Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Management Of Medical Complications Of Gallstone Disease

Victorio P. Pidlaoan, S. Krishna
Published 2016 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Because the biliary tree is a low-pressure pathway for excretion of hydrophobic products, bile is vulnerable to precipitation, and once they form, bile crystals or stones rarely dissolve spontaneously. Risk factors for the development of gallstones include female gender, pregnancy, multiparity, chronic hemolytic conditions, obesity, and total parenteral nutrition. Gallstone disease manifests either by obstruction or by erosion. Obstruction may be transient or complete. Obstructive gallstone disease may present as choledocholithiasis, biliary pain, acute gallstone pancreatitis, or ascending cholangitis. Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastrointestinal cause of hospital admission and is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Severe acute pancreatitis and ascending cholangitis in the presence of an obstructing gallstone are emergent indications for biliary decompression with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Rarely, gallstones may erode into adjacent structures, causing fistulas that may manifest as biliary obstruction (Mirrizi’s syndrome); biliary enteric fistula, which may manifest as small bowel obstruction (gallstone ileus); or fistulization with other interfacing organ systems, including the integument, vasculature, thorax, or genitourinary system. Patients with gallstone disease often present with familiar signs and symptoms associated with intra-abdominal disease processes. Hence, it is important to deliberate on good clinical practice and elucidate an appropriate differential diagnosis.
This paper references
The role of serum liver enzymes in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis.
J. Pereira-Lima (2000)
10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.00608.x
Hemoconcentration as an early risk factor for necrotizing pancreatitis
J. Baillargeon (1998)
10.1016/S0016-5107(98)70121-X
Major early complications from diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study.
S. Loperfido (1998)
Objective early identification of severe acute pancreatitis.
John H. C. Ranson (1974)
10.1148/radiology.156.3.4023241
Acute pancreatitis: prognostic value of CT.
E. Balthazar (1985)
10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.2009.02.011
Fluid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis in acute response stage
E. Mao (2009)
10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420170122019
A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, Ga, September 11 through 13, 1992.
E. L. Bradley (1993)
10.1016/0002-9610(86)90028-0
Biliary pancreatitis: clinical presentation and surgical management.
G. Frei (1986)
10.1159/000073657
A Randomised Clinical Trial to Assess the Effect of Total Enteral and Total Parenteral Nutritional Support on Metabolic, Inflammatory and Oxidative Markers in Patients with Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis (APACHE II >6) (R. Gupta et al., Southampton)
R. Gupta (2003)
10.1378/chest.97.3.751
Cholecystopleural fistula with cholelithiasis presenting as a right pleural effusion.
L. Cunningham (1990)
10.1016/j.gie.2008.10.039
Risk factors for complications after ERCP: a multivariate analysis of 11,497 procedures over 12 years.
P. Cotton (2009)
Complications of cholelithiasis.
H. F. Newman (1968)
10.2214/ajr.143.3.591
Preoperative diagnosis of the Mirizzi syndrome: limitations of sonography and computed tomography.
C. Becker (1984)
10.1016/j.cgh.2011.08.026
An assessment of the severity of interstitial pancreatitis.
V. Singh (2011)
Gallstone ileus: a review of 1001 reported cases.
R. Reisner (1994)
10.1053/j.gastro.2011.06.073
A conservative and minimally invasive approach to necrotizing pancreatitis improves outcome.
H. V. van Santvoort (2011)
10.1016/S0009-9260(87)80417-8
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis: ultrasound evaluation compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
E. Chau (1987)
10.1378/chest.106.3.961
Spontaneous biliothorax (thoracobilia) following cholecystopleural fistula presenting as an acute respiratory insufficiency. Successful removal of gallstones from the pleural space.
F. Delcò (1994)
10.2214/AJR.04.1371
Role of helical CT in diagnosis of gallstone ileus and related conditions.
F. Lassandro (2005)
10.1097/00003246-198510000-00009
APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system.
W. Knaus (1985)
10.1002/bjs.5290
Association between early systemic inflammatory response, severity of multiorgan dysfunction and death in acute pancreatitis
R. Mofidi (2006)
10.1089/sur.2009.9930
Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
J. Solomkin (2010)
10.1016/j.suc.2014.01.004
Bile metabolism and lithogenesis.
Kathleen O'Connell (2014)
10.1097/00003246-198608000-00027
APACHE II--a severity of disease classification system.
J. Legall (1986)
10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302779
Classification of acute pancreatitis—2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus
P. Banks (2012)
10.1067/msy.2000.103488
Brief Clinical ReportsFatal bilhemia
P. Sandblom (2000)
10.1159/000243731
Practice and Yield of Early CT Scan in Acute Pancreatitis: A Dutch Observational Multicenter Study
B. M. Spanier (2010)
10.1067/MGE.2002.125544
Management of gallstone pancreatitis: cholecystectomy or ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy.
M. Kaw (2002)
10.1016/S0016-5107(02)70006-0
Therapeutic role of ERCP in the management of suspected common bile duct stones.
D. Carr-Locke (2002)
10.1097/00000658-197905000-00016
The Timing of Biliary Surgery in Acute Pancreatitis
John H. C. Ranson (1979)
10.1097/01.mpa.0000226885.32957.17
Hemoconcentration and Pancreatic Necrosis: Further Defining the Relationship
T. Gardner (2006)
10.1016/0016-5085(86)90579-2
Bacterial contamination of pancreatic necrosis. A prospective clinical study.
H. Beger (1986)
10.1157/13116073
Hemobilia traumática: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura médica
C. Muñoz (2008)
10.1016/j.cgh.2009.10.033
Acute pancreatitis part I: approach to early management.
B. Wu (2010)
10.1159/000071181
IAP Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Acute Pancreatitis
W. Uhl (2003)
10.1001/archinternmed.2011.126
Blood urea nitrogen in the early assessment of acute pancreatitis: an international validation study.
B. Wu (2011)
10.1097/01.CCM.0000269031.13283.C8
The Pancreatitis Outcome Prediction (POP) Score: A new prognostic index for patients with severe acute pancreatitis*
D. Harrison (2007)
10.1159/000097949
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Enteral versus Parenteral Feeding in Patients with Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis Shows a Significant Reduction in Mortality and in Infected Pancreatic Complications with Total Enteral Nutrition
M. Petrov (2006)
10.1053/j.gastro.2009.03.056
Early changes in blood urea nitrogen predict mortality in acute pancreatitis.
B. Wu (2009)
10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05766.x
A critical evaluation of laboratory tests in acute pancreatitis
D. Yadav (2002)
10.1097/00004836-200001000-00014
Gallstone ileus: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic successes.
D. Lobo (2000)
10.1016/S0889-8553(03)00090-6
Diagnosis and management of cholecystitis and cholangitis.
I. Yusoff (2003)
Portobiliary fistula: occurrence and treatment.
Rankin Rn (1991)
10.1016/0009-8981(90)90109-6
Comparative evaluation of the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis based on serum and urine enzyme assays.
G. P. Gwozdz (1990)
10.2169/INTERNALMEDICINE.51.6685
Meta-analysis: total parenteral nutrition versus total enteral nutrition in predicted severe acute pancreatitis.
Fengming Yi (2012)
10.1136/gut.2004.039883
Persistent organ failure during the first week as a marker of fatal outcome in acute pancreatitis
C. Johnson (2004)
10.7326/0003-4819-101-2-171
The natural history of cholelithiasis: the National Cooperative Gallstone Study.
J. Thistle (1984)
10.1016/j.cgh.2011.04.026
Lactated Ringer's solution reduces systemic inflammation compared with saline in patients with acute pancreatitis.
B. Wu (2011)
10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03786.x
Systematic review: nutritional support in acute pancreatitis
M. Petrov (2008)
10.7888/JUOEH.35.249
Progression of Tokyo Guidelines and Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.
T. Mayumi (2013)
10.1097/00006676-200005000-00005
Hemoconcentration Is an Early Marker for Organ Failure and Necrotizing Pancreatitis
A. Brown (2000)
10.1007/BF02784951
CT-guided aspiration of suspected pancreatic infection
P. Banks (1995)
10.1016/j.cgh.2008.05.005
Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis.
T. Gardner (2008)
10.1016/S0016-5107(04)02448-4
Fatal air and bile embolism after percutaneous liver biopsy and ERCP.
Junaid Siddiqui (2005)
10.1016/j.pan.2013.07.063
IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis.
H. V. Goor (2013)
Comprar Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Pancreas and Biliary Tract, 5th Edition | Leslie H. Blumgart | 9781437714548 | Saunders
Leslie H. Blumgart (2012)
10.1080/13651820701774883
Biliary tract obstruction in chronic pancreatitis.
Abdul A Abdallah (2007)
10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00645.x
Characterization of Bouveret's Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of 128 Cases
M. Cappell (2006)
10.1053/j.gastro.2012.08.002
Burden of gastrointestinal disease in the United States: 2012 update.
A. Peery (2012)
10.1016/j.clnu.2012.12.011
Early nasogastric tube feeding versus nil per os in mild to moderate acute pancreatitis: a randomized controlled trial.
M. Petrov (2013)
10.3748/wjg.v17.i33.3842
Management of acquired bronchobiliary fistula: A systematic literature review of 68 cases published in 30 years.
Guanqun Liao (2011)
Mirizzi's syndrome: experience from a multi-institutional review.
L. Johnson (2001)
Bronchobiliary fistula successfully treated surgically.
C. F. Chong (2008)
10.1155/2013/367581
Comparison of Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, BISAP, APACHE-II, CTSI Scores, IL-6, CRP, and Procalcitonin in Predicting Severity, Organ Failure, Pancreatic Necrosis, and Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis
A. Khanna (2013)
10.1002/bjs.6447
Timing and impact of infections in acute pancreatitis
M. G. Besselink (2009)
Counts of bacteria and pyocites of choledochal bile in controls and in patients with gallstones or common bile duct stones with or without acute cholangitis.
A. Csendes (1996)
10.2214/ajr.138.4.746
Posttraumatic Bilhemia: diagnosis and catheter therapy.
J. Struyven (1982)
10.1038/ajg.2011.438
A Comparative Evaluation of Radiologic and Clinical Scoring Systems in the Early Prediction of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis
T. Bollen (2012)
10.1016/J.CLNU.2007.04.007
Immediate oral feeding in patients with mild acute pancreatitis is safe and may accelerate recovery--a randomized clinical study.
G. Eckerwall (2007)
Rapid hemodilution is associated with increased sepsis and mortality among patients with severe acute pancreatitis.
E. Mao (2010)
10.1016/0002-9343(90)90094-T
Clinical evaluation for gallstone disease: usefulness of symptoms and signs in diagnosis.
A. Diehl (1990)
10.1007/s00464-002-9236-5
Laparoscopic treatment for Mirizzi syndrome
C. Yeh (2002)
10.1097/RCT.0b013e31817710d5
Combination of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and Computed Tomography for Preoperative Diagnosis of the Mirizzi Syndrome
Eun Joo Yun (2009)
10.1016/j.suc.2013.12.001
Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract.
Danielle E. Cafasso (2014)
10.1016/S0002-9270(00)02387-X
Complications of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP: a prospective multicenter study.
E. Masci (2001)
10.1007/BF02087780
Natural history of gallstones in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
G. Favero (2005)
10.1038/ajg.2011.236
Influence of Fluid Therapy on the Prognosis of Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Cohort Study
E. de-Madaria (2011)
10.1136/gut.2008.152702
The early prediction of mortality in acute pancreatitis: a large population-based study
B. Wu (2008)
A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis.
Bradley Rd (1993)
10.1056/NEJM199206113262401
Endoscopic Biliary Drainage for Severe Acute Cholangitis
E. C. Lai (1992)
10.1016/S0039-6109(16)41189-8
Hemobilia: some salient features and their causes.
P. Sandblom (1977)
10.1186/1752-1947-3-23
Minimally invasive treatment of patients with bronchobiliary fistula: a case series
Unal Aydin (2009)
10.1038/ajg.2008.77
Low Mortality and High Morbidity in Severe Acute Pancreatitis Without Organ Failure: A Case for Revising the Atlanta Classification to Include “Moderately Severe Acute Pancreatitis”
S. Vege (2009)
10.1016/S1072-7515(99)00045-9
Extrapancreatic necrotizing pancreatitis with viable pancreas: a previously under-appreciated entity.
G. Sakorafas (1999)
10.2214/AJR.07.2761
MDCT of acute mild (nonnecrotizing) pancreatitis: abdominal complications and fate of fluid collections.
D. K. Lenhart (2008)
10.1056/NEJMoa1404393
Early versus on-demand nasoenteric tube feeding in acute pancreatitis.
O. J. Bakker (2014)
10.1007/s00268-008-9660-3
The Relationship of Mirizzi Syndrome and Cholecystoenteric Fistula: Validation of a Modified Classification
Marcelo A. Beltrán (2008)
10.1016/0016-5085(91)90089-4
Lipase/amylase ratio: A new index that distinguishes acute episodes of alcoholic from nonalcoholic acute pancreatitis
V. Gumaste (1991)
10.1016/S0016-5107(91)70740-2
Endoscopic sphincterotomy complications and their management: an attempt at consensus.
P. Cotton (1991)
10.1016/j.suc.2014.01.002
Unusual complications of gallstones.
Minh B. Luu (2014)
10.1001/ARCHSURG.1997.01430340083015
Treatment of acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis in elderly and younger patients.
M. Sugiyama (1997)
10.1053/GAST.1996.V111.PM8898650
Biliary-shunt fistula following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement.
S. Mallery (1996)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar