)
10.4269/AJTMH.2004.71.187
Act now or later? Economics of malaria resistance.
R. Laxminarayan (2004)
10.1086/430787
Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
J. Tapsall (2005)
10.1056/NEJMOA040275
Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya.
J. Berkley (2005)
10.1016/S0140-6736(00)05065-0
Pharmacopoeial quality of drugs supplied by Nigerian pharmacies
R. Taylor (2001)
10.1097/00002030-200108004-00009
The epidemiology of gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and syphilis in four African cities
A. Buvé (2001)
10.2310/7060.2003.31786
Export of antimicrobial drugs by West African travelers.
I. Okeke (2003)
Susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated at the Komfo, Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents.
P. Addy (1994)
Interventions and strategies to improve the use of antimicrobials in developing countries: a review.
A. deGraft-Aikins (2001)
10.1016/0924-8579(94)00064-2
Quality and bioavailability of tetracycline capsules in a Nigerian semi-urban community.
I. Okeke (1995)
The emergence of multi-antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella typhi in northern Natal-KwaZulu.
Y. Coovadia (1992)
10.1186/1471-2180-6-101
Characterisation of community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella from bacteraemia and diarrhoeal infections in children admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya
S. Kariuki (2006)
10.1016/J.TMAID.2004.04.005
The emergence of antibiotic resistance in typhoid fever.
F. Cooke (2004)
10.1136/sti.2002.004077
Sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy: prevalence, impact on pregnancy outcomes, and approach to treatment in developing countries
S. Mullick (2005)
10.1371/journal.pmed.0020100
The Global Threat of Counterfeit Drugs: Why Industry and Governments Must Communicate the Dangers
Robert A. Cockburn (2005)
10.1016/S0140-6736(50)91585-6
Resistance to chloramphenicol developing during treatment of typhoid fever.
J. Colquhoun (1950)
10.1111/J.1365-2710.2004.00568.X
The quality of essential antimicrobial and antimalarial drugs marketed in Rwanda and Tanzania: influence of tropical storage conditions on in vitro dissolution.
P. C. Kayumba (2004)
Vaccination against typhoid fever: present status.
B. Ivanoff (1994)
Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Vibrio cholerae E1 Tor strains isolated during the fourth cholera epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania.
K. Towner (1980)
10.1136/sti.64.5.303
Characterisation by plasmid profiles, serogroups, and auxotypes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Harare, Zimbabwe.
P. Mason (1988)
10.1038/nature00778
Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium
D. Merrell (2002)
10.1016/S0035-9203(00)90337-7
Clinical presentation of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in Malawian children.
S. Graham (2000)
10.1098/RSTB.2001.1036
The evolution of drug-resistant malaria: the role of drug elimination half-life.
I. Hastings (2002)
10.1073/PNAS.0402298101
Ecological theory suggests that antimicrobial cycling will not reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospitals.
Carl T. Bergstrom (2004)
10.1016/0035-9203(90)90171-A
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Djibouti during June 1988.
RichardL. Haberberger (1990)
10.1128/JCM.42.4.1477-1482.2004
Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Outbreaks in Kenya
S. Kariuki (2004)
10.4269/AJTMH.2006.75.973
Review of reported cholera outbreaks worldwide, 1995-2005.
David C. Griffith (2006)
10.1136/sti.61.6.367
Incidence of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains and susceptibility of gonococcal isolates to antibiotics in Benin City, Nigeria.
E. E. Obaseiki-Ebor (1985)
10.1016/0895-4356(95)00059-3
Improving drug use through continuing education: a randomized controlled trial in Zambia.
A. Bexell (1996)
10.1136/bmj.317.7159.647
Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries
C. Hart (1998)
10.1017/S0022172400070789
Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of hospital and non-hospital strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal carriers.
M. Paul (1982)
10.1046/J.1365-3156.2001.00709.X
Socio-economic, gender and health services factors affecting diagnostic delay for tuberculosis patients in urban Zambia.
D. Needham (2001)
10.1016/S0140-6736(95)90344-5
Why treatment centres failed to prevent cholera deaths among Rwandan refugees in Goma, Zaire
A. Siddique (1995)
Saving lives, buying time : economics of malaria drugs in an age of resistance
K. Arrow (2004)
10.4314/AJHS.V11I3.30783
Typhoid is over-reported in Embu and Nairobi, Kenya.
S. Kariuki (2004)
10.1128/jcm.27.6.1307-1311.1989
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O111:HNT isolated from preterm neonates in Nairobi, Kenya.
D. Senerwa (1989)
10.1016/J.ACTATROPICA.2007.04.008
Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXVII. Clinical and parasitological response to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment and Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase alleles in Cameroonian children.
R. Tahar (2007)
10.1086/315204
Heterogeneous virulence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains isolated from children in Southwest Nigeria.
I. Okeke (2000)
10.1136/bmj.38251.658229.55
Overdiagnosis of malaria in patients with severe febrile illness in Tanzania: a prospective study
H. Reyburn (2004)
Letter: Hepanosticon in screening for HBsAg.
D. Chicot (1975)
Beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Addis Ababa.
E Habte-Gabr (1983)
10.1023/A:1020570930844
Survey of drug use practices and antibiotic prescribing pattern at a general hospital in Nigeria
C. M. Chukwuani (2004)
10.17226/11017
Saving Lives, Buying Time
K. Arrow (2004)
HIV/AIDS, illness, and African well-being
T. Falọla (2007)
10.1136/sti.71.1.9
Antimicrobial susceptibility, auxotype and plasmid content of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in northern Tanzania: emergence of high level plasmid mediated tetracycline resistance.
B. West (1995)
10.1128/AAC.45.7.2054-2059.2001
Effect of Abolishment of the Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Growth Promotion on Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Enterococci from Food Animals in Denmark
F. Aarestrup (2001)
10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00366-5
Strategies to improve adherence to recommended chloroquine treatment regimes: a quasi-experiment in the context of integrated primary health care delivery in Ghana.
I. Agyepong (2002)
Social Lives of Medicines
S. Whyte (2002)
10.1097/00006454-199402000-00011
Multidrug‐resistant typhoid fever in children: epidemiology and therapeutic approach
A. Gupta (1994)
10.1097/00002030-200208160-00009
Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteraemia among HIV-infected Malawian adults: high mortality and frequent recrudescence
M. Gordon (2002)
10.1016/S1201-9712(01)90069-4
Ordinary and opportunistic enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in senegalese adults in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus☆☆☆
A. Gassama (2001)
10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70217-6
Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Part II: strategies for containment.
I. Okeke (2005)
10.1016/S0140-6736(98)90001-0
Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases
A. Gerbase (1998)
10.1093/infdis/147.2.204
Plasmid-borne multiple drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, biotype El Tor: evidence for a point-source outbreak in Bangladesh.
R. Glass (1983)
10.4269/ajtmh.1988.39.484
Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant cholera in Kenya and East Africa.
M. H. Finch (1988)
10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17446-1
Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable
Mark Amexo (2004)
10.1086/498249
Impact of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on falciparum malaria infection and disease.
M. Thera (2005)
10.1016/S0140-6736(79)92889-7
RAPID EMERGENCE OF EL TOR VIBRIO CHOLERA RESISTANT TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS DURING FIRST SIX MONTHS OF FOURTH CHOLERA EPIDEMIC IN TANZANIA
F. Mhalu (1979)
10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2004.04.003
Ciprofloxacin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in South Africa.
P. Moodley (2004)
10.1177/004947550403400404
Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Bacteraemia - An Under-Recognized Feature of AIDS in African Adults
A. Kankwatira (2004)
10.1128/AAC.43.12.3022
Antimicrobial Resistance of DiarrheagenicEscherichia coli Isolated from Children under the Age of 5 Years from Ifakara, Tanzania
J. Vila (1999)
Quality and bioavailability of ampicillin capsules dispensed in a Nigerian semi-urban community.
I. Okeke (2001)
10.1128/JCM.38.10.3774-3779.2000
Class 1 Integron-Borne, Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance Encoded by a 150-Kilobase Conjugative Plasmid in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated in Guinea-Bissau
A. Dalsgaard (2000)
10.1111/J.1365-2710.2005.00685.X
The quality of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine products in the Kenyan retail sector.
A. Amin (2005)
10.1128/AAC.01310-05
New Cluster of Plasmid-Located Class 1 Integrons in Vibrio cholerae O1 and a dfrA15 Cassette-Containing Integron in Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated in Angola
D. Ceccarelli (2006)
10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050
XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency
J. Singh (2007)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00520-6
Exploring the evidence base for national and regional policy interventions to combat resistance
O. Dar (2016)
10.14202/vetworld.2016.1312-1319
Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria
Onyinye J Okorie-Kanu (2016)
10.1038/s41598-019-47359-2
Modeling and Cost Benefit Analysis to Guide Deployment of POC Diagnostics for Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections with Antimicrobial Resistance
Carrie A Manore (2019)
10.4314/jgsa.v13i1.69191
Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolatedgrom Hospital Sources to Antibioticsand Biocides
Ao Oluduro (2011)
10.9734/BMRJ/2015/7351
Microbial contamination and antibiotic resistance in enteric pathogens isolated from cooked foods sold in eateries in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
O. A. Oluyege (2015)
10.1101/384933
Point of Care Diagnostic Deployment and Targeted Treatment of Antimicrobial Resistant Non-Typhoidal Salmonella: a New Mathematical Model and Cost-Benefit Analysis
C. Manore (2018)
10.22038/IJP.2018.31279.2763
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Melanesian Children with Haematogenous Osteomyelitis from the Central Highlands of Papua New Guinea
Izzard Aglua (2018)
10.1186/1471-2458-10-610
Self-medication with antibiotics for the treatment of menstrual symptoms in southwest Nigeria: a cross-sectional study
A. Sapkota (2010)
10.9734/BJPR/2016/25268
Self-medication with Antibiotics: Empirical Evidence from a Nigerian Rural Population
I. Abdulraheem (2016)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar