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Fast Matrix-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Kernels On Modern Computer Architectures
Published 2017 · Computer Science
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This study compares the performance of high-order discontinuous Galerkin finite elements on modern hardware. The main computational kernel is the matrix-free evaluation of differential operators by sum factorization, exemplified on the symmetric interior penalty discretization of the Laplacian as a metric for a complex application code in fluid dynamics. State-of-the-art implementations of these kernels stress both arithmetics and memory transfer. The implementations of SIMD vectorization and shared-memory parallelization are detailed. Computational results are presented for dual-socket Intel Haswell CPUs at 28 cores, a 64-core Intel Knights Landing, and a 16-core IBM Power8 processor. Up to polynomial degree six, Knights Landing is approximately twice as fast as Haswell. Power8 performs similarly to Haswell, trading a higher frequency for narrower SIMD units. The performance comparison shows that simple ways to express parallelism through for loops perform better on medium and high core counts than a more elaborate task-based parallelization with dynamic scheduling according to dependency graphs, despite less memory transfer in the latter algorithm.