← Back to Search
Human Body Composition
Published 1987 · Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Although it is self-evident that the study of human nutrition has as its goal the optimal nutrition of man, the nutritional status of the body best suited to optimal performance, i.e., optimal nutrition, has unfortunately not yet been satisfactorily defined. Body composition of animals may be measured by direct chemical analysis and correlated with dietary intake and with the various aspects of performance; studies of body composition of living man, on the other hand, must rely on indirect measure ments. The following two reports, which give an account of the current status of the attack on the difficult task of measuring body composition in living man, are sponsored by the Committee on Nutrition to call attention to the resurgence of effort in this field during recent years. A fuller knowledge of the gross composition of the human body and its relation to preceding diet will constitute a significant step towards realization of the ultimate goal of nutritional science. Even then, a particular body composition will be of importance primarily in terms of functional performance. The availability of newer techniques should do much to stimulate physicians and nutritionists in defining body composition as an essential step in arriving at a more exact definition of optimal nutrition.
This paper references
Weight gain from simple overeating
A. Keys (1955)
tennis, volleyball, wrestling, and baseball
Enhanced conversion of androstenedione to estrogens in obese males.
H. Kley (1980)
The demands of the fetal and maternal tissues for nutrients, and the bearing of these on the needs of the mother to "eat for two.
E. M. Widdowson (1981)
Assessment of protein-calorie malnutrition in the hospitalized patient
B. R. Bistrian (1983)
Prediction oflean body massfromheight andweight
R. Hume (1966)
CIRCULATING RED CELL VOLUME MEASURED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY THE RADIOACTIVE IRON AND DYE METHODS.
J. G. Gibson (1946)
Age-related changes in the histological composition of the rectus abdominis muscle of the adult human.
S. Inokuchi (1975)
Hypothalamic obesity in rats without hyperphagia.
P. Han (1967)
Evaluation of Technetium-labeled red cells for determination of red cell volume in man.
V. Korubin (1972)
Body Fat and Physical Fitness
J. Pařízková (1977)
THE RADIOACTIVITY OF POTASSIUM FROM HUMAN SOURCES
W. O. Fenn (1942)
induced untrained women (body fat content
tirely. Bullen (1985)
A review of body composition studies with emphasis on total body water and fat.
H. Sheng (1979)
A comparison of the fat-free mass of young adults estimated by anthropometry, body density and total body potassium content.
J. Womersley (1972)
The metabolic influence of progesterone
R. L. Landau (1973)
Nutrition and Cellular Growth
S. J. Rozovski (1979)
Die Bedeutung des K6rperfettes fOr die Eiweisszersetzung des hungernden Tieres
E. Voit (1901)
The effect of fatness on hemoglobin levels.
S. Garn (1982)
An Accurate and Reproducible Absorptiometric Technique for Determining Bone Mineral Content in Newborn Infants
F. Greer (1983)
THE EXCHANGE OF SALT AND WATER BETWEEN MUSCLE AND BLOOD I. THE EFFECT OF AN INCREASE IN TOTAL BODY WATER PRODUCED BY THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF ISOTONIC SALT SOLUTIONS
A. B. Hastings (1937)
Menstrual Cycles: Fatness as a Determinant of Minimum Weight for Height Necessary for Their Maintenance or Onset
R. Frisch (1974)
A method for simultaneous electrolyte investigations in man using 77Br, 43K and 24Na.
F. Skrabal (1970)
Body composition of Negro and white children.
M. Flynn (1970)
Changes in body composition produced by prolonged total starvation and refeeding.
D. L. Barnard (1969)
Body composition in experimental intrauterine growth retardation in the rat.
L. Hohenauer (1969)
Artery wall electrolytes in renal and DCA hypertension.
L. Tobian (1954)
Energy Balance and Nitrogen Balance in Growing Low Birthweight Infants Fed Human Milk or Formula
R. Whyte (1983)
Alterations in body composition during pregnancy.
C. McCartney (1959)
Anabolic effects of human growth hormone and high caloric feedings following thermal injury.
D. Wilmore (1974)
Blood volume determinations with the Evans blue dye method; an experimental and clinical investigation with special reference to the blood volume in pulmonary tuberculosis.
Von Porat Bt (1951)
Inhibition of bone formation during space flight.
E. Morey (1978)
Clinical Physiology in Obstetrics
F. E. Hytten (1980)
Preweaning nutrition and fat development in baboons.
D. Lewis (1983)
The growth of adipose tissue in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adipose cell number and size.
J. Knittle (1979)
Effective renin activity in plasma of children with kwashiorkor.
E. E. Kritzinger (1972)
Aging, total body potassium, fat-free mass, and cell mass in males and females between ages 18 and 85 years.
L. P. Novâk (1972)
The effect of malnutrition on body composition.
H. Shizgal (1981)
Small animal and infant liquid scintillation counter.
E. R. Graham (1969)
MANIFESTATIONS OF HYPOTHALAMIC OBESITY IN MAN: A COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATION OF EIGHT PATIENTS AND A EEVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
G. Bray (1975)
NITROGEN METABOLISM, CALORIC INTAKE AND WEIGHT LOSS IN POSTOPERATIVE CONVALESCENCE A STUDY OF EIGHT PATIENTS UNDERGOING PARTIAL GASTRECTOMY FOR DUODENAL ULCERS
J. Mulholland (1943)
Energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in hyperplastic obese women.
I. Warnold (1978)
MUSCLE ELECTROLYTES IN MAN DETERMINED BY NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS ON NEEDLE BIOPSY SPECIMENS
J. Bergstrom (1962)
THE BLOOD VOLUME OF THE NEWBORN INFANT AND PLACENTAL TRANSFUSION
R. Usher (1964)
The relative contribution of body fat and fat pattern to blood pressure level.
R. Weinsier (1985)
DENSITOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BODY COMPOSITION: REVISION OF SOME QUANTITATIVE ASSUMPTIONS *
J. Brožek (1963)
The Physiology of the Newborn Infant
Body composition and energetics
Mayer J. Zomzely c (1956)
Changes in adipose tissue of the rat due to early undernutrition followed by rehabilitation. 2. Strain differences and adipose tissue cellularity.
P. M. Harris (1980)
ELECTROLYTE BALANCES DURING ARTIFICIAL FEVER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LOSS THROUGH THE SKIN.
E. Keutmann (1939)
Assessment of abdominal fat content by computed tomography.
G. Borkan (1982)
Total body potassium and gross body composition in relation to age.
T. Allen (1960)
Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, seventh edition
J. D. Wilson (1985)
The interpretation of studies of calcium and phosphorus balance in ruminants.
D. Duncan (1958)
Iron, copper, and cobalt
W. W. Hawkins (1964)
Steroid-induced fractures and bone loss in patients with asthma
R. Hobbs (1984)
Studies from the Center for Research in Child Health and Development, School of Public Health, Harvard University. 3. The growth of bone, muscle and overlying tissues as revealed by studies of roentgenograms of the leg area.
H. Stuart (1940)
Bone mineral content in the forearm measured by photon absorptiometry. Principles and reliability.
C. Christiansen (1975)
Zucker fafa rats maintain their obese body composition ten months after jejunoileal bypass surgery.
M. R. Greenwood (1982)
Systemic errors in the use of the Mellits-Cheek equation to predict body fat in lean females.
F. Johnston (1985)
The acute radiation syndrome: a study of nine cases and a review of the problem.
L. Hempelmann (1952)
A study of the effect of overfeeding on the protein metabolism of man. 1. The effect of superimposing raw and boiled milks on a diet adequate for maintenance.
D. Cuthbertson (1937)
Skinfold thickness as an indication of maturity of the newborn.
V. Farr (1966)
Studies on convalescence. V. Observations on the altered protein metabolism during induced malarial infections
J. E. Howard (1946)
Whole body elemental composition in patients with essential hypertension
E. Williams (1982)
Ventricular dilation on CAT scans of patients with anorexia nervosa.
S. Datlof (1986)
Body composition of a military population, Fort Carson, 1963. I. Body density, fat, and potassium 40.
H. Krzywicki (1967)
Human Growth. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger
D. B. Cheek (1968)
Assessment of the distribution of protein in the human body by in-vivo neutron activation analysis
L. Burkinshaw (1979)
The effects of an anabolic steroid on the strength, body composition, and endurance of college males when accompanied by a weight training program.
T. D. Fahey (1973)
I n (1984)
1975a) found a reduction in both total body K and total body Ca in their patients. In males the ratio of the decrement in body K to that of body Ca was 0.12 g K/g Ca
Ca. Ellis (1975)
Aldosterone secretion rates in normal subjects from infancy to adulthood.
V. Weldon (1967)
Longitudinal studies of anthropometric data and body composition. The population study of women in Götenberg, Sweden.
H. Noppa (1980)
Comparison of carbohydrate-containing and carbohydrate-restricted hypocaloric diets during the treatment of obesity
C. Bogardus (1981)
Whole-body and exchangeable
M. Lye (1976)
Longitudinal changes in body build and skinfolds in a group of old men over a 16 year period.
J. Pařízková (1980)
Sodium and Potassium Content of Isolated Nuclei
Shinji Itoh (1956)
NITROGEN RETENTION IN PREGNANCY
F. Johnstone (1972)
Nutrition and growth.
G. Forbes (1977)
Estimation of total body sodium by isotopic dilution. I. Studies on young adults.
G. Forbes (1951)
Dynamics of water-isotope distribution.
T. Coleman (1972)
Compartmental body composition based on total-body nitrogen, potassium, and calcium.
S. Cohn (1980)
Growth and distribution of human fetal brown fat
R. Merklin (1974)
The Relationship between Total Body Potassium and Exchangeable Body Potassium Measured at 24 Hours and 44 Hours after Administration of 43K
K. Boddy (1973)
Body collagen nitrogen in protein-deficient adult rats.
A. Y. Angeleli (1978)
Energy utilization in overfed thin young men.
R. Passmore (1955)
The equilibration of radiosodium (Na24), radiopotassium (K42), and deuterium oxide (D2O) in hydropic human subjects.
M. P. O'MEARA (1957)
Prediction of body density from skinfold measurements in lactating women.
N. Butte (1985)
Lean body mass in obesity.
G. Forbes (1983)
A long-term metabolic balance study in young men to assess the nutritional quality of an isolated soy protein and beef proteins.
V. Young (1984)
Bone mineral content and estimated total body calcium in normal adults.
C. Christiansen (1975)
The Aging Body: Physiological Changes and Psychological Consequences
R. Applebaum (1988)
Excretion of creatine and creatinine by children.
L. Clark (1951)
RELATIONSHIP OF ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENTS AND X‐RAYS TO BODY COMPOSITION
J. Stouffer (1963)
Determination of total adipose tissue and body fat in women by computed tomography, 40K, and tritium.
L. Sjöström (1986)
THE DOUBTFUL NATURE OF "LUXUSKONSUMPTION".
F. Wiley (1931)
Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes.
B. Drinkwater (1984)
Effect of diet on body composition. I. The production of increased body fat without overweight (nonobese obesity) by force feeding the normal rat.
C. Cohn (1957)
The significance of the total-body hematocrit in measurements of blood compartments.
K. Kirsch (1971)
Exercise and detraining: effect on food intake, adiposity and lipogenesis in Osborne-Mendel rats made obese by a high fat diet.
E. Applegate (1984)
Energy expenditure and postprandial thermogenesis in obese women before and after weight loss.
T. Bessard (1983)
Effects of intragastric hyperalimentation on pair-fed rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions.
M. Walgren (1985)
A New Whole Body Monitoring Laboratory
H. Sköldborn (1972)
Adipose tissue cellularity in relation to prognosis for weight reduction.
M. Krotkiewski (1977)
CLINICAL CALORIMETRY: TENTH PAPER A FORMULA TO ESTIMATE THE APPROXIMATE SURFACE AREA IF HEIGHT AND WEIGHT BE KNOWN
D. Bois (1916)
Race- and sex-specific reference data for triceps and subscapular skinfolds and weight/stature.
C. Cronk (1982)
Influence of protein and fat
L. J. Filer (1960)
Indices of body composition in infantile malnutrition: total body potassium and urinary creatinine.
G. Alleyne (1970)
Metabolic effects of intracellular infections in man.
W. Beisel (1967)
Effects of exercise on riboflavin requirements: biological validation in weight reducing women.
A. Belko (1985)
Dietary protein in pregnancy: effect on anthropometric indices of the newborn infant.
F. Zlatnik (1983)
did body composition assays (total body K
4. Harvey (1979)
Estimations of body composition by various methods.
C. Da (1977)
Body fluid volumes of college athletes and non-athletes
D. Cook (1969)
Distribution of adipose tissue and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: a 12 year follow up of participants in the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden.
L. Lapidus (1984)
Non-Invasive Bone Measurements. Methodological Problems
J. Lane (1983)
Induction of menstrual disorders by strenuous exercise in untrained women.
B. Bullen (1985)
Famine and Human Development, The Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944/45, Z. Stein, M. Susser, G. Saenger, F. Marolla. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016 (1975), 284 pp., $12.95
P. Fleming (1976)
Body water in infancy
E. F. Bell (1984)
Detailed body composition analysis on female rats subjected to a program of swimming.
L. Oscai (1973)
Body composition studies in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
D. Kotler (1985)
Bioenergetics and Growth
L. Walford (1945)
Pharmacokinetics of Drugs in Obesity
D. Abernethy (1982)
1975) studied a group of Taiwanese adults
Unfairness of Certain Events in the Olympic Games
T. Khosla (1968)
Sex-related difference in total body water and exchangeable chloride during infancy.
G. Owen (1962)
The Fire of Life: An Introduction to Animal Energetics
M. Kleiber (1961)
The Biology of Human Starvation.
A. Keys (1950)
Long-term measurements of energy expenditure
E. Jequier (1983)
Correlation of whole-body impedance with total body water volume.
E. Hoffer (1969)
Reproducibility of body composition measurements in a single individual.
W. F. Price (1969)
Human body surface area: validation of formulae based on a cadaver study.
A. Martin (1984)
Effect of weight reduction after gastroplasty on glucose and lipid metabolism
S.-A. Olsson (1984)
A profile of electrolytes in the cartilaginous plate of growing ribs.
D. Howell (1960)
Effect of muscle mass decrease on age-related BMR changes.
S. P. Tzankoff (1977)
The extracellular space of the smooth muscle of the guinea‐pig taenia coli
P. J. Goodford (1966)
Metabolic aspects of idiopathic respiratory distress (hyaline membrane syndrome) in newborn infants.
D. Nicolopoulos (1961)
Plasma and skeletal muscle electrolytes in patients with Crohn's disease.
H. Nyhlin (1985)
Cell hydration in the normally grown, the premature and the low weight for gestational age infant.
Donald B. Cheek (1984)
Longitudinal changes in basal metabolism in man.
S. P. Tzankoff (1978)
Body fluid and electrolyte composition in arterial hypertension. I. Studies in essential, renal and malignant hypertension.
W. Hollander (1961)
Chemical changes in skeletal muscle during development.
J. Dickerson (1960)
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TISSUE CHLORIDE AND PLASMA CHLORIDE
W. R. Amberson (1938)
A new method for calculating volumes of blood required for partial exchange transfusion.
B. Berman (1979)
Estimation of Body Composition of Female Intercollegiate Basketball Players
Frances Walsh (1984)
Nitrogen retention, total body 40 K and weight gain in teenage pregnant girls.
J. King (1973)
Estimation of total body fat from potassium-40 content.
G. Forbes (1961)
Growth of the birth canal in adolescent girls.
M. Moerman (1982)
Body potassium measurements by whole-body counting: screening of patient populations.
P. Delwaide (1973)
Effect of testosterone on somatomedin-C concentrations in prepubertal boys.
M. Parker (1984)
Growth hormone and insulin levels in weanling rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions.
L. Frohman (1968)
Body water and weight in patients with premenstrual tension.
B. Andersch (1978)
The permeability of interstitial connective tissue and the nature of the interfibrillary substance
T. Day (1952)
LEAN BODY MASS AND FAT IN OBESE CHILDREN.
G. Forbes (1964)
Relation of Lipid Metabolism to Migration in Birds Seasonal Variation in Body Lipids of the Migratory White-Throated Sparrow
E. Odum (1951)
Components of weight gain during pregnancy
R. M. Pitkin (1977)
A radiographic method of quantifying protein-calorie undernutrition.
S. Heymsfield (1979)
Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate in obese, moderately obese, and control subjects.
E. Ravussin (1982)
Prolactin responses, menstrual cycles, and body composition of women runners.
T. Boyden (1982)
Composition of the human foetus.
S. V. Apte (1972)
Whole body leucine metabolism in adolescents with Crohn's disease and growth failure during nutritional supplementation.
K. Motil (1982)
Methods of measuring the energy metabolism of animals and interpretation of results obtained.
K. Blaxter (1971)
Ultrasound as an approach to assessing body composition.
M. Fanelli (1984)
Plasma volume, extracellular fluid volume and exchangeable sodium concentrations in the New Zealand strain of genetically hypertensive rat.
C. R. Gresson (1973)
The effect of human growth hormone on subcutaneous fat thickness in hyposomatotrophic and panhypopituitary dwarfs.
J. Tanner (1967)
Role of longitudinal change and secular trend in age differences in male body dimensions.
G. Borkan (1983)
New norms of upper limb fat and muscle areas for assessment of nutritional status.
A. Frisancho (1981)
A novel technique
K. Tokunaga (1983)
The Effect in Newborn Rabbits of Overfeeding on Fat Deposition, Gross Energetic Efficiency, and Metabolic Rate
S. Spencer (1985)
METHOD FOR ESTIMATING RATE OF FAT LOSS DURING TREATMENT OF OBESITY BY CALORIE RESTRICTION
V. Wynn (1985)
Clinical measurement of body composition using in vivo neutron activation analysis.
A. Beddoe (1985)
RESPONSE OF YOUNG RATS TO DEPRIVATION OF PROTEIN OR OF CALORIES.
V. Cabak (1963)
Mechanism of extracellular
J .B.Flanagan (1950)
Relationship between body mass indices and measures of body adiposity.
D. Revicki (1986)
A prospective study of sexual development and growth in American girls: the statistics of menarchie.
L. Zachariás (1976)
Body composition in chronic undernutrition.
M. Barac-nieto (1978)
Long-term changes in gross body composition of paraplegic and quadriplegic patients
R. Greenway (1970)
Body Composition of Market Weight Pigs
R. H. Gnaedinger (1963)
The athletic heart syndrome.
T. Huston (1985)
Some influences on lean body mass: exercise, androgens
G. B. Forbes (1982)
Physiologic responses to a transcontinental bicycle trip
E. A. Nelson (1978)
Measurement of total body electrical conductivity: a new method for estimation of body composition.
E. Presta (1983)
Lipid levels in migrating birds.
E. Odum (1956)
1919) recorded negative nitrogen balance in a group
Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids on neuromuscular power and body composition.
D. M. Crist (1983)
Urinary creatinine excretion and lean body mass.
G. Forbes (1976)
Unilateral Activity and Bone and Muscle Development in the Forearm
E. Buskirk (1956)
Estimating the composition of tissue gained or lost from measurements of elementary body composition.
S. Bogle (1985)
Effect of age on radiosodium exchange in bone (rat).
G. Forbes (1957)
An improved method for clinical studies of total exchangeable sodium using 22Na and a whole-body counting technique.
N. Veall (1955)
Cellular growth of the Rhesus monkey placenta
D. E. Hill (1975)
The effect of an anabolic steroid on strength and lean body mass.
P. Ward (1973)
The relation between extracellular and intracellular water in acromegaly.
D. Ikkos (1956)
Some interspecific aspects of body composition in mammals
G. C. Pitts (1968)
Dietary-induced severe obesity: a rat model.
L. Oscai (1982)
Physiology and biochemistry of exercise
R. Shephard (1982)
A nomogram to predict lean body mass in men.
R. Fuchs (1978)
The use of antipyrine in the measurement of total body water in man.
R. Soberman (1949)
Tissue Composition of Weight Loss in Surgical Patients I. Elective Operation
J. Kinney (1968)
Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects.
D. R. Bistrian (1977)
Cross-sectional area of the thigh muscle in man measured by computed tomography.
T. Häggmark (1978)
Effect of long-term physical training on plasma testosterone, androstenedione, luteinizing hormone and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity.
K. Remes (1979)
Effects of weight changes produced by exercise, food restriction, or overeating on body composition.
L. Oscai (1969)
Parenteral Nutrition in Low Birth Weight Babies
J. Shaw (1973)
Precise estimation of carcass fat from total body water in rats and mice
J. Cox (1985)
[Metabolism of water and electrolytes].
P. Oudéa (1965)
found elevated levels of plasma renin
A. Miller (1972)
A controlled trial of glucose versus glucose and amino acids in premature infants.
T. L. Anderson (1979)
Studies of metabolic turnover with tritium as a tracer. II. Gross studies on the rat.
R. C. Thompson (1953)
The composition of excess weight in obese women estimated by body density, total body water and total body potassium.
J. Webster (1984)
Rates of turnover and biologic decay of chloride and chloride space in the dog determined with the long-life isotope, CL36.
G. Burch (1950)
Plasma Levels of Aldosterone, Corticosterone, 11-Deoxycorticosterone, Progesterone, 17-Hydroxyprogesterone, Cortisol, and Cortisone During Infancy and Childhood
W. Sippell (1980)
Critical fat, menarche, and the maintenance of menstrual cycles: a critical review.
E. C. Scott (1982)
Effects of overfeeding by gastric intubation on body composition of adult female rats and on heat production during feeding and fasting.
K. Mccracken (1983)
Body composition in middle-aged women with special reference to the correlation between body fat mass and anthropometric data.
H. Noppa (1979)
CASTRATION-INDUCED OBESITY IN MICE.
F. X. Hausberger (1966)
Disturbances of water and electrolytes in infantile diarrhea.
D. Darrow (1949)
Non-invasive measurements of bone mass and their clinical application
S. Cohn (1981)
The 3-methylhistidine content of human tissues.
M. Elia (1979)
Body composition in hypopituitary dwarfs before and during human growth hormone therapy.
A. Parra (1979)
Changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle fiber characteristics of elite power athletes self-administering androgenic and anabolic steroids.
M. Alén (1984)
Nitrogen Balance Studies in Human Pregnancy
F. D. Johnstone (1981)
Inorganic chemical heterogony in man and animals.
G. Forbes (1955)
THE WALTER REED WHOLE BODY COUNTING FACILITY. DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION. GAMMA RADIOACTIVITY IN PEOPLE AND FOOD-STUFFS, JULY 1958 TO JULY 1960
K. T. Woodward (1960)
Experimental obesity in man.
E. Sims (1968)
Improved models for determination of body fat by in vivo neutron activation.
S. Cohn (1984)
Neonatal water metabolism: an objective postnatal index of intrauterine fetal growth.
A. MacLennan (1983)
Measurement of muscle mass in humans by isotopic dilution of creatine-14C.
R. Kreisberg (1970)
Mineral accretion during prenatal growth of cattle.
C. Ferrell (1982)
Gross tissue weights in the human body by cadaver dissection.
J. Clarys (1984)
A Noninvasive Approach to Body Composition in the Neonate: Dynamic Skinfold Measurements
Y. Brans (1974)
The volume of extracellular body fluids in malnutrition.
E. Kerpel-Fronius (1948)
The amount of nitrogen retained by 6 young women on an intake of approximately 70 GM of protein a day.
Frances A. Johnston (1952)
Body composition in adopted and biological siblings.
C. Bouchard (1985)
Effects of body size on potassium-40 measurement in the whole body counter (tilt-chair technique).
G. Forbes (1968)
The radiological diagnosis of osteoporosis: a new approach.
E. Barnett (1960)
Thurlby and Trayhurn (1978) aCompared to controls. bOne group weighed the same as the controls, another actually weighed less; both had excessive fat and less lean
The role of muscle in extrarenal electrolyte metabolism in the newborn.
B. Nichols (1972)
Protein utilization and changes in body composition during weight reduction.
C. Young (1965)
Measurements of gamma radiation from the human body
R. M. Sievert (1951)
Effect of an energy-reduced dietary regimen in relation to adipose tissue cellularity in obese women.
P. Björntorp (1975)
The urinary excretion of collagen degradation products by quadriplegic patients and during weightlessness.
J. Claus-Walker (1977)
Body-fluid composition in normal and hypertensive man.
J. Bauer (1982)
A New Method for Estimation of Body Composition in The Live Rat
E. Bracco (1983)
Effects of immobilization upon various metabolic and physiologic functions of normal men.
J. Deitrick (1948)
Secular Changes of Growth. Leiden: Institute of Preventive Medicine
van Wieringen J.e (1972)
THE EFFECT OF TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON NITROGEN, ELECTROLYTE, WATER AND ENERGY METABOLISM IN EUNUCHOIDISM1
A. Kenyon (1938)
Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessment: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas.
J. Gurney (1973)
THE EXCRETION OF KREATININ AND KREATIN IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
P. A. Shaffer (1908)
Textbook of Medical Physiology
A. Guyton (1961)
Whole Body Protein Synthesis and Energy Expenditure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants
C. Catzeflis (1985)
Patients with primary aldosteronism
Depletion of carcass potassium in rats made hypertensive with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA) and with cortisone.
A. Knowlton (1957)
Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years.
S. Fomon (1982)
A prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for measurement of total body nitrogen in the critically ill.
A. Beddoe (1984)
Total-body potassium in health: effects of age, sex, height, and fat.
R. Pierson (1974)
Obligatory urinary and fecal nitrogen losses in young Chinese men.
P. C. Huang (1972)
Homeothermy and its metabolic cost
T. Heim (1982)
The histographic analysis of human muscle biopsies with regard to fiber types
M. Brooke (1969)
Variation in endogenous nitrogen excretion and dietary nitrogen utilization as determinants of human protein requirement.
D. Calloway (1971)
Androstenedione production and interconversion rates measured in peripheral blood and studies on the possible site of its conversion to testosterone.
R. Horton (1966)
Density of body fat in man and other mammals.
F. Fidanza (1953)
Fetal and Postnatal Cellular Growth
Assessment of protein nutrition in surgical patients--the value of anthropometrics.
J. Collins (1979)
Body water compartments with human aging using fat-free mass as the reference standard.
G. Lesser (1979)
Summation of Protein Anabolic Effects of Testosterone Propionate and Growth Hormone.∗
C. Kochakian (1960)
Physiological variation of total-body potassium in man.
K. Shukla (1973)
Relation of Age to Radiomagnesium Exchange in Bone.∗
S. Breibart (1960)
The influence of infection or injury on nutritional requirements. In J.1
W. R. Beisel (1976)
Nutritional and metabolic effects of some newer steroids. I. Oxandrolone and triamcinolone.
A. A. Albanese (1962)
The effects of oestradiol on the skeletal muscle and liver of the rat.
D. Cole (1952)
Fat, carbohydrate, salt, and weight loss.
W. Bortz (1967)
Quantitation of tissue loss during prolonged space flight.
J. Leonard (1983)
ANTHROPOMETRY AND BODY COMPOSITION OF JAPANESE YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN.
S. Nagamine (1964)
1976) of energy cost of fat deposition (12 kcal/g) and of protein deposition (8.66 kcal/g = 1.8 kcal LBM/g)
Potassium. In c.L
W. S. Wilde (1962)
Cortical thickness and diaphysial diameter of the metacarpal bones from the age of three months to eleven years.
Bonnard Gd (1968)
Indices of relative weight and obesity.
A. Keys (1972)
Skinfolds and body density and their relation to body fatness: a review.
T. Lohman (1981)
Effects of physical conditioning on cardiorespiratory function, body composition and serum lipids in relatively normal-weight and obese middle-aged women.
B. Franklin (1979)
Plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone secretion rate in Peruvian infants with marasmus and kwashiorkor
c.J. Migeon (1973)
Adaptation to overeating in lean and overweight men and women.
P. Webb (1983)
Metabolism of bears before, during, and after winter sleep.
R. Nelson (1973)
Measurement of fat thickness in man: a comparison of ultrasound, Harpenden calipers and electrical conductivity.
R. A. Booth (1966)
Alterations in metabolic energetics and cation transport during aging of red cells.
R. Bernstein (1959)
PROTEIN PRODUCTION AND EXCHANGE IN THE BOOT INCLUDING HEMOGLOBIN, PLASMA PROTEIN AND CELL PROTEIN
G. H. Whipple (1938)
A 500 pound weight loss.
W. Bortz (1969)
Undernutrition in steers : its relation to metabolism, digestion, and subsequent realimentation
F. Benedict (1923)
1967a) Estimation of body water
M. A. Flynn (1967)
Vertebral bone loss: an unheeded side effect of therapeutic bed rest.
B. Krølner (1983)
Water and electrolyte metabolism.
J. F. Manery (1954)
Influence of muscular development, obesity, and age on the fat-free mass of adults.
J. Womersley (1976)
A comparison of body protein determination in rats by in vivo neutron activation and carcass analysis.
T. Preston (1985)
Influence of heredity and environment in determination of skinfold thickness in children.
C. Brook (1975)
Components of weight at menarche and the initiation of the adolescent growth spurt in girls: estimated total water, llean body weight and fat.
R. Frisch (1973)
Relationships between body composition and anthropometry.
F. Johnston (1982)
Influence of maternal nutritional status on prenatal growth in a Peruvian urban population.
A. Frisancho (1977)
Whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen in healthy and wasted man.
H. James (1984)
Comparisons of body fat estimated from total body water and skinfold thicknesses of undernourished men.
G. Spurr (1981)
Energy requirements and energy expenditure of elderly men.
D. Calloway (1980)
Relationship between muscle potassium and total body potassium in infants with malnutrition.
B. Nichols (1969)
Caloric restriction and/or mild exercise: effects on serum lipids and body composition.
A. Weltman (1980)
Evidence that prednisone-induced myopathy is reversed by physical training.
F. Horber (1985)
Interpretation of certain changes in body water and electrolytes.
D. Darrow (1958)
The effect of weight reduction on left ventricular mass. A randomized controlled trial in young, overweight hypertensive patients.
S. Macmahon (1986)
Body elemental composition: comparison between black and white adults.
S. Cohn (1977)
Total body sodium and chlorine in normal adults.
K. Ellis (1976)
Basal metabolism and age of adult man.
A. Keys (1973)
Bone mineral content and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in breast-fed infants with and without supplemental vitamin D.
F. Greer (1981)
Treat Obesity Seriously. London: Churchill Livingstone
J. S. Garrow (1981)
Assessment of nutritional status in pregnancy--I.
J. King (1981)
Standards for skinfold thickness in British newborn infants.
J. R. Oakley (1977)
Osteoporosis in women with anorexia nervosa.
N. Rigotti (1984)
Revised standards for triceps and subscapular skinfolds in British children.
J. Tanner (1975)
Plasma volume changes in middle-aged male and female subjects during marathon running.
L. Myhre (1985)
Body composition, cardiovascular and renal function in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa.
L. Fohlin (1977)
Body composition of oligo/amenorrheic athletes.
K. A. Carlberg (1983)
patients on a reducing diet
B. W. East (1976)
ELECTROLYTE AND WATER CHANGES IN MUSCLE DURING ATROPHY
H. Hines (1937)
Adipose tissue volume determinations in women by computed tomography: technical considerations.
H. Kvist (1986)
Total Body Water in Rats and in Mice
J. Annegers (1954)
Fasting and undernutrition : a biological and sociological study of inanition
S. Morgulis (1923)
A new approach.
H. Redkey (1967)
The specific gravity of healthy men; a report of 835 cases.
S. Sarkisian (1946)
Letter: Calcium accumulation by the human fetus.
G. Forbes (1976)
8 Normal Aging in the Bone of the Adult Dog
L. C. Detenbeck (1969)
The direct measurement of the extracellular phase of tissues.
G. Nichols (1953)
Studies on experimental hypotrophy in the rat. I. Chemical composition of the total body and some organs in the rat foetus.
J. Roux (1970)
Regulation of energy balance in two models of reversible obesity in the rat.
N. Rothwell (1979)
Voluntary food intake during prolonged exercise in obese women.
R. Woo (1982)
Nitrogen metabolism in bears: urea metabolism in summer starvation and in winter sleep and role of urinary bladder in water and nitrogen conservation.
R. Nelson (1975)
Methods for determining composition of the human body. With a note on the effect of diet on body composition.
G. Forbes (1962)
Effects of methandienone on the performance and body composition of men undergoing athletic training.
G. E. Hervey (1981)
Fluid volumes and
D. Taverner (1985)
Skeletal metabolism and body composition in Cushing's syndrome.
J. Aloia (1974)
Changes in body composition on Modifast, and electrolyte retention during carbohydrate refeeding
A. P. van Seters (1983)
AGE AND CHEMICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MAMMALS
C. R. Moulton (1923)
Weight of bone during the fetal period.
M. Trotter (1969)
The Frontiers and Limits of Science
V. Weisskopf (1975)
The composition of the adult human body as determined by chemical analysis.
R. M. Forbes (1953)
The effect of estrogen on water and electrolyte metabolism. I. The normal.
J. R. Preedy (1956)
The creatinine height index: its use in the estimation of the degree of protein depletion and repletion in protein calorie malnourished children.
F. Viteri (1970)
Mineral and nitrogen balance study observations: the second manned Skylab mission.
G. D. Whedon (1976)
Acute Change in Extracellular Fluids Associated with Major Surgical Procedures *
T. Shires (1961)
Leukocyte electrolytes and sodium transport in protein energy malnutrition.
J. Patrick (1977)
The changes in electrolytes, particularly chloride, which accompany growth in chick muscle.
J. Barlow (1954)
Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly.
J. Aloia (1972)
Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals.
A. Beddoe (1984)
Studies on sodium in bone.
G. Forbes (1960)
A simplified method for determination of residual lung volumes.
J. Wilmore (1969)
Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat.
G. C. Pitts (1983)
Genetic factors in determining bone mass.
D. Smith (1973)
Total body, plasma and erythrocyte potassium and leucocyte ascorbic acid in 'ultra-fit' subjects.
K. Boddy (1974)
world class athletes suffered a decline
Use of NMR for measurement of total body water and estimation of body fat.
D. Lewis (1986)
A Simple Quantitative Method for Intravenous Injection of Small Volumes of Fluid.
H. Barnett (1947)
The energy cost of repleting tissue deficits during recovery from protein-energy malnutrition.
A. Jackson (1977)
Total body potassium and lean body mass in patients with Duchenne dystrophy and their female relatives.
A. Borgstedt (1970)
Athletic amenorrhea: a review.
A. Loucks (1985)
Cushing's syndrome: diagnostic criteria.
E. J. Ross (1966)
MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY FAT IN MAN BY THE SIMULTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF TWO INERT GASES *
G. Lesser (1963)
Caloric intake and expenditure of obese boys.
M. Waxman (1980)
Menstrual status and validation of body fat prediction in athletes.
A. Loucks (1984)
Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of critical body weights and adolescent events.
R. Frisch (1970)
Body composition in sport and exercise: directions for future research.
J. Wilmore (1983)
PART II. BODY COMPOSITION OF THE MALE REFERENCE ADOLESCENT
F. Haschke (1983)
Accuracy of predictions of long-term energy needs.
J. Mahalko (1980)
Overgrowth of Lean and Adipose Tissues in Adolescent Obesity
Donald B. Cheek (1970)
Cardiac dysfunction in obese dieters: a potentially lethal complication of rapid, massive weight loss.
T. V. van Itallie (1984)
fed young adult males 35-57 kcal/kg/day for 84 days
Clinical effects of ageing : a longitudinal study
J. Milne (1985)
Change of urinary nitrogen excretion in response to low-protein diets in adults.
W. Rand (1976)
Age and activity effects on rate of bone mineral loss.
D. Smith (1976)
Body composition measurements in normal man: the potassium, sodium, sulfate and tritium spaces in 58 adults.
R. Pierson (1982)
The composition of adipose tissue and the nonadipose body of obese and nonobese man.
W. Morse (1963)
A new method for the rapid measurement of body composition in critically ill surgical patients
G. Hill (1978)
Estimation of total body potassium in normal adolescents by whole-body counting: age and sex differences.
L. P. Novâk (1973)
N tau-methylhistidine release: contributions of rat skeletal muscle, GI tract, and skin.
S. Wassner (1982)
A rapid and simplified plethysmometric method for measuring body volume.
B. Gundlach (1980)
TOTAL BODY WATER
Prepubertal and Pubertal Endocrinology
J. Winter (1978)
Capacity for moderate exercise in obese subjects after adaptation to a hypocaloric, ketogenic diet.
S. Phinney (1980)
Body composition. Prediction of normal body potassium, body water and body fat in adults on the basis of body height, body weight and age.
A. Bruce (1980)
Body Composition in Morbidly Obese Patients Before and After jejunoileal Bypass
H. Scott (1975)
BODY FORM, COMPOSITION, AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF CHINESE ON TAIWAN *
K. Chen (1963)
Quantitative Analysis of Nuclear Population in Muscle from Malnourished and Recovered Children
F. M. Hansen-Smith (1978)
Comparison of methods of measuring potassium in pork and lamb and prediction of their composition from sodium and potassium.
A. Kirton (1963)
An evaluation of maternal nitrogen and mineral needs during embryonic and infant development
I. G. Macy (1934)
Influence of exercise and restricted activity on the protein composition of skeletal muscle.
E. Helander (1961)
ZUR WIRKUNG VON ALDOSTERON UND CORTICOSTERON AUF DEN ELEKTROLYT- UND WASSERGEHALT BINDEGEWEBIGER ORGANE DER RATTE
W. Kriegel (1964)
Longitudinal Study of Calcium Metabolism in Male Puberty
S. Krabbe (1984)
Exercise in Health and Disease
C. Mcgavin (1982)
Biochemistry and morphogenesis
J. Needham (1942)
Nitrogen balance studies in humans: long-term effect of high nitrogen intake on nitrogen accretion.
E. A. Oddoye (1979)
The assessment of muscle mass in progressive neuromuscular disease
R. Griggs (1983)
Effect of body weight and muscularity on human diaphragm muscle mass, thickness, and area.
N. Arora (1982)
The effects of aerobic conditioning and/or caloric restriction in overweight men and women.
R. Hagan (1986)
SUBCUTANEOUS FAT DETERMINATIONS FROM A COMMUNITY‐WIDE CHEST X‐RAY SURVEY IN MUSCOGEE COUNTY, GEORGIA *
G. Comstock (1963)
Reproductive histories of low weight girls and women.
S. Garn (1983)
Absolute measurement of total body calcium (bone mass) in vivo.
W. Nelp (1972)
Anion-exchange chromatographic determination of LD-1 and LD-2.
E. Sachs (1988)
Humeral hypertrophy in response to exercise.
H. Jones (1977)
Changes in body composition during
Jen K.-L.C (1983)
THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND REDUCED FOOD INTAKE ON SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS.
G. Goldspink (1964)
Changes in body composition after therapeutically induced remission in 12 cases of Cushing's syndrome.
I. Ernest (1967)
Absorption of dietary iron in pregnancy.
S. Apte (1970)
The action of desoxycorticosterone acetate and of dietary sodium and potassium on skeletal muscle electrolyte in adrenalectomized rats.
D. Cole (1953)
Heat loss and energy retention during growth in congenitally obese and lean rats.
J. D. Pullar (1974)
Endurance training in humans: aerobic capacity and structure of skeletal muscle.
H. Hoppeler (1985)
Fat cells and body weight
L. Sjostrom (1980)
Chemical and biochemical development of the human fetus
D.A.T. Southgate (1976)
Subcutaneous Fat Measurement as an Indication of Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn
A. Whitelaw (1979)
A method of breaking down the body weights of living persons into terms of extracellular fluid, cell mass and fat, and some applications of it to physiology and medicine
R. Mccance (1951)
The distribution of bromide and chloride in tissues and body fluids
E. G. Weir (1939)
Production of acidosis in premature infants by protein milk
D. C. Darrow (1945)
Renal function and body composition before and after intestinal bypass operation in obese patients.
J. Brøchner-Mortensen (1980)
Effect of hypophysectomy on weight gain and body composition in the genetically obese yellow (Ay/a) mouse.
T. Plocher (1976)
Relationship between fat-free weight and urinary 3-methythistidine excretion in man.
H. Lukaski (1980)
Composition of Postnatal Weight Loss and Subsequent Weight Gain in Small for Dates Newborn Infants
A. Wagen (1985)
Disparate hydration of adipose and lean tissue require a new model for body water distribution in man.
J. Wang (1976)
The assessment of body water and fatness from infancy to adulthood.
E. Mellits (1970)
Prediction of energy requirements of obese patients after massive weight loss.
C. Dore (1982)
NEUTRON-ACTIVATION ANALYSIS IN MAN IN VIVO. A NEW TECHNIQUE IN MEDICAL INVESTIGATION.
J. Anderson (1964)
Increased glomerular filtration rate and adrenocortical function in obese women.
K. Stokholm (1980)
The variability of extracellular fluid space (sucrose) in man during a 24 hour period.
R. Peterson (1959)
1981a) In vivo neutron activation analysis: state of the art and future prospects
S. H. Cohn (1981)
Total body protein, collagen and non-collagen protein in infantile protein malnutrition.
D. Picou (1966)
Weight loss during fasting: implications for the obese.
G. Forbes (1970)
BODY COMPOSITION AND FITNESS IN OBESE CHILDREN BEFORE AND AFTER SPECIAL TREATMENT
J. Pařízková (1971)
Reduction of plasma immunoreactive somatomedin C during fasting in humans.
D. Clemmons (1981)
Total body potassium falls with age.
B. Rajagopalan (1980)
Studies on the body composition, fat distribution and fat cell size and number of 'Ad', a new obese mutant mouse.
P. Trayhurn (1979)
Effects of diabetes mellitus on bone mass in juvenile and adult-onset diabetes.
M. Levin (1976)
The influence of placental size on foetal growth in man, with special reference to multiple pregnancy.
T. Mckeown (1953)
greater, and body fat 1 kg
Alterations in body composition following intestinal bypass for morbid obesity.
A. Spanier (1976)
Growth at Adolescence, second edition
J. M. Tanner (1962)
Red Cell and Plasma Volume in Newborn Infants
P. Mollison (1950)
An appraisal of methods of tissue chloride analysis: the total carcass chloride, exchangeable chloride, potassium and water of the rat.
D. B. Cheek (1955)
Comparative Study of Metabolic Effects of Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate in Man
K. Knowlton (1942)
Biological Responses to Estrogen Additives in Meat Producing Cattle and Lambs
R. Preston (1975)
A high protein, low calorie liquid diet in the treatment of very obese adolescents: long-term effect on lean body mass.
M. Brown (1983)
Osteoporosis and the effects of ageing on bone mass in elderly men and women.
P. Adams (1970)
Atrial natriuretic hormone, the renin-aldosterone axis, and blood pressure-electrolyte homeostasis.
J. Laragh (1985)
Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for "luxuskonsumption".
E. Ravussin (1985)
Measurement of total-body calcium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, and phosphorus in man by in vivo neutron activation analysis.
S. Cohn (1971)
Effect of Stilboestrol on Sodium Balance, Cardiac State, and Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Activity in Prostatic Carcinoma
B. Blyth (1986)
Bone mineral content and physical activity.
N. Dalén (1974)
Effects of aerobic training on fat distribution in male subjects.
J. Després (1985)
Effect of aging on bone mass in adult women.
S. Cohn (1976)
Effect of body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet.
C. Young (1971)
The chemical composition of the tissue lost by obese patients on a reducing regimen.
R. Passmore (1958)
Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Neugeborenen
W Camerer (1900)
A constant-change (single injection) method for the estimation of the volume of distribution of substances in body fluid compartments.
P. Poulos (1956)
The effects of estradiol and estriol on plasma levels of cortisol and thyroid hormone-binding globulins and on aldosterone and cortisol secretion rates in man.
F. Katz (1967)
Body fluid and electrolyte composition in arterial hypertension. II. Studies in mineralocorticoid hypertension.
A. Chobanian (1961)
CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION DURING PREGNANCY *
J. Seitchik (1963)
Daily energy expenditure and basal metabolic rates of patients with spinal cord injury.
L. Mollinger (1985)
Anomalies of the regulation of salt and water in protein-calorie malnutrition
B. L. Nichols (1973)
Effect of HGH on body composition of hypopituitary dwarfs. Four-compartment analysis and composite body density.
L. P. Novâk (1972)
THE CHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF BONE MINERAL
W. Neuman (1958)
Protein malnutrition following intestinal bypass for morbid obesity.
H. Shizgal (1979)
Scaling: why is animal size so important?
F. Hainsworth (1985)
Acta Radiologica Supplementum 293: Radiographic Measurements of Cortical Bone, Variations in a Normal Population Between 1 and 90 Years of Age
A. Poznanski (1970)
Nutritional status and physiological development of the preweanling rat.
F. W. Heggeness (1962)
Responses of pre- and post-menopausal females to aerobic conditioning.
M. M. Cowan (1985)
A longitudinal study of 16 champion runners.
D. Dill (1967)
ELECTROLYTE AND NITROGEN CHANGES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF DEVELOPING RATS.
A. Vernadakis (1964)
J. Howard (1951)
Minerals in nonosseous connective tissues (including the blood
J. F. Manery (1961)
Observations on foetal growth in multiple pregnancy in man.
T. Mckeown (1952)
on eumenorrheic and amenorrheic runners: The latter
BODY COMPOSITION STUDIES OF “OLDER” WOMEN, THIRTY TO SEVENTY YEARS OF AGE *
C. Young (1963)
Muscular enlargement and number of fibers in skeletal muscles of rats.
P. Gollnick (1981)
Stature and lean body mass.
G. Forbes (1974)
The effect of weight-training on physique.
J. Tanner (1952)
A STUDY OF WEIGHT REGULATION IN THE ADULT HUMAN BODY DURING OVER-NUTRITION
Addison Gulick (1922)
Basal metabolism in women with obesity and anorexia nervosa.
Hans Ljunggren (1961)
TOTAL BODY AND SERUM POTASSIUM DURING PROLONGED THIAZIDE THERAPY FOR ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION
P. Wilkinson (1975)
Creatinin Excretion in Women: Clinical Significance in Obesity
B. N. Tager (1942)
Indexes of body cell mass: nitrogen versus potassium.
S. Cohn (1983)
Histochemical changes in ageing
O. H. Lowry (1942)
Body composition during nutritional repletion of severely undernourished men.
M. Barac-nieto (1979)
Spontaneous obesity in maturing squirrel monkeys fed semipurified diets.
L. Ausman (1981)
Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis.
N. Kennedy (1983)
Turning now to male
Distortions in Fetal Growth Standards
R. Naeye (1978)
Thickness of subcutaneous fat and activity of underlying muscles.
G. Gwinup (1971)
recorded a 6% increase in muscle weight in rats
Constancy of urinary creatinine excretion.
P. Vestergaard (1958)
Body Composition in Animals and Man (Publication No. 1598)
J. T. Reid (1968)
New Method for the Estimation of Lean Body Mass in Infants (EMME Instrument): Validation in Nonhuman Models
W. Klish (1984)
1975) also found a twofold variation in muscle
Body composition of mice subjected to genetic selection for different body proportions.
N. Dawson (1972)
Calcium metabolism in normal human pregnancy.
R. Heaney (1971)
Determination of total body water and solids with isotopes.
F. Moore (1946)
Body composition changes during recovery from anorexia nervosa: comparison of two dietary regimes.
G. Forbes (1984)
Weight of the skeleton during postnatal development.
M. Trotter (1970)
A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City.
D. Rush (1980)
TIME REQUIRED FOR DISAPPEARANCE OF INTRADERMALLY INJECTED SALT SOLUTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF OBSERVATIONS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CASES OF EDEMA
W. McClure (1923)
Teenage Nutrition and Physique.
R. Huenemann (1974)
The measurement of total water, exchangeable sodium and potassium in obese persons
M. Linquette (1969)
Maintenance requirement and energetic efficiency of lean and obese Zucker rats.
S. Deb (1976)
Relationship between body collagen and urinary hydroxyproline excretion in young rats fed on a low-protein or lowcalorie diet
A. Anasuya (1970)
Total sodium, potassium and chloride in adult man.
G. Forbes (1956)
Comparative study of body composition of American and Filipino women.
L. P. Novâk (1970)
RESTING METABOLIC RATE IN MALNOURISHED BABIES IN RELATION TO TOTAL BODY POTASSIUM
O. Brooke (1974)
A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME *
W. Pierson (1963)
Body composition of premature infants: relation to nutrition.
B. Kagan (1972)
Influence of obesity on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B in humans.
G. Egusa (1985)
Nitrogen balance as related to caloric and protein intake in active young men.
D. Calloway (1954)
Anthropometric and calorimetric evidence for the protein sparing effects of a new protein supplemented low calorie preparation.
L. V. Van Gaal (1985)
Measurement of lean body mass and total body fat using dual photon absorptiometry.
A. Gotfredsen (1986)
Prediction of total body water in adolescent males.
J. Schutte (1980)
Growth and chemical composition of the human skeleton.
W. W. Swanson (1940)
Diuretics, potassium depletion, and carbohydrate intolerance.
A. Graybiel (1971)
Dietary obesity in rats: Body weight and body fat accretion in seven strains of rats.
R. Schemmel (1970)
Effect of a weight-reducing high-protein diet on the body composition of obese adolescents.
E. Archibald (1983)
Influence of Body Fat on Duration of Thiopental Anesthesia
G. Hermann (1952)
CHANGES IN BONE SODIUM DURING GROWTH IN THE RAT.
G. Forbes (1963)
Estimation of bone and skeletal weight by direct photon absorptiometry.
H. E. Meema (1971)
Adiposity indices in children.
M. Rolland-Cachera (1982)
Carcass evaluation of cattle, sheep and pigs.
A. Cuthbertson (1978)
The gross electrolyte composition of certain human malignant tissues.
C. Waterhouse (1955)
THE EFFECT OF OVERFEEDING ON TWO FAT YOUNG WOMEN.
R. Passmore (1963)
Body cell mass during long-term cortisone treatment in asthmatic subjects.
B. Lindholm (1967)
有正 修道 (1976)
Radiographic morphometry and osteopenia in spinal osteoporosis.
J. Aloia (1977)
LOSS OF MINERALS THROUGH THE SKIN OF INFANTS
W. W. Swanson (1933)
1948) in immobilized men. Kr~lner and Toft (1983) made photon absorptiometric measurements
by Deitrick (1983)
Unified method for serial study of body fluid compartments.
C. P. Spears (1974)
Relationship between muscle
R. J. Maughan (1983)
Skinfold thickness in neonates.
A. McGowan (1974)
Body composition, energy expenditure, and plasma metabolites in long-term fasting geese.
Y. le Maho (1981)
Maternal nutrition and fetal growth in developing countries.
A. Lechtig (1975)
OBSERVATIONS ON THE DISTURBANCE OF METABOLISM PRODUCED BY INJURY TO THE LIMBS
D. Cuthbertson (1932)
PLACENTAL TRANSFUSION IN THE PREMATURE INFANT WITH OBSERVATION ON CLINICAL COURSE AND OUTCOME
A. Yao (1969)
Pattern of development of bone in childhood and adolescence.
C. Gryfe (1971)
The protein anabolic action of mestanolone.
Lynn Harold Harris (1961)
Total body sodium, calcium, and chloride measured chemically and by neutron activation in guinea pigs.
H. Sheng (1981)
Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution.
M. Krotkiewski (1983)
Antidiuretic hormone values in plasma and urine of malnourished children.
S. Srikantia (1970)
Cortisol and aldosterone excretion and plasma cortisol concentrations in normal and obese female subjects.
M. Hankin (1972)
Gluttony. 1. An experimental study of overeating low- or high-protein diets.
D. S. Miller (1967)
Genetic Mouse Yellow-obese (A'/a
Relationship of anthropometric dimensions to lean body mass in children.
M. H. Slaughter (1978)
INFLUENCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ON ADRENAL FUNCTION IN OBESITY.
J. A. Prezio (1964)
Metabolic effects of substituting carbohydrate for protein in a low-calorie diet: a prolonged study in obese patients.
M. Yang (1981)
Food intake in hypothalamic obesity.
J. Goldman (1974)
Quantitative Clinical Chemistry, Vol. I
J. P. Peters (1946)
Body density and potassium 40 measurements of body composition as related to age.
L. Myhre (1966)
R. Uauy (1978)
The mineral metabolism of normal infants.
G. Stearns (1939)
L-thyroxine in the treatment of obesity without increase in loss of lean body mass.
L. Lamki (1973)
Rates of sodium turnover in normal subjects and in patients with congestive heart failure.
G. Burch (1947)
The concentrations of water, sodium and potassium in the nucleus and cytoplasm of amphibian oocytes.
T. J. Century (1970)
Loss of body nitrogen on fasting.
G. Forbes (1979)
THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADMINISTERED BROMIDE IN COMPARISON WITH CHLORIDE AND ITS RELATION TO BODY FLUIDS
G. Wallace (1939)
Effects of marginally negative energy balance on insulin binding to erythrocytes of normal men.
D. Garrel (1984)
Stoffwechsel- und Respirationsversuche zur Frage der Eiweissmast
A. Muller (1911)
Comparison of measured and estimated fat-free weight, fat, potassium and nitrogen of growing guinea pigs.
H. Sheng (1982)
Body fat in adult man.
A. Keys (1953)
Cellular response with increased feeding in neonatal rats.
M. Winick (1967)
Unmeasured losses of potassium in balance studies.
G. Forbes (1983)
Evaluation of analytical models based on anthropometry and age for the prediction of body fat
G. Clemente (1973)
Effect of immersion in water on vital capacity and residual volume of the lungs.
A. B. Craig (1967)
Problems of Relative Growth
C. Pantin (1932)
THE RENIN–ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM AND TOTAL BODY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IN HYPERTENSIVE WOMEN TAKING OESTROGEN–PROGESTAGEN ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
D. Mcareavey (1983)
Body composition of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls.
C. Young (1968)
Combined Hormonal Infusion Simulates the Metabolic Response to Injury
P. Bessey (1984)
Quantitative computed tomography for assessing vertebral bone mineral
H. K. Genant (1982)
Growth of adipose and lean tissue mass in hindlimbs of genetically obese mice during preobese and obese phases of development.
W. Bergen (1975)
Bone mass in obese subjects.
N. Dalén (1975)
The chemical composition of adipose tissue of man and mice.
L. W. Thomas (1962)
New standards of cortical mass in the humerus of neonates: a means of evaluating bone loss in the premature infant.
A. Poznanski (1980)
Fat redistribution and the changing body dimensions of the adult male.
Borkan Ga (1977)
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INCREASED ADRENOCORTICAL FUNCTION OBSERVED IN MANY OBESE PATIENTS *
D. Schteingart (1965)
Body composition: simultaneous determination of several aspects by the dilution principle.
J. D. McMurrey (1958)
Determination of extracellular fluid volume by fluorescent excitation analysis of bromine.
L. Kaufman (1973)
Longitudinal measurements of blood volume and essential body mass in human subjects.
S. Chien (1975)
Weight parameters of adult human skeleton.
B. K. Borisov (1974)
Rates offemoral cortical bone loss in two Nubian populations
J. R. Dewey (1969)
Chloride, bromide, sodium, and sucrose spaces in man.
J. L. Gamble (1953)
The earlier gain and the later loss of cortical bone, in nutritional perspective
S. Garn (1970)
Body composition in adolescence.
G. Forbes (1981)
Menstrual cycle and protein requirements of women.
D. Calloway (1982)
PROTEIN METABOLISM IN TYPHOID FEVER
P. Shaffer (1909)
The effect of alterations in extracellular fluid on the composition of connective tissue.
W. Weil (1960)
Use of resonating cavity to measure body volume.
W. Deskins (1985)
THE DEPOSITION OF POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHATE WITH GLYCOGEN IN RAT LIVERS
W. O. Fenn (1939)
Clinical experience with a very low calorie diet
H. Ditschuneit (1985)
Densites of bones of white and Negro skeletons.
M. Trotter (1960)
The effects of anabolic steroids on growth, body composition, and metabolism in boys with chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis.
R. Jones (1980)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAEMOGLOBIN AND SERUM TESTOSTERONE IN NORMAL CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AND IN BOYS WITH DELAYED PUBERTY
S. Krabbe (1978)
THE EQUALITY OF THE CHLORIDE SPACE AND THE EXTRACELLULAR SPACE OF RAT LIVER
F. L. Truax (1939)
The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human.
J. M. Heaton (1972)
Creatine and creatinine metabolism in thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism; a clinical study.
B. Kuhlback (1957)
The blood volume of infants. II. The premature infant during the first year of life.
T. R. Sisson (1959)
Normal Renal Function in the First Two Days of Life
R. Mccance (1954)
Characteristics of the mother and child in teenage pregnancy.
S. Garn (1983)
The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computed tomography.
R. Maughan (1984)
1976), the cost of depositing a gram of fat
"ANABOLIC" EFFECTS OF METHANDIENONE IN MEN UNDERGOING ATHLETIC TRAINING
G. E. Hervey (1976)
Simultaneous measurement of total exchangeable potassium and sodium using 43 K and 24 Na.
D. L. Davies (1973)
Physical activity improves protein utilization in young men.
G. Butterfield (1984)
Die Verweilzeit des Wassers im menschlichen K6rper, untersucht mit Hilfe von "schwerem" Wasser als Indicator
G. von Hevesy (1934)
R. Griggs (1985)
A comparison of methods for estimating human body composition.
H. Krzywicki (1974)
Rat High-fat diet
Measurement of total body fat in man by absorption of 85Kr.
F. Hytten (1966)
Indirect measurement of total exchangeable potassium.
H. Shizgal (1977)
Young adult men and women were fed a mixed diet providing 0.57 g protein/kg/day, and after a baseline period an energy deficit was produced by one of two maneuvers: (I) a reduction in energy intake
Body composition and adipose tissue cellularity before and after jejuno‐ileostomy in severely obese subjects
J. G. Kral (1977)
Evaluation and regulation of body build and composition
A. R. Behnke (1974)
Muscle strengths in relation to fat storage in young men
K. Kitagawa (1978)
Calcium nutrition and bone health in the elderly.
R. Heaney (1982)
Underwater weighing and body density: a review of procedures
E. R. Buskirk (1961)
Measurement of extracellular ions in the brain
C. Nicholson (1980)
Total exchangeable sodium and potassium in non-pregnant women and in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy.
I. MacGillivray (1958)
Protein malnutrition in man.
J. Waterlow (1960)
Resting metabolic rate and cost of locomotion in long-term fasting emperor penguins.
G. Dewasmes (1980)
Sequence and tempo in the somatic changes in puberty
J. M. Tanner (1974)
Measures of body fat and related factors in normal adults. II. A simple clinical method to estimate body fat and lean body mass.
R. Steinkamp (1965)
Effects of caloric restriction on body composition and total body nitrogen as measured by neutron activation.
A. Vaswani (1983)
Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest.
J. Greenleaf (1977)
Comparison in man of total body electrical conductivity and lean body mass derived from body density: validation of a new body composition method.
E. Presta (1983)
Endurance training and body compostition of the elderly.
K. Sidney (1977)
Estimation of body fat and lean body mass from anthropometric measurements in young Indian women.
Relation of arterial pressure with body sodium, body potassium and plasma potassium in essential hypertension.
C. Beretta-Piccoli (1982)
Body Characteristics of Palm Warblers Following an Overwater Flight
D. Johnston (1968)
The effect of glucocorticoid withdrawal on body water and electrolytes in hypopituitary patients with adrenocortical insufficiency as investigated with 77 Br, 43 K, 24 Na and 3 H 2 O.
F. Skrabal (1972)
CHANGES IN FAT, FAT‐FREE MASS AND BODY WATER IN HUMAN NORMAL PREGNANCY
N. G. Pipe (1979)
Mass and composition of the fat-free tissues of patients with weight-loss.
L. Burkinshaw (1985)
Metacarpal lengths, cortical diameters and areas from the IO-state nutrition survey
S. M. Gam (1976)
Steroid Hormones in Osteoporosis
G. D. Whedon (1956)
9 Muscle and Bone Hypertrophy: Positive Effect of Running Exercise in the Rat
P. Saville (1969)
Estimation of non-fat body tissues from measurements of skinfold thickness, total body potassium and total body nitrogen.
D. Morgan (1983)
Elemental balances during intravenous hyperalimentation of underweight adult subjects.
D. Rudman (1975)
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE METABOLIC EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IN NORMAL MEN AND WOMEN AND IN EUNUCHOIDISM1,2
A. Kenyon (1940)
Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind
D. C. Johanson (1981)
Radiographic analysis of body composition
S. M. Gam (1961)
BODY CONSTITUENTS AND FUNCTIONS IN RELATION TO HEIGHT AND WEIGHT.
J. P. Nicholson (1964)
Hydration in the first 24 h of postnatal life in normal infants born vaginally or by caesarean section.
Donald B. Cheek (1982)
Studies in whole body potassium and whole body nitrogen in newly diagnosed diabetics.
C. Walsh (1976)
A comparison between muscle function and body compositionin anorexia nervosa: the effect of
D. McR (1983)
Experimentelle Beitrage zur Lehre von dem taglichen Nahrungsbedarf des Menschen unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der notwendigen Eiweissmenge
R. O. Neumann (1902)
Relationship of Gamma-Ray Measurements to the Lean Content of Hams
R. Kulwich (1961)
Energy intake and body weight: a reexamination of two "classic" studies.
G. Forbes (1984)
Body composition of patients with malnutrition and cancer
S. Cohn (1986)
Some effects of accelerating growth - I. General somatic development
E. Widdowson (1960)
Comparative nutrition of man and domestic animals.
A. Hock (1966)
Electrolyte and water distribution in familial hypokalaemic periodic paralysis
A. Coppen (1966)
found that the KIN ratio of the tissue lost
A new method for measuring the body density of obese adults.
J. Garrow (1979)
Importance of body
G. Jacobson (1964)
Daily variations of vital capacity, residual air, and expiratory reserve including a study of the residual air method.
H. Rahn (1949)
Determination of total body fat by absorption of an inert gas; measurements and results in normal human subjects.
G. Lesser (1960)
Delayed Ligation of the Umbilical Cord: Its influence on the blood volume of the newborn
G. Whipple (1957)
The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
J. Rowe (1976)
The sizes and numbers of cells in visceral organs in human obesity.
R. Naeye (1970)
Diet, fat accretion, and growth in premature infants.
B. Reichman (1981)
Diet-Induced Head Allometry Among Foliage-Chewing Insects and Its Importance for Graminivores
E. Bernays (1986)
The measurement of exchangeable potassium in living pigs and its relation to body composition.
M. Fuller (1971)
Density and composition of the lean body compartment and its relationship to fatness.
G. C. Pits (1962)
An adoption study of human obesity.
A. Stunkard (1986)
Cardiac arrhythmias associated with a liquid protein diet for the treatment of obesity.
R. Lantigua (1980)
ELEVATED METABOLIC RATES IN OBESITY
W. P. James (1978)
Determination of Body Composition of Children from Skinfold Measurements
C. Brook (1971)
J. N. Toal (1961)
Anthropometric and body
K. Tanaka (1979)
Antipyrine Space Studies and Cell Water Estimates in Infants of Low Birth Weight
G. Cassady (1971)
THE DISTRIBUTION OF RED CELLS AND PLASMA IN LARGE AND MINUTE VESSELS OF THE NORMAL DOG, DETERMINED BY RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES OF IRON AND IODINE.
J. Gibson (1946)
Magnetic-susceptibility measurement of human iron stores.
G. Brittenham (1982)
Effect of reduced energy intake versus increased physical activity on the outcome of nitrogen balance experiments in man.
H. Göranzon (1985)
The influence of prolonged muscular rest on metabolism.
D. Cuthbertson (1929)
The influence of a hypercalric diet on gross body and adipose tissue composition in the rat.
S. C. Peckham (1962)
Changes in tissue widths during growth. Roentgenographic measurements of bone, muscle, and fat widths from infancy through adolescence.
M. Maresh (1966)
Hydration of fat-free body in protein-depleted patients.
A. Beddoe (1985)
The quest for the origin of the elements.
W. Fowler (1984)
The effects of progesterone on body weight and composition in the rat.
E. Hervey (1967)
Muscle cell growth and the distribution of water and electrolyte in human pregnancy.
Donald B. Cheek (1985)
The adolescent growth of the skeletal mass and its implications to mineral requirements
S. M. Gam (1969)
Plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume in essential hypertension.
H. Ibsen (1973)
Evidence for defective skeletal mineralization in low-birthweight infants: the absorption of calcium and fat.
J. Shaw (1976)
Total Body Potassium in Normal Children
M. Flynn (1972)
The influence of an early caloric intake with I-V glucose on catabolism of premature infants.
A. M. Auld (1966)
High levels of energy expenditure in obese women.
A. Prentice (1986)
Tissue components of weight loss in cancer patients. A new method of study and preliminary observations
S. Heymsfield (1985)
Birmingham Medical Research Expeditionary Society 1977 Expedition: effect of a Himalayan trek on whole body composition, nitrogen and potassium.
T. Harvey (1979)
Body water and electrolytes
I. S. Edelman (1961)
This paper is referenced by
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE REUMATOLOGIA
Lívia Lovato (2014)
The effect of intake of water on the final values of body composition parameters in active athletes using two different bioimpedance analyzers
P. Kutáč (2014)
Subcutaneous Fat and Body Fat Mass Have Different Effects on Bone Development at the Forearm in Children and Adolescents
O. Fricke (2008)
Seasonal Changes in Anthropometric and Physical Characteristics Within English Academy Rugby League Players
K. Till (2014)
DETERMINATION OF THE EXTRAVASCULAR BURDEN OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) ON HUMAN HEART
Kinnera Erupaka (2008)
Singaporean Chinese adolescents have more subcutaneous adipose tissue than Dutch Caucasians of the same age and body mass index.
P. Deurenberg (2003)
Free-living activity energy expenditure in women successful and unsuccessful at maintaining a normal body weight.
R. Weinsier (2002)
Estimating body fat in NCAA Division I female athletes: a five-compartment model validation of laboratory methods
J. Moon (2008)
Variability in the Measures of Body Fat
A. Martin (1991)
Effect of Resistance Exercise on Percent Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Adults
C. Dixon (2009)
Scaling skeletal muscle function to mass in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD
C. Malaguti (2006)
Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a useful bedside technique to assess malnutrition in cirrhotic patients with and without ascites
M. Pirlich (2000)
Assessment of Body Composition in Elderly: Accuracy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
M. Bussolotto (1998)
Validation of a skinfold based index for tracking proportional changes in lean mass
G. Slater (2006)
VALIDATION OF AN ANTHROPOMETRIC MODEL FOR TOTAL BODY WATER DETERMINATION IN THE ELDERLY
C. Albala (1997)
Utility of creatinine excretion in body-composition studies of healthy men and women older than 60 y.
S. Welle (1996)
An analysis of body composition and its measurement in a sample of Irish adults aged 18-81 years.
S. Leahy (2011)
A comparison of skinfold anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the evaluation of body fat in cirrhotic patients.
P. Fiore (1999)
Ernährungsphysiologie — Rückschau und Ausblick
W. Kübler (2000)
New fat free mass - fat mass model for use in physiological energy balance equations
D. Thomas (2010)
Human Bone Collagen Synthesis Is a Rapid, Nutritionally Modulated Process
J. Babraj (2005)
NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND GROWTH OF CHILDREN WITH DIPLEGIC OR HEMIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY
V. Stallings (1993)
Approximation of total visceral adipose tissue with a single magnetic resonance image.
E. Demerath (2007)
The Impact of Food Insecurity and Diet on Obesity among Métis and Off-Reserve First Nations Children in Canada
Jasmin Bhawra (2013)
Physiological Daily Inhalation Rates for Free-Living Individuals Aged 2.6 Months to 96 Years Based on Doubly Labeled Water Measurements: Comparison with Time-Activity-Ventilation and Metabolic Energy Conversion Estimates
Pierre Brochu (2006)
Relationship of centrally-located body fat to appetitive hormones in healthy postmenopausal women
L. Ritland (2008)
Critical periods in human growth and their relationship to diseases of aging.
N. Cameron (2002)
Validity of total and segmental impedance measurements for prediction of body composition across ethnic population groups
P. Deurenberg (2002)
Effect of acute zinc depletion on zinc homeostasis and plasma zinc kinetics in men.
J. King (2001)
Body Fat Assessment of Young Syrian Adults Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Deuterium Dilution
M. Al-Bachir (2016)
Comparison of multiple methods to measure maternal fat mass in late gestation.
N. Marshall (2016)
The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore
M. Deurenberg-Yap (2000)See more