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Human Body Composition

G. Forbes
Published 1987 · Medicine

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Although it is self-evident that the study of human nutrition has as its goal the optimal nutrition of man, the nutritional status of the body best suited to optimal performance, i.e., optimal nutrition, has unfortunately not yet been satisfactorily defined. Body composition of animals may be measured by direct chemical analysis and correlated with dietary intake and with the various aspects of performance; studies of body composition of living man, on the other hand, must rely on indirect measure ments. The following two reports, which give an account of the current status of the attack on the difficult task of measuring body composition in living man, are sponsored by the Committee on Nutrition to call attention to the resurgence of effort in this field during recent years. A fuller knowledge of the gross composition of the human body and its relation to preceding diet will constitute a significant step towards realization of the ultimate goal of nutritional science. Even then, a particular body composition will be of importance primarily in terms of functional performance. The availability of newer techniques should do much to stimulate physicians and nutritionists in defining body composition as an essential step in arriving at a more exact definition of optimal nutrition.
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The action of desoxycorticosterone acetate and of dietary sodium and potassium on skeletal muscle electrolyte in adrenalectomized rats.
D. Cole (1953)
10.1079/BJN19740046
Heat loss and energy retention during growth in congenitally obese and lean rats.
J. D. Pullar (1974)
10.1152/JAPPL.1985.59.2.320
Endurance training in humans: aerobic capacity and structure of skeletal muscle.
H. Hoppeler (1985)
Fat cells and body weight
L. Sjostrom (1980)
Chemical and biochemical development of the human fetus
D.A.T. Southgate (1976)
10.1007/978-94-009-9318-1_9
Subcutaneous Fat Measurement as an Indication of Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn
A. Whitelaw (1979)
10.1098/rspb.1951.0010
A method of breaking down the body weights of living persons into terms of extracellular fluid, cell mass and fat, and some applications of it to physiology and medicine
R. Mccance (1951)
The distribution of bromide and chloride in tissues and body fluids
E. G. Weir (1939)
10.1016/S0022-3476(45)80206-8
Production of acidosis in premature infants by protein milk
D. C. Darrow (1945)
10.3109/00365518009095584
Renal function and body composition before and after intestinal bypass operation in obese patients.
J. Brøchner-Mortensen (1980)
10.1016/0026-0495(76)90013-5
Effect of hypophysectomy on weight gain and body composition in the genetically obese yellow (Ay/a) mouse.
T. Plocher (1976)
10.1016/0026-0495(80)90199-7
Relationship between fat-free weight and urinary 3-methythistidine excretion in man.
H. Lukaski (1980)
10.1111/j.1651-2227.1985.tb10921.x
Composition of Postnatal Weight Loss and Subsequent Weight Gain in Small for Dates Newborn Infants
A. Wagen (1985)
10.1093/JN/106.12.1687
Disparate hydration of adipose and lean tissue require a new model for body water distribution in man.
J. Wang (1976)
10.2307/1165809
The assessment of body water and fatness from infancy to adulthood.
E. Mellits (1970)
Prediction of energy requirements of obese patients after massive weight loss.
C. Dore (1982)
10.1016/S0140-6736(64)91041-4
NEUTRON-ACTIVATION ANALYSIS IN MAN IN VIVO. A NEW TECHNIQUE IN MEDICAL INVESTIGATION.
J. Anderson (1964)
Increased glomerular filtration rate and adrenocortical function in obese women.
K. Stokholm (1980)
10.1172/JCI103942
The variability of extracellular fluid space (sucrose) in man during a 24 hour period.
R. Peterson (1959)
1981a) In vivo neutron activation analysis: state of the art and future prospects
S. H. Cohn (1981)
Total body protein, collagen and non-collagen protein in infantile protein malnutrition.
D. Picou (1966)
10.1093/AJCN/23.9.1212
Weight loss during fasting: implications for the obese.
G. Forbes (1970)
10.1111/j.1651-2227.1971.tb05700.x
BODY COMPOSITION AND FITNESS IN OBESE CHILDREN BEFORE AND AFTER SPECIAL TREATMENT
J. Pařízková (1971)
10.1210/JCEM-53-6-1247
Reduction of plasma immunoreactive somatomedin C during fasting in humans.
D. Clemmons (1981)
10.1042/CS059427S
Total body potassium falls with age.
B. Rajagopalan (1980)
10.1079/BJN19790027
Studies on the body composition, fat distribution and fat cell size and number of 'Ad', a new obese mutant mouse.
P. Trayhurn (1979)
10.1056/NEJM197601292940502
Effects of diabetes mellitus on bone mass in juvenile and adult-onset diabetes.
M. Levin (1976)
10.1677/JOE.0.0090418
The influence of placental size on foetal growth in man, with special reference to multiple pregnancy.
T. Mckeown (1953)
greater, and body fat 1 kg
Cook (1969)
Alterations in body composition following intestinal bypass for morbid obesity.
A. Spanier (1976)
Growth at Adolescence, second edition
J. M. Tanner (1962)
10.1136/adc.25.123.242
Red Cell and Plasma Volume in Newborn Infants
P. Mollison (1950)
10.1172/JCI103229
An appraisal of methods of tissue chloride analysis: the total carcass chloride, exchangeable chloride, potassium and water of the rat.
D. B. Cheek (1955)
10.1210/JCEM-2-12-671
Comparative Study of Metabolic Effects of Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate in Man
K. Knowlton (1942)
10.2527/JAS1975.4151414X
Biological Responses to Estrogen Additives in Meat Producing Cattle and Lambs
R. Preston (1975)
10.1093/AJCN/38.1.20
A high protein, low calorie liquid diet in the treatment of very obese adolescents: long-term effect on lean body mass.
M. Brown (1983)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.QJMED.A067229
Osteoporosis and the effects of ageing on bone mass in elderly men and women.
P. Adams (1970)
10.1056/NEJM198511213132106
Atrial natriuretic hormone, the renin-aldosterone axis, and blood pressure-electrolyte homeostasis.
J. Laragh (1985)
10.1152/AJPENDO.1985.249.5.E470
Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for "luxuskonsumption".
E. Ravussin (1985)
Measurement of total-body calcium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, and phosphorus in man by in vivo neutron activation analysis.
S. Cohn (1971)
10.1016/s0022-5347(17)45993-3
Effect of Stilboestrol on Sodium Balance, Cardiac State, and Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Activity in Prostatic Carcinoma
B. Blyth (1986)
10.3109/17453677408989136
Bone mineral content and physical activity.
N. Dalén (1974)
10.1249/00005768-198502000-00018
Effects of aerobic training on fat distribution in male subjects.
J. Després (1985)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1976.230.1.143
Effect of aging on bone mass in adult women.
S. Cohn (1976)
10.1093/AJCN/24.3.290
Effect of body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet.
C. Young (1971)
10.1079/BJN19580015
The chemical composition of the tissue lost by obese patients on a reducing regimen.
R. Passmore (1958)
Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Neugeborenen
W Camerer (1900)
10.1172/JCI103345
A constant-change (single injection) method for the estimation of the volume of distribution of substances in body fluid compartments.
P. Poulos (1956)
10.1172/JCI105667
The effects of estradiol and estriol on plasma levels of cortisol and thyroid hormone-binding globulins and on aldosterone and cortisol secretion rates in man.
F. Katz (1967)
10.1172/JCI104269
Body fluid and electrolyte composition in arterial hypertension. II. Studies in mineralocorticoid hypertension.
A. Chobanian (1961)
10.1111/J.1749-6632.1963.TB15802.X
CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION DURING PREGNANCY *
J. Seitchik (1963)
Daily energy expenditure and basal metabolic rates of patients with spinal cord injury.
L. Mollinger (1985)
Anomalies of the regulation of salt and water in protein-calorie malnutrition
B. L. Nichols (1973)
Effect of HGH on body composition of hypopituitary dwarfs. Four-compartment analysis and composite body density.
L. P. Novâk (1972)
10.1097/00000441-195912000-00030
THE CHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF BONE MINERAL
W. Neuman (1958)
Protein malnutrition following intestinal bypass for morbid obesity.
H. Shizgal (1979)
10.1093/auk/102.3.661
Scaling: why is animal size so important?
F. Hainsworth (1985)
10.1148/97.1.8
Acta Radiologica Supplementum 293: Radiographic Measurements of Cortical Bone, Variations in a Normal Population Between 1 and 90 Years of Age
A. Poznanski (1970)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1962.203.3.545
Nutritional status and physiological development of the preweanling rat.
F. W. Heggeness (1962)
10.1249/00005768-198502000-00022
Responses of pre- and post-menopausal females to aerobic conditioning.
M. M. Cowan (1985)
A longitudinal study of 16 champion runners.
D. Dill (1967)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1964.206.6.1365
ELECTROLYTE AND NITROGEN CHANGES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF DEVELOPING RATS.
A. Vernadakis (1964)
Diabetic acidosis.
J. Howard (1951)
Minerals in nonosseous connective tissues (including the blood
J. F. Manery (1961)
10.1677/JOE.0.0080386
Observations on foetal growth in multiple pregnancy in man.
T. Mckeown (1952)
on eumenorrheic and amenorrheic runners: The latter
water (1984)
10.1111/J.1749-6632.1963.TB15782.X
BODY COMPOSITION STUDIES OF “OLDER” WOMEN, THIRTY TO SEVENTY YEARS OF AGE *
C. Young (1963)
10.1152/JAPPL.1981.50.5.936
Muscular enlargement and number of fibers in skeletal muscles of rats.
P. Gollnick (1981)
10.1093/AJCN/27.6.595
Stature and lean body mass.
G. Forbes (1974)
10.1002/AJPA.1330100406
The effect of weight-training on physique.
J. Tanner (1952)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1922.60.2.371
A STUDY OF WEIGHT REGULATION IN THE ADULT HUMAN BODY DURING OVER-NUTRITION
Addison Gulick (1922)
10.1079/BJN19610005
Basal metabolism in women with obesity and anorexia nervosa.
Hans Ljunggren (1961)
10.1016/S0140-6736(75)92432-0
TOTAL BODY AND SERUM POTASSIUM DURING PROLONGED THIAZIDE THERAPY FOR ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION
P. Wilkinson (1975)
10.1210/JCEM-2-12-696
Creatinin Excretion in Women: Clinical Significance in Obesity
B. N. Tager (1942)
10.1152/AJPENDO.1983.244.3.E305
Indexes of body cell mass: nitrogen versus potassium.
S. Cohn (1983)
Histochemical changes in ageing
O. H. Lowry (1942)
10.1093/AJCN/32.5.981
Body composition during nutritional repletion of severely undernourished men.
M. Barac-nieto (1979)
10.1152/AJPREGU.1981.241.5.R316
Spontaneous obesity in maturing squirrel monkeys fed semipurified diets.
L. Ausman (1981)
10.1088/0031-9155/28/3/002
Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis.
N. Kennedy (1983)
Turning now to male
Remes (1979)
10.1203/00006450-197810000-00008
Distortions in Fetal Growth Standards
R. Naeye (1978)
10.7326/0003-4819-74-3-408
Thickness of subcutaneous fat and activity of underlying muscles.
G. Gwinup (1971)
recorded a 6% increase in muscle weight in rats
Saville (1969)
10.5555/URI:PII:0022214358901847
Constancy of urinary creatinine excretion.
P. Vestergaard (1958)
Body Composition in Animals and Man (Publication No. 1598)
J. T. Reid (1968)
10.1097/00005176-198403000-00005
New Method for the Estimation of Lean Body Mass in Infants (EMME Instrument): Validation in Nonhuman Models
W. Klish (1984)
1975) also found a twofold variation in muscle
Inokuchi (1975)
10.1016/0305-0491(72)90329-X
Body composition of mice subjected to genetic selection for different body proportions.
N. Dawson (1972)
10.1210/JCEM-33-4-661
Calcium metabolism in normal human pregnancy.
R. Heaney (1971)
10.1126/SCIENCE.104.2694.157
Determination of total body water and solids with isotopes.
F. Moore (1946)
10.1093/AJCN/40.6.1137
Body composition changes during recovery from anorexia nervosa: comparison of two dietary regimes.
G. Forbes (1984)
10.1002/AJPA.1330330305
Weight of the skeleton during postnatal development.
M. Trotter (1970)
A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City.
D. Rush (1980)
10.1001/JAMA.1923.02650040033011
TIME REQUIRED FOR DISAPPEARANCE OF INTRADERMALLY INJECTED SALT SOLUTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF OBSERVATIONS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CASES OF EDEMA
W. McClure (1923)
Teenage Nutrition and Physique.
R. Huenemann (1974)
The measurement of total water, exchangeable sodium and potassium in obese persons
M. Linquette (1969)
10.1093/JN/106.2.191
Maintenance requirement and energetic efficiency of lean and obese Zucker rats.
S. Deb (1976)
Relationship between body collagen and urinary hydroxyproline excretion in young rats fed on a low-protein or lowcalorie diet
A. Anasuya (1970)
10.1172/JCI103313
Total sodium, potassium and chloride in adult man.
G. Forbes (1956)
Comparative study of body composition of American and Filipino women.
L. P. Novâk (1970)
10.1111/j.1651-2227.1974.tb04870.x
RESTING METABOLIC RATE IN MALNOURISHED BABIES IN RELATION TO TOTAL BODY POTASSIUM
O. Brooke (1974)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1963.tb17078.x
A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME *
W. Pierson (1963)
10.1093/AJCN/25.11.1153
Body composition of premature infants: relation to nutrition.
B. Kagan (1972)
10.1172/JCI112011
Influence of obesity on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B in humans.
G. Egusa (1985)
10.1093/AJCN/2.6.405
Nitrogen balance as related to caloric and protein intake in active young men.
D. Calloway (1954)
10.1093/AJCN/41.3.540
Anthropometric and calorimetric evidence for the protein sparing effects of a new protein supplemented low calorie preparation.
L. V. Van Gaal (1985)
10.1016/0026-0495(86)90101-0
Measurement of lean body mass and total body fat using dual photon absorptiometry.
A. Gotfredsen (1986)
Prediction of total body water in adolescent males.
J. Schutte (1980)
10.1001/ARCHPEDI.1940.01990120109011
Growth and chemical composition of the human skeleton.
W. W. Swanson (1940)
10.1016/S0140-6736(71)92604-3
Diuretics, potassium depletion, and carbohydrate intolerance.
A. Graybiel (1971)
10.1093/JN/100.9.1041
Dietary obesity in rats: Body weight and body fat accretion in seven strains of rats.
R. Schemmel (1970)
10.1001/ARCHPEDI.1983.02140330042011
Effect of a weight-reducing high-protein diet on the body composition of obese adolescents.
E. Archibald (1983)
10.3181/00379727-80-19609
Influence of Body Fat on Duration of Thiopental Anesthesia
G. Hermann (1952)
CHANGES IN BONE SODIUM DURING GROWTH IN THE RAT.
G. Forbes (1963)
Estimation of bone and skeletal weight by direct photon absorptiometry.
H. E. Meema (1971)
10.1093/AJCN/36.1.178
Adiposity indices in children.
M. Rolland-Cachera (1982)
10.1159/000400641
Carcass evaluation of cattle, sheep and pigs.
A. Cuthbertson (1978)
The gross electrolyte composition of certain human malignant tissues.
C. Waterhouse (1955)
10.1079/BJN19630040
THE EFFECT OF OVERFEEDING ON TWO FAT YOUNG WOMEN.
R. Passmore (1963)
10.1530/ACTA.0.0550202
Body cell mass during long-term cortisone treatment in asthmatic subjects.
B. Lindholm (1967)
10.1007/978-3-642-66353-6
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
有正 修道 (1976)
Radiographic morphometry and osteopenia in spinal osteoporosis.
J. Aloia (1977)
10.1001/ARCHPEDI.1933.01950180108008
LOSS OF MINERALS THROUGH THE SKIN OF INFANTS
W. W. Swanson (1933)
1948) in immobilized men. Kr~lner and Toft (1983) made photon absorptiometric measurements
by Deitrick (1983)
Unified method for serial study of body fluid compartments.
C. P. Spears (1974)
Relationship between muscle
R. J. Maughan (1983)
10.1159/000240680
Skinfold thickness in neonates.
A. McGowan (1974)
10.1152/AJPENDO.1981.241.5.E342
Body composition, energy expenditure, and plasma metabolites in long-term fasting geese.
Y. le Maho (1981)
10.1001/archpedi.1975.02120420009003
Maternal nutrition and fetal growth in developing countries.
A. Lechtig (1975)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.QJMED.A066583
OBSERVATIONS ON THE DISTURBANCE OF METABOLISM PRODUCED BY INJURY TO THE LIMBS
D. Cuthbertson (1932)
10.1111/j.1651-2227.1969.tb04762.x
PLACENTAL TRANSFUSION IN THE PREMATURE INFANT WITH OBSERVATION ON CLINICAL COURSE AND OUTCOME
A. Yao (1969)
10.1016/S0140-6736(71)91126-3
Pattern of development of bone in childhood and adolescence.
C. Gryfe (1971)
10.1210/JCEM-21-9-1099
The protein anabolic action of mestanolone.
Lynn Harold Harris (1961)
10.1152/ajpregu.1981.241.5.R419
Total body sodium, calcium, and chloride measured chemically and by neutron activation in guinea pigs.
H. Sheng (1981)
10.1172/JCI111040
Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution.
M. Krotkiewski (1983)
10.1210/JCEM-31-3-312
Antidiuretic hormone values in plasma and urine of malnourished children.
S. Srikantia (1970)
10.1042/CS0430289
Cortisol and aldosterone excretion and plasma cortisol concentrations in normal and obese female subjects.
M. Hankin (1972)
10.1093/AJCN/20.11.1212
Gluttony. 1. An experimental study of overeating low- or high-protein diets.
D. S. Miller (1967)
Genetic Mouse Yellow-obese (A'/a
Mayer (1956)
10.1080/03014467800003121
Relationship of anthropometric dimensions to lean body mass in children.
M. H. Slaughter (1978)
10.1210/JCEM-24-6-481
INFLUENCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ON ADRENAL FUNCTION IN OBESITY.
J. A. Prezio (1964)
Metabolic effects of substituting carbohydrate for protein in a low-calorie diet: a prolonged study in obese patients.
M. Yang (1981)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1974.227.1.88
Food intake in hypothalamic obesity.
J. Goldman (1974)
Quantitative Clinical Chemistry, Vol. I
J. P. Peters (1946)
10.1152/JAPPL.1966.21.4.1251
Body density and potassium 40 measurements of body composition as related to age.
L. Myhre (1966)
Human protein
R. Uauy (1978)
10.1152/PHYSREV.1939.19.3.415
The mineral metabolism of normal infants.
G. Stearns (1939)
10.1016/0026-0495(73)90076-0
L-thyroxine in the treatment of obesity without increase in loss of lean body mass.
L. Lamki (1973)
Rates of sodium turnover in normal subjects and in patients with congestive heart failure.
G. Burch (1947)
The concentrations of water, sodium and potassium in the nucleus and cytoplasm of amphibian oocytes.
T. J. Century (1970)
10.1093/AJCN/32.8.1570
Loss of body nitrogen on fasting.
G. Forbes (1979)
THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADMINISTERED BROMIDE IN COMPARISON WITH CHLORIDE AND ITS RELATION TO BODY FLUIDS
G. Wallace (1939)
10.1093/AJCN/39.5.716
Effects of marginally negative energy balance on insulin binding to erythrocytes of normal men.
D. Garrel (1984)
Stoffwechsel- und Respirationsversuche zur Frage der Eiweissmast
A. Muller (1911)
Comparison of measured and estimated fat-free weight, fat, potassium and nitrogen of growing guinea pigs.
H. Sheng (1982)
10.1152/PHYSREV.1953.33.3.245
Body fat in adult man.
A. Keys (1953)
10.1093/JN/91.2.179
Cellular response with increased feeding in neonatal rats.
M. Winick (1967)
10.1093/AJCN/38.3.347
Unmeasured losses of potassium in balance studies.
G. Forbes (1983)
Evaluation of analytical models based on anthropometry and age for the prediction of body fat
G. Clemente (1973)
10.1152/JAPPL.1967.23.4.423
Effect of immersion in water on vital capacity and residual volume of the lungs.
A. B. Craig (1967)
10.1038/129775A0
Problems of Relative Growth
C. Pantin (1932)
10.1111/j.1365-2265.1983.tb03192.x
THE RENIN–ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM AND TOTAL BODY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IN HYPERTENSIVE WOMEN TAKING OESTROGEN–PROGESTAGEN ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
D. Mcareavey (1983)
Body composition of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls.
C. Young (1968)
10.1097/00000658-198409000-00004
Combined Hormonal Infusion Simulates the Metabolic Response to Injury
P. Bessey (1984)
Quantitative computed tomography for assessing vertebral bone mineral
H. K. Genant (1982)
10.1093/AJCN/28.2.157
Growth of adipose and lean tissue mass in hindlimbs of genetically obese mice during preobese and obese phases of development.
W. Bergen (1975)
10.1111/J.0954-6820.1975.TB04933.X
Bone mass in obese subjects.
N. Dalén (1975)
10.1113/EXPPHYSIOL.1962.SP001589
The chemical composition of adipose tissue of man and mice.
L. W. Thomas (1962)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.134.3.7355211
New standards of cortical mass in the humerus of neonates: a means of evaluating bone loss in the premature infant.
A. Poznanski (1980)
Fat redistribution and the changing body dimensions of the adult male.
Borkan Ga (1977)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1965.tb34805.x
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INCREASED ADRENOCORTICAL FUNCTION OBSERVED IN MANY OBESE PATIENTS *
D. Schteingart (1965)
Body composition: simultaneous determination of several aspects by the dilution principle.
J. D. McMurrey (1958)
Determination of extracellular fluid volume by fluorescent excitation analysis of bromine.
L. Kaufman (1973)
10.1152/JAPPL.1975.39.5.818
Longitudinal measurements of blood volume and essential body mass in human subjects.
S. Chien (1975)
Weight parameters of adult human skeleton.
B. K. Borisov (1974)
Rates offemoral cortical bone loss in two Nubian populations
J. R. Dewey (1969)
10.1172/JCI102764
Chloride, bromide, sodium, and sucrose spaces in man.
J. L. Gamble (1953)
10.7326/0003-4819-74-4-652_1
The earlier gain and the later loss of cortical bone, in nutritional perspective
S. Garn (1970)
10.1007/978-1-4684-2622-9_9
Body composition in adolescence.
G. Forbes (1981)
10.1093/JN/112.2.356
Menstrual cycle and protein requirements of women.
D. Calloway (1982)
10.1001/ARCHINTE.1909.00050220024003
PROTEIN METABOLISM IN TYPHOID FEVER
P. Shaffer (1909)
The effect of alterations in extracellular fluid on the composition of connective tissue.
W. Weil (1960)
10.1121/1.392346
Use of resonating cavity to measure body volume.
W. Deskins (1985)
THE DEPOSITION OF POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHATE WITH GLYCOGEN IN RAT LIVERS
W. O. Fenn (1939)
Clinical experience with a very low calorie diet
H. Ditschuneit (1985)
10.2106/00004623-196042010-00005
Densites of bones of white and Negro skeletons.
M. Trotter (1960)
10.1016/S0022-3476(80)80009-6
The effects of anabolic steroids on growth, body composition, and metabolism in boys with chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis.
R. Jones (1980)
10.1111/j.1651-2227.1978.tb17818.x
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAEMOGLOBIN AND SERUM TESTOSTERONE IN NORMAL CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AND IN BOYS WITH DELAYED PUBERTY
S. Krabbe (1978)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1939.126.2.402
THE EQUALITY OF THE CHLORIDE SPACE AND THE EXTRACELLULAR SPACE OF RAT LIVER
F. L. Truax (1939)
The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human.
J. M. Heaton (1972)
Creatine and creatinine metabolism in thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism; a clinical study.
B. Kuhlback (1957)
10.1016/S0022-3476(59)80281-X
The blood volume of infants. II. The premature infant during the first year of life.
T. R. Sisson (1959)
10.1136/adc.29.148.488
Normal Renal Function in the First Two Days of Life
R. Mccance (1954)
10.1001/ARCHPEDI.1983.02140300043012
Characteristics of the mother and child in teenage pregnancy.
S. Garn (1983)
10.1042/CS0660683
The relative proportions of fat, muscle and bone in the normal human forearm as determined by computed tomography.
R. Maughan (1984)
1976), the cost of depositing a gram of fat
Spady (1976)
10.1016/S0140-6736(76)90001-5
"ANABOLIC" EFFECTS OF METHANDIENONE IN MEN UNDERGOING ATHLETIC TRAINING
G. E. Hervey (1976)
10.1016/0026-0495(73)90263-1
Simultaneous measurement of total exchangeable potassium and sodium using 43 K and 24 Na.
D. L. Davies (1973)
10.1079/BJN19840021
Physical activity improves protein utilization in young men.
G. Butterfield (1984)
Die Verweilzeit des Wassers im menschlichen K6rper, untersucht mit Hilfe von "schwerem" Wasser als Indicator
G. von Hevesy (1934)
10.1212/WNL.35.7.1035
Myotonic dystrophy
R. Griggs (1985)
10.1093/AJCN/27.12.1380
A comparison of methods for estimating human body composition.
H. Krzywicki (1974)
Rat High-fat diet
Applegate (1984)
Measurement of total body fat in man by absorption of 85Kr.
F. Hytten (1966)
10.1152/AJPRENAL.1977.233.3.F253
Indirect measurement of total exchangeable potassium.
H. Shizgal (1977)
Young adult men and women were fed a mixed diet providing 0.57 g protein/kg/day, and after a baseline period an energy deficit was produced by one of two maneuvers: (I) a reduction in energy intake
Goranzon (1985)
10.1111/j.1365-2362.1977.tb01628.x
Body composition and adipose tissue cellularity before and after jejuno‐ileostomy in severely obese subjects
J. G. Kral (1977)
Evaluation and regulation of body build and composition
A. R. Behnke (1974)
Muscle strengths in relation to fat storage in young men
K. Kitagawa (1978)
10.1093/ajcn/36.5.986
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