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Nanoparticles-Based Systems For Osteochondral Tissue Engineering.
Published 2018 · Medicine
Osteochondral lesions represent one of the major causes of disabilities in the world. These defects are due to degenerative or inflammatory arthritis, but both affect the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. Defects from trauma or degenerative pathology frequently cause severe pain, joint deformity, and loss of joint motion. Osteochondral defects are a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery, due to the cartilage complexity and unique structure, as well as its exposure to high pressure and motion. Although there are treatments routinely performed in the clinical practice, they present several limitations. Tissue engineering can be a suitable alternative for osteochondral defects since bone and cartilage engineering had experienced a notable advance over the years. Allied with nanotechnology, osteochondral tissue engineering (OCTE) can be leveled up, being possible to create advanced structures similar to the OC tissue. In this chapter, the current strategies using nanoparticles-based systems are overviewed. The results of the studies herein considered confirm that advanced nanomaterials will undoubtedly play a crucial role in the design of strategies for treatment of osteochondral defects in the near future.