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Cellular And Molecular Toxicity Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

B. Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, C. Costa, Fátima Brandão, J. Teixeira, E. Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Published 2018 · Medicine, Biology

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Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes and several interesting biomedical applications, such as to increase contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as drug delivery systems and as hyperthermia agents. However, they have also shown to be easily accumulated in diverse tissues and induce toxicity at different levels. This chapter reviews the different cellular and molecular effects induced by ION reported from in vitro studies with human and non-human cell lines. Those effects are mainly dependent on ION type and concentration, time of exposure, presence and nature of coating, and cell type evaluated. They include decreases in viability, plasmatic membrane disruption, oxidative damage, mitochondrial alterations, cell cycle impairments, cytoskeleton disruption, cell death, and alterations in cell motility, and in cell integrity. Despite these negative effects, the numerous advantages of ION together with their promising applications in biomedicine, make it necessary to clearly define their toxicity in order to discard potential health risks and to reach optimal benefits of their use.
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