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Neonatal Apgar Score (APGAR)

D. John Doyle
Published 1989 · Medicine

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This is an extremely popular system for initial evaluation of the neonate immediately after birth. It was developed by Virginia Apgar in 1953 [1]. The score is designed to identify depressed infants requiring resuscitation in the first few minutes of life. Attention is focused on five clinical signs: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color (Table 25.1). Scoring is usually done at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Babies scoring 8 to 10 generally need no respiratory assistance and can be observed. Those scoring 4 to 7 generally require oxygen administration by bag and mask and may need endotracheal intubation.

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