Cell-Based Therapy For Retinal Degenerative Disease
Published 2014 · Medicine
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The availability of non-invasive high-resolution imaging technology, the immune suppressive nature of the subretinal space, and the existence of surgical techniques that permit transplantation surgery to be a safe procedure all render the eye an ideal organ in which to begin cell-based therapy in the central nervous system. A number of early stage clinical trials are underway to assess the safety and feasibility of cell-based therapy for retinal blindness. Cell-based therapy using embryonic stem cell derived differentiated cells (e.g., retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)), neural progenitor cells, photoreceptor precursors, and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells all have demonstrated successful rescue and/or replacement in preclinical models of human retinal degenerative disease. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms that control synapse formation/disjunction (to improve photoreceptor transplant efficacy), to identify factors that limit RPE survival in areas of geographic atrophy (to improve RPE transplant efficacy in eyes with age-related macular degeneration), and to identify factors that regulate immune surveillance of the subretinal space (to improve long-term photoreceptor and RPE transplant survival).
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