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Green Aquaculture: Designing And Developing Aquaculture Systems Integrated With Phytoremediation Treatment Options

G. Lanza, Keith M. Wilda, Sushera Bunluesin, Thanawan Panich-pat
Published 2017 · Environmental Science

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An increase in aquaculture for global food production has been one response to the sharp reductions of the stocks of aquatic species used as a source for traditional fishing methods. Phytoremediation offers an environmentally compatible approach that can be quickly integrated into existing aquaculture systems to provide management of contaminants. The scenarios of Integrated Aquaculture–Phytoremediation systems (IAPS) provided in this chapter are not intended to be all inclusive but rather serve as selected examples of potential applications. Appropriate IAPS will be highly site specific and will depend on local conditions including geomorphology, water sources, levels of ambient soil and water contamination, the aquatic species under aquaculture, and the type of culture system used. The IAPS design must provide a good balance that insures both the removal of excess nutrients and other contaminants and an adequate supply of nutrients to support the growth of the aquaculture products. IAPS can greatly enhance the global production of plant and animal food particularly in developing countries with warmer climates and highly diverse plant communities. IAPS that effectively removes snail-vectored parasites (e.g., fish-borne zoonotic trematodes) are especially desirable because snails are often cultured for food in aquaculture systems along with fish. The inclusion of carnivorous plants (e.g., Utricularia sp.) in IAPS may offer one solution. Utricularia sp. inhabiting wet soils and water are known to actively trap and consume aquatic animals, and it may be possible to use carnivorous plants to remove immature snails, snail eggs, miricidia, and cercariae as a treatment option in IAPS.
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