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Cellular Redox Homeostasis As Central Modulator In Plant Stress Response
C. Paciolla, A. Paradiso, M. D. Pinto
Published 2016 · Chemistry
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Plants are frequently exposed to different stressful factors, both of biotic or abiotic nature, which limit their growth and productivity. To survive under stress conditions, plants must activate stress-specific signalling pathways, which finally lead to morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that allow to adapt to the adverse environment. Cellular redox homeostasis, determined by a complex interplay between pathways that produce and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a key role in the adaptive response. Each deviation in the cellular redox state, due to an imbalance of ROS production and/or scavenging, is indicative of environmental disturbance and works as a signal. Under stress conditions, different ROS are produced in many cell compartments. Plants have very proficient, versatile and flexible antioxidant machinery, which comprises enzymes and metabolites with distinct biochemical properties and distinct sub-cellular localization. The antioxidant systems play a key role in the control of redox homeostasis, determining either the extent or the specificity of ROS signals and the downstream redox-dependent responses. Redox signalling is responsive to a number of environmental cues, and the complex and dynamic pathways of redox regulation occur in different cell compartments. The redox-dependent modification of sensitive signalling proteins is proposed as a key mode of redox signal transmission. Each redox-dependent interaction is opportunely regulated by a restricted environment, whose change transfers the complex system of information and influences the plant response to external changes.
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