Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Measuring Biological Impacts Of Nanomaterials

J. Wegener
Published 2016 · Materials Science

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
In this article, well-established characterization methods for nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed, in particular their application under physiological conditions. The impact of different media, mimicking physiological conditions, on NP stability in terms of physiological ionic strength and formation of the NP–protein corona is described. In order to characterize NPs under physiological conditions, we distinguish between scattering and correlation methods, microscopy-based methods, and methods based on hydrodynamic separation. Features and limitations of relevant characterization methods are reviewed, as well as challenges arising in physiological media from enhanced aggregation tendency and the presence of proteins. We conclude that no available method for NP characterization in physiological media is able to describe the colloidal system completely and satisfactory. On the contrary, combining well-chosen analytical methods by taking benefits and disadvantages into account may provide detailed characterization results.
This paper references
10.1002/MASY.200290009
The use of Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate small-angle scattering patterns
Bryan C. Mcalister (2002)
10.1080/pdp.20.6.445.469
LIPID-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS OF HYDROPHOBIC PROTEINS SP-B AND SP-C IN LUNG SURFACTANT ASSEMBLY AND DYNAMICS
J. Pérez-Gil (2001)
10.1021/JA031691C
Bioactivation and cell targeting of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals with phytochelatin-related peptides.
F. Pinaud (2004)
10.1016/j.chroma.2010.11.012
Processing nanoparticles with A4F-SAXS for toxicological studies: Iron oxide in cell-based assays.
Patrick Knappe (2011)
10.1529/BIOPHYSJ.107.106765
Solubility versus electrostatics: what determines lipid/protein interaction in lung surfactant.
M. Seifert (2007)
Regulation of intracellular pH mediates Bax activation in HeLa cells treated with staurosporine or tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
M. Tafani (2002)
10.1039/C0SM01556C
Formation and structure of slightly anionically charged nanoemulsions obtained by the phase inversion concentration (PIC) method
P. Heunemann (2011)
10.1007/S00396-003-1006-Y
Cryo-TEM imaging of block copolymer micelles containing solubilized liquid crystal
I. Hamley (2004)
10.1039/FT9908602859
Effects of stern-layer conductance on electrokinetic transport properties of colloidal particles
Christine S. Mangelsdorf (1990)
10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.00188.x
A major deletion in the surfactant protein‐B gene causing lethal respiratory distress
D. Wegner (2007)
10.1002/CPHC.200600638
Two-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: a new tool for accurate and absolute diffusion measurements.
Thomas Dertinger (2007)
10.1021/la803361y
Effect of molecular structure of cationic surfactants on biophysical interactions of surfactant-modified nanoparticles with a model membrane and cellular uptake.
Chiranjeevi Peetla (2009)
10.1016/J.TIBTECH.2007.09.005
Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the lungs.
Jean Sung (2007)
10.1093/toxsci/kfn137
Induction of autophagy in porcine kidney cells by quantum dots: a common cellular response to nanomaterials?
S. Stern (2008)
10.1166/JBN.2006.031
Biophysical Investigation of Nanoparticle Interactions with Lung Surfactant Model Systems
D. Stuart (2006)
10.1083/JCB.111.6.2307
ATP is required for receptor-mediated endocytosis in intact cells
S. Schmid (1990)
10.1007/s00204-008-0306-x
Effects of eicosane, a component of nanoparticles in diesel exhaust, on surface activity of pulmonary surfactant monolayers
S. Kanno (2008)
10.1016/0021-9797(80)90374-4
Flat plate streaming potential investigations: Hydrodynamics and electrokinetic equivalency
R. V. Wagenen (1980)
10.1002/anie.201301045
A versatile fiber-optic fluorescence sensor based on molecularly imprinted microstructures polymerized in situ.
Xuan-Anh Ton (2013)
10.1021/LA950614V
Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry allows visualization and analysis of coexisting phases in Langmuir-Blodgett films
K. Leufgen (1996)
10.1016/S0006-3495(02)75412-X
Scanning force microscopy at the air-water interface of an air bubble coated with pulmonary surfactant.
D. Knebel (2002)
10.1289/ehp.8006
Ultrafine Particles Cross Cellular Membranes by Nonphagocytic Mechanisms in Lungs and in Cultured Cells
M. Geiser (2005)
10.1177/1753425910368446
Review: Collectins link innate and adaptive immunity in allergic airway disease
J. Ledford (2010)
10.1002/adma.201203204
Holographic molecularly imprinted polymers for label-free chemical sensing.
Y. Fuchs (2013)
10.1007/s002490050090
The phase behavior of lipid monolayers containing pulmonary surfactant protein C studied by fluorescence light microscopy
A. von Nahmen (1997)
10.1039/B503234B
Rapid and effective labeling of brain tissue using TAT-conjugated CdS:Mn/ZnS quantum dots.
S. Santra (2005)
10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.09.087
Sustained in vivo release from imprinted therapeutic contact lenses.
A. Tieppo (2012)
10.1098/rsif.2009.0272.focus
Quantitative analysis of the protein corona on FePt nanoparticles formed by transferrin binding
X. Jiang (2009)
10.1007/s002490050089
A scanning force- and fluorescence light microscopy study of the structure and function of a model pulmonary surfactant
M. Amrein (1997)
10.1021/ja312469n
Direct observation of the formation of surfactant micelles under nonisothermal conditions by synchrotron SAXS.
G. Jensen (2013)
10.1002/JPS.2600750139
Respiratory Pharmacology and Toxicology
P. Byron (1986)
10.1016/j.chroma.2008.01.029
A two-dimensional suspension array system by coupling field flow fractionation to flow cytometry.
J. Li (2008)
10.1007/S003960050161
Examination of the atypical electrophoretic mobility behavior of charged colloids in the low salt region using the O’Brian-White theory
M. Antonietti (1997)
10.1021/ac102545e
Quantitative characterization of gold nanoparticles by field-flow fractionation coupled online with light scattering detection and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
Bjørn Schmidt (2011)
10.1016/J.BBAMEM.2005.11.007
Structures of pulmonary surfactant films adsorbed to an air-liquid interface in vitro.
H. Bachofen (2005)
10.1021/es204168d
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.
A. Weir (2012)
10.1016/J.CHEMPHYSLIP.2006.02.017
Protein-lipid interactions and surface activity in the pulmonary surfactant system.
A. Serrano (2006)
10.1124/pr.54.4.561
Targeted Drug Delivery via the Transferrin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Pathway
Z. Qian (2002)
10.1016/J.TIFS.2006.04.010
Nanoscale materials development - a food industry perspective
P. Sanguansri (2006)
10.1021/AC060259L
Increasing the sensitivity of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: Slot outlet technique.
H. Prestel (2006)
10.1529/BIOPHYSJ.107.106971
Metal nanoparticle pollutants interfere with pulmonary surfactant function in vitro.
M. Bakshi (2008)
10.1103/physrevlett.56.930
Atomic force microscope.
Binnig (1986)
10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.01.015
An overview of pulmonary surfactant in the neonate: genetics, metabolism, and the role of surfactant in health and disease.
Paul Nkadi (2009)
10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00083.x
Regulation of raft-dependent endocytosis
P. Lajoie (2007)
10.1016/J.ULTRAMIC.2006.01.016
Nanometer-scale heat-conductivity measurements on biological samples.
W. Häberle (2006)
10.1021/JP9085969
Carbon Dots as Nontoxic and High-Performance Fluorescence Imaging Agents.
Sheng-Tao Yang (2009)
10.1002/marc.200900220
Electrical modes in scanning probe microscopy.
R. Berger (2009)
10.1371/journal.pone.0001475
No Effect of One-Year Treatment with Indomethacin on Alzheimer's Disease Progression: A Randomized Controlled Trial
D. de Jong (2008)
10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.03.021
Current perspectives in pulmonary surfactant--inhibition, enhancement and evaluation.
Y. Y. Zuo (2008)
10.1021/J100127A019
Surface dipole densities in lipid monolayers
D. J. Benvegnu (1993)
10.1038/308032A0
Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses
M. Adrian (1984)
10.1021/NL049516X
Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdTe nanoparticles
Yoonjung Bae (2004)
10.1146/ANNUREV.BIOCHEM.67.1.199
The caveolae membrane system.
R. Anderson (1998)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1069336
Electrochemistry and Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence from Silicon Nanocrystal Quantum Dots
Z. Ding (2002)
10.1002/CHIN.200947274
Two-Photon Probes for Intracellular Free Metal Ions, Acidic Vesicles, and Lipid Rafts in Live Tissues
H. Kim (2009)
10.1021/ac990044u
Shape separation of nanometer gold particles by size-exclusion chromatography.
G. Wei (1999)
10.1016/j.chembiol.2010.11.013
Biocompatible quantum dots for biological applications.
S. Rosenthal (2011)
10.1002/chem.201203641
Nitrogen-doped carbon dots: a facile and general preparation method, photoluminescence investigation, and imaging applications.
Yang Xu (2013)
10.1021/ja904843x
Carbon dots for optical imaging in vivo.
Sheng-Tao Yang (2009)
10.1016/S0006-3495(94)80573-9
Surface biophysics of the surface monolayer theory is incompatible with regional lung function.
E. Scarpelli (1994)
10.1002/adhm.201500145
Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Plastic Antibody Mimics.
Stephanie Kunath (2015)
10.1021/la802394a
In situ observation of gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticle adsorption under different monolayers at the air/water interface.
P. Degen (2008)
10.1002/MACP.201200132
Ion Effects in Field‐Flow Fractionation of Aqueous Colloidal Polystyrene
T. Lang (2012)
10.1016/0006-291X(67)90391-9
Molecular weight estimation of polypeptide chains by electrophoresis in SDS-polyacrylamide gels.
A. L. Shapiro (1967)
10.1080/08927021003775433
Molecular dynamics of nanoparticle translocation at lipid interfaces
M. Schneemilch (2010)
10.1016/J.COLSURFA.2006.04.012
Layer-by-layer deposition of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles on textile fibers
S. Dubas (2006)
10.3109/08958378.2010.485226
Particle deposition in the lung of the Göttingen minipig
H. Windt (2010)
10.1111/febs.12078
Cryo‐electron microscopy – a primer for the non‐microscopist
J. Milne (2013)
10.1098/rsif.2009.0329.focus
Nanoparticle interaction with model lung surfactant monolayers
R. Harishchandra (2009)
10.1126/SCIENCE.8502990
Field-flow fractionation: analysis of macromolecular, colloidal, and particulate materials.
J. Giddings (1993)
10.1007/s00216-010-4312-5
Flow field-flow fractionation: recent trends in protein analysis
D. C. Rambaldi (2011)
10.1021/ac401485j
Dissociation-based screening of nanoparticle-protein interaction via flow field-flow fractionation.
J. Ashby (2013)
10.1021/ac302571g
Preparation of narrow dispersity gold nanorods by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and investigation of surface plasmon resonance.
J. Runyon (2013)
10.1038/nbt1003-1137
Commercializing nanotechnology
L. Mazzola (2003)
10.1007/BF02278642
Theory of field-flow fractionation with the reversible adsorption on channel walls
V. Andreev (1993)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PC.42.100191.001131
Structures and Transitions in Lipid Monolayers at the Air-Water Interface
H. Mcconnell (1991)
10.1016/0041-008X(78)90185-0
The acute intravenous toxicity of biological stains, dyes, and other fluorescent substances.
G. Lutty (1978)
10.1039/C2JM32206D
Facile synthesis of highly emissive carbon dots from pyrolysis of glycerol; gram scale production of carbon dots/mSiO2 for cell imaging and drug release
C. Lai (2012)
10.1146/annurev-physchem-040412-110132
Small-angle X-ray scattering on biological macromolecules and nanocomposites in solution.
C. Blanchet (2013)
10.1039/c2cc37329g
Carbon-dot-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for detecting hydrogen sulfide in aqueous media and inside live cells.
C. Yu (2013)
10.1016/S0006-3495(00)76346-6
Formation of three-dimensional protein-lipid aggregates in monolayer films induced by surfactant protein B.
S. Krol (2000)
10.1021/JS9901458
Analytical ultracentrifugation in the pharmaceutical industry.
J. Liu (1999)
10.1021/JP905912N
Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Bioimaging Application
S. C. Ray (2009)
10.1016/S0925-4439(98)00060-X
Pulmonary surfactant: functions and molecular composition.
J. Goerke (1998)
10.1021/nn204951s
Reversible versus irreversible binding of transferrin to polystyrene nanoparticles: soft and hard corona.
S. Milani (2012)
10.1039/C2TC00140C
Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism
Benchuan Zhu (2013)
10.1021/AC60284A003
Column parameters in thermal field-flow fractionation
Margo E. Hovingh (1970)
10.1016/S0925-4439(98)00067-2
Formation and structure of surface films: captive bubble surfactometry.
S. Schürch (1998)
10.1016/S0006-3495(00)76297-7
Analysis of lung surfactant model systems with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry.
N. Bourdos (2000)
Atomic Force Microscopy-(7x7) Surface by Atomic Force Microscopy
F. Giessibl (1995)
10.1080/01496398608058390
Feasibility Study of Dielectrical Field-Flow Fractionation
J. M. Davis (1986)
10.1007/S00216-003-2450-8
Molecularly imprinted polymers as antibody and receptor mimics for assays, sensors and drug discovery
L. Ye (2004)
10.1107/S0021889877013879
A new method for the evaluation of small‐angle scattering data
O. Glatter (1977)
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.08.004
TAT-conjugated nanoparticles for the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs.
K. S. Rao (2008)
10.1016/S1095-6433(01)00317-8
Surface activity in vitro: role of surfactant proteins.
F. Possmayer (2001)
10.1016/J.EJPHAR.2007.04.035
Biochemical and pharmacological differences between preparations of exogenous natural surfactant used to treat Respiratory Distress Syndrome: role of the different components in an efficient pulmonary surfactant.
O. Blanco (2007)
Properties of an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation channel having one permeable wall.
K. G. Wahlund (1987)
10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4
Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays.
T. Mosmann (1983)
10.1529/biophysj.108.131102
Influence of lipid saturation grade and headgroup charge: a refined lung surfactant adsorption model.
U. Klenz (2008)
10.1002/smll.201300315
Understanding the mutual impact of interaction between hydrophobic nanoparticles and pulmonary surfactant monolayer.
A. Sachan (2014)
10.1002/cphc.201000174
The influence of surface composition of nanoparticles on their interactions with serum albumin.
L. Treuel (2010)
10.1021/LA060093J
Long-term exposure to CdTe quantum dots causes functional impairments in live cells.
S. J. Cho (2007)
10.1016/J.EJPB.2006.07.013
In vitro erythemal UV-A protection factors of inorganic sunscreens distributed in aqueous media using carnauba wax-decyl oleate nanoparticles.
J. R. Villalobos-Hernández (2007)
10.1038/nmeth1004-73
Use of quantum dots for live cell imaging
Jyoti K. Jaiswal (2004)
10.1016/j.bpj.2009.05.011
Calcium ions as "miscibility switch": colocalization of surfactant protein B with anionic lipids under absolute calcium free conditions.
M. Saleem (2009)
10.1002/anie.201109089
Carbon-dot-based dual-emission nanohybrid produces a ratiometric fluorescent sensor for in vivo imaging of cellular copper ions.
Anwei Zhu (2012)
10.1016/J.BBAMEM.2006.10.004
Multilayers at the surface of solutions of exogenous lung surfactant: direct observation by neutron reflection.
D. Follows (2007)
10.1016/j.nano.2010.10.007
Biophysical investigation of pulmonary surfactant surface properties upon contact with polymeric nanoparticles in vitro.
M. Beck-Broichsitter (2011)
10.1080/08958370802105413
Lung deposition of droplet aerosols in monkeys.
Y. Cheng (2008)
10.1038/361645A0
Drug assay using antibody mimics made by molecular imprinting
G. Vlatakis (1993)
10.1166/JNN.2008.171
Size dependent interactions of nanoparticles with lung surfactant model systems and the significant impact on surface potential.
Tabitha Ku (2008)
10.1021/LA00033A009
Steric exclusion chromatography of nanometer-sized gold particles
Thore Siebrands (1993)
10.1002/POL.1967.110050903
A universal calibration for gel permeation chromatography
Z. Grubisic (1967)
10.1039/b907612c
Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with electrochemiluminescence properties.
H. Zhu (2009)
10.1021/JP070999D
Size determination of (bio)conjugated water-soluble colloidal nanoparticles : A comparison of different techniques
R. A. Sperling (2007)
10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00526-4
Characterization of inhalation aerosols: a critical evaluation of cascade impactor analysis and laser diffraction technique.
A. D. de boer (2002)
10.1016/j.bpj.2013.10.036
Size influences the effect of hydrophobic nanoparticles on lung surfactant model systems.
Mridula V Dwivedi (2014)
10.1021/ED050P667
The conceptual basis of field-flow fractionation
J. Giddings (1973)
10.1021/la203439u
Influence of hydrophobic alkylated gold nanoparticles on the phase behavior of monolayers of DPPC and clinical lung surfactant.
S. Tatur (2012)
10.1016/j.taap.2007.12.022
Biological interactions of quantum dot nanoparticles in skin and in human epidermal keratinocytes.
L. Zhang (2008)
10.1074/JBC.M111758200
Multilayer Formation upon Compression of Surfactant Monolayers Depends on Protein Concentration as Well as Lipid Composition
R. Diemel (2002)
10.1002/jmr.2383
Water‐compatible silica sol–gel molecularly imprinted polymer as a potential delivery system for the controlled release of salicylic acid
B. Li (2014)
10.1021/mp700140a
Biophysical characterization of nanoparticle-endothelial model cell membrane interactions.
Chiranjeevi Peetla (2008)
10.1007/s11051-012-1177-x
Biodistribution study of carbogenic dots in cells and in vivo for optical imaging
N. Li (2012)
10.1186/1465-9921-10-90
The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on pulmonary surfactant function and ultrastructure
C. Schleh (2009)
10.1038/nbt1340
Renal clearance of quantum dots
H. Choi (2007)
10.1021/ja102148f
Recognition, neutralization, and clearance of target peptides in the bloodstream of living mice by molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles: a plastic antibody.
Y. Hoshino (2010)
10.1021/ES900249M
Characterizing manufactured nanoparticles in the environment: multimethod determination of particle sizes.
R. Domingos (2009)
10.1016/J.BIOMATERIALS.2004.04.030
Ocular release of timolol from molecularly imprinted soft contact lenses.
Haruyuki Hiratani (2005)
10.1016/S0968-4328(99)00034-7
Application of the negative staining technique to both aqueous and organic solvent solutions of polymer particles
J. Harris (1999)
10.1016/j.chroma.2010.10.042
Single walled carbon nanotube length determination by asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation hyphenated to multi-angle laser-light scattering.
J. Gigault (2010)
10.1007/s00249-006-0102-6
Surfactant protein C and lung function: new insights into the role of α-helical length and palmitoylation
P. Na Nakorn (2006)
10.1021/LA049344J
Generic approach for dispersing single-walled carbon nanotubes: the strength of a weak interaction.
Rina Shvartzman-Cohen (2004)
10.1021/nn204657n
High-resolution investigation of nanoparticle interaction with a model pulmonary surfactant monolayer.
A. Sachan (2012)
10.1021/nn2046373
Easy synthesis and imaging applications of cross-linked green fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles.
Youxing Fang (2012)
A Tunable Ratiometric pH Sensor Based on Carbon Nanodots for the Quantitative Measurement of the Intracellular pH of Whole Cells.
史文 (2012)
10.1021/MA0106752
Characterization of Polyorganosiloxane Nanoparticles in Aqueous Dispersion by Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation
Nadja Jungmann (2001)
10.3762/bjnano.2.43
Characterization of protein adsorption onto FePt nanoparticles using dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
Pauline Maffre (2011)
Targeting by deposition. In: Hickey AJ (ed) Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosol technology, 2nd edn
G Igor (2003)
10.1021/la4019585
Nanoparticle-nanoparticle interactions in biological media by atomic force microscopy.
Georgios Pyrgiotakis (2013)
10.1021/nn2015997
Adverse biophysical effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on natural pulmonary surfactant.
Qihui Fan (2011)
10.1021/LA980668F
A Study of Silica Nanoparticle Adsorption Using Optical Reflectometry and Streaming Potential Techniques
R. A. Hayes (1999)
10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61214-X
Increased and prolonged pulmonary fibrosis in surfactant protein C-deficient mice following intratracheal bleomycin.
W. Lawson (2005)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1114397
Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel
A. Nel (2006)
10.1007/s00249-004-0446-8
Monolayer–multilayer transitions in a lung surfactant model: IR reflection–absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy
L. Wang (2004)
10.1186/1477-3155-2-12
Nanoparticles – known and unknown health risks
P. Hoet (2004)
10.1021/nl301452x
Separation of nanoparticles in aqueous multiphase systems through centrifugation.
Ozge Akbulut (2012)
10.1038/nmat2202
Surface-structure-regulated cell-membrane penetration by monolayer-protected nanoparticles.
Ayush Verma (2008)
10.1007/BF00190953
Particle tracking velocimetry in three-dimensional flows
H. Maas (1993)
10.1021/NL071615Y
Separation of nanoparticles by gel electrophoresis according to size and shape.
M. Hanauer (2007)
10.1021/nn202657q
Atomic force microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation for probing nanomaterial protein interactions.
J. Schäfer (2012)
10.1172/JCI117173
A mutation in the surfactant protein B gene responsible for fatal neonatal respiratory disease in multiple kindreds.
L. Nogee (1994)
10.1529/biophysj.107.123976
Molecular dynamics simulation study of a pulmonary surfactant film interacting with a carbonaceous nanoparticle.
S. Choe (2008)
10.1039/c1cc11122a
Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications.
S. Zhu (2011)
10.1021/J100195A053
Line tension between liquid domains in lipid monolayers
D. J. Benvegnu (1992)
10.1016/0034-5687(78)90104-4
The normal human lung: ultrastructure and morphometric estimation of diffusion capacity.
P. Gehr (1978)
10.1016/0304-4157(74)90009-4
Lung surfactant.
J. Goerke (1974)
10.1007/S00604-004-0274-7
Molecular Imprinting in Sol-Gel Materials: Recent Developments and Applications
M. E. Díaz-García (2005)
10.1016/S0003-2697(02)00541-9
Time-minimized determination of ribosome and tRNA levels in bacterial cells using flow field-flow fractionation.
Cecilia Arfvidsson (2003)
10.1016/S0925-4439(98)00061-1
The role of lipids in pulmonary surfactant.
R. Veldhuizen (1998)
10.1021/JP911539R
Photoluminescent Carbon Dots as Biocompatible Nanoprobes for Targeting Cancer Cells in Vitro
Q. Li (2010)
10.1086/652244
Recent Advances into Understanding Some Aspects of the Structure and Function of Mammalian and Avian Lungs*
J. Maina (2010)
10.1155/2007/26796
Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates
T. Pellegrino (2007)
10.1021/AC034394Z
Circular asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation for the semipreparative separation of particles.
M. Maskos (2003)
10.1016/s0021-9258(18)94333-4
The reliability of molecular weight determinations by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
K. Weber (1969)
10.1002/smll.201101706
In vivo NIR fluorescence imaging, biodistribution, and toxicology of photoluminescent carbon dots produced from carbon nanotubes and graphite.
Huiquan Tao (2012)
10.1021/MA801954Y
Hydrophobic Shell Loading of PB-b-PEO Vesicles
W. Mueller (2009)
10.1021/mp800049w
Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles.
Shyh-Dar Li (2008)
10.1021/bm7013119
Online determination of structural properties and observation of deviations from power law behavior.
Agnès Rolland-Sabaté (2008)
Fluorescent carbon nanodots conjugated with folic acid for distinguishing folate-receptor-positive cancer cells from normal cells.
宋延超 (2012)
10.1021/NL0257824
Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of CdSe Nanocrystals
N. Myung (2002)
10.1016/0169-409X(95)00113-L
Mechanisms of macromolecule absorption by the lungs
John S. Patton (1996)
10.1039/F29787401607
Electrophoretic mobility of a spherical colloidal particle
R. O'brien (1978)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PHYSIOL.63.1.521
Surfactant proteins a and d and pulmonary host defense.
E. Crouch (2001)
10.1016/J.SURFREP.2005.08.003
Force measurements with the atomic force microscope: Technique, interpretation and applications
Hans-Jürgen Butt (2005)
10.1164/AJRCCM.157.4.NHLB1-1
Lung surfactant and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
J. A. Clements (1998)
10.1038/nmeth818
Deep tissue two-photon microscopy
F. Helmchen (2005)
10.1016/S0039-6028(96)01591-9
Phase imaging and stiffness in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy
S. Magonov (1997)
10.1016/j.chroma.2011.01.048
Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering and quasi elastic light scattering for characterization of poly(ethyleneglycol-b-ɛ-caprolactone) block copolymer self-assemblies used as drug carriers for photodynamic therapy.
Jérôme Ehrhart (2011)
10.1186/1556-276X-8-122
Systematic safety evaluation on photoluminescent carbon dots
K. Wang (2013)
10.1165/AJRCMB/6.2.235
Allometric relationships of cell numbers and size in the mammalian lung.
K. Stone (1992)
10.1021/ja901600e
Molecularly imprinted microgels as enzyme inhibitors.
Arnaud Cutivet (2009)
10.1063/1.1930828
Upconversion luminescence from CdSe nanoparticles.
Wei Chen (2005)
10.1021/AC049355H
Recycling size exclusion chromatography for the analysis and separation of nanocrystalline gold.
Ali M. Al-Somali (2004)
10.1097/00008480-200304000-00002
Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders.
J. Merrill (2003)
10.1007/S11051-010-0178-X
Colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles in biologically relevant conditions
Robert I. MacCuspie (2011)
10.1080/10236660214599
Polysaccharide Characterization by Flow Field-Flow Fractionation-Multiangle Light Scattering: Initial Studies of Modified Starches
B. Wittgren (2002)
10.1063/1.1669863
Nonequilibrium Theory of Field-Flow Fractionation
J. Giddings (1968)
10.1016/S0021-9673(01)93880-4
Properties, in theory and practice, of novel gel filtration media for standard liquid chromatography.
L. Hagel (1989)
10.1289/ehp.8284
A Toxicologic Review of Quantum Dots: Toxicity Depends on Physicochemical and Environmental Factors
R. Hardman (2006)
10.1021/JA073527L
Carbon dots for multiphoton bioimaging.
L. Cao (2007)
10.1039/c0nr00215a
Analytical ultracentrifugation of colloids.
K. L. Planken (2010)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar