Global Epidemiology Of NTM Disease (Except Northern America)
Dirk Nicolas Wagner, Marc Lipman, Samantha Cooray, Felix C Ringshausen, Kozo Morimoto, Won-Jung Koh, Rachel Thomson
Published 2019 · Geography
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
This chapter summarizes the epidemiology of NTM isolations and NTM disease worldwide. Understanding of the global epidemiology of NTM disease is evolving due to heterogeneity of NTM isolation from continent to continent, from country to country and within countries. Even with incomplete information, current available population-based data imply that NTM-PD is increasing not only in North America but also in Europe, Asia and Australia. Due to the lack of availability of detection methods and the lack of awareness, NTM-PD is probably still underdiagnosed in many regions worldwide. Our understanding of the epidemiology of NTM worldwide would be considerably improved by undertaking large population-based studies, collecting relevant clinical data and providing information on subsequent outcome. Widespread application of new molecular methodology will enhance our understanding of NTM epidemiology, with regard to subspeciation of potentially disease-causing organisms, and ascertaining if repeated NTM isolates from an individual represent the same or different strains of the organism occurring over time.
This paper references
Disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a university hospital in Taiwan, 1997-2003.
Liqiang Ding (2006)
Chronic respiratory disease, inhaled corticosteroids and risk of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis
Claire Andréjak (2012)
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates in the State of São Paulo between 1995-1998.
Érica Chimara (2004)
Disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: diagnostic procedures and treatment evaluation in the North of Buenos Aires Province.
Belén Rocío Imperiale (2012)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.
Marcus P. Kennedy (2003)
Prevalence of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections among Tuberculosis Suspects in Nigeria
Gambo Aliyu (2013)
Influence of environmental gradients on the abundance and distribution of Mycobacterium spp. in a coastal lagoon estuary.
John Morrell Jacobs (2009)
The looming tide of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Portugal and Brazil.
Daniela Nunes-Costa (2016)
Follow-up tuberculosis prevalence survey of Transkei.
P. Bernard Fourie (1980)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary specimens between 2004 and 2009: causative agent or not?
Can Biçmen (2010)
Clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated in the Nijmegen-Arnhem region, The Netherlands
Jakko van Ingen (2009)
Trends in nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in hospitalized subjects in Spain (1997-2010) according to HIV infection.
Alejandro Álvaro-Meca (2015)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria: susceptibility pattern and prevalence rate in Shanghai from 2005 to 2008.
Hong-xiu Wang (2010)
First tuberculosis prevalence survey in KwaZulu.
G Arabin (1979)
Healthcare-associated prosthetic heart valve, aortic vascular graft, and disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open heart surgery.
Philipp Kohler (2015)
Prevalencia de micobacteriosis y de tuberculosis en pacientes de un hospital de referencia de la provincia de Córdoba
Ana Isabel Barnes (2004)
Non-tuberculous slow-growing mycobacterial pulmonary infections in non-HIV-infected patients in south London
Bethany S Davies (2012)
Characterization of a novel group of mycobacteria and proposal of Mycobacterium sherrisii sp. nov.
Rangaraj Selvarangan (2004)
Isolamento de micobactérias não-tuberculosas em São José do Rio Preto entre 1996 e 2005
Heloisa da Silveira Paro Pedro (2008)
Genotype diversity of Mycobacterium isolates from children in Jimma, Ethiopia
Bereket Workalemahu (2013)
Increased isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria among TB suspects in Northeastern, Tanzania: public health and diagnostic implications for control programmes
A. Mendiola de la Hoza (2016)
Clinical implications of Mycobacterium chimaera detection in thermoregulatory devices used for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), Germany, 2015 to 2016
Franziska Trudzinski (2016)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Rondônia, Brazil.
Cleoni Alves Mendes Lima (2013)
HIV infection and silicosis: the impact of two potent risk factors on the incidence of mycobacterial disease in South African miners.
Elizabeth L Corbett (2000)
Distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria in treated patients with pulmonary disease in Greece - relation to microbiological data.
Katerina Manika (2015)
Factors associated with the isolation of Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from a large municipal water system in Brisbane, Australia
Rachel M Thomson (2012)
Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and clinical features: an emerging public health disease.
Kevin L. Winthrop (2010)
Burden and trends of hospitalisations associated with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in Germany, 2005–2011
Felix C Ringshausen (2013)
HIV co-infection with tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in western Kenya: challenges in the diagnosis and management.
Henry N.D. Nyamogoba (2012)
Epidemiology of human pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria: a review.
D. Rebecca Prevots (2015)
The Epidemiology and Geographic Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Clinical Isolates from Sputum Samples in the Eastern Region of China
Yan Shao (2015)
Distribution of environmental mycobacteria in Karonga District, northern Malawi.
B Z Chilima (2006)
Incidence of tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, differentiated by multiplex PCR, in clinical specimens of a large general hospital
Eliane Picoli Alves Bensi (2013)
Increasing Incidence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2008
Chih-Cheng Lai (2010)
Changing epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in South Korea
Sang Kook Lee (2012)
The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study
Wouter Hoefsloot (2013)
Burden of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in Germany
Roland Diel (2017)
Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality
Laura M. Lamberti (2011)
Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection, China, 2004–2009
Hui Jing (2012)
Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and risk factors: a changing epidemiology.
P. Maureen Cassidy (2009)
Prevalence of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections among Tuberculosis Suspects in Iran: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mohammad Javad Nasiri (2015)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria in bronchiectasis: prevalence and patient characteristics
Stephen J Fowler (2006)
Increase in Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated in Shanghai, China: Results from a Population-Based Study
Jie Wu (2014)
Cystic Fibrosis in Adults
Ilma Aparecida Paschoal (2006)
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: a retrospective review of Scottish isolates from 2000 to 2010
Clark D Russell (2013)
[A study on the frequency of 'atypical' Mycobacteria and of 'atypical' mycobacterioses in Japanese National Chest Hospitals. (Report of the year 1971-1972)].
Michio Tsukamura (1973)
Diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in Asia.
Chih-Cheng Lai (2014)
A steady increase in nontuberculous mycobacteriosis mortality and estimated prevalence in Japan.
Kozo Morimoto (2014)
Sentinel-site surveillance of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease
Jeanne Maugein (2005)
Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) amongst individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF).
Laura Viviani (2016)
Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria among tuberculosis patients during a 5-year period in Croatia
Ljiljana Žmak (2015)
Multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from cystic fibrosis patients.
P. Candido (2014)
Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia
Tavs Qvist (2015)
The Epidemiology of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: Data from a General Hospital in Athens, Greece, 2007–2013
Marios Panagiotou (2014)
Respiratory infections associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria in non-HIV patients
Michèle Dailloux (2006)
Mycobacterium sherrisii Pulmonary Disease, Burkina Faso
Emanuele Borroni (2015)
Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in patients without HIV infection: a retrospective analysis over 3 years.
Ginevra Del Giudice (2011)
Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria isolated from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Honduras.
L Pineda-García (1997)
Molecular characterisation of clinical and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates from South African gold mines.
Geoffrey Kwenda (2015)
Mycobacterium kansasii and M. scrofulaceum isolates from HIV-negative South African gold miners: incidence, clinical significance and radiology.
Elizabeth L Corbett (1999)
Clinical relevance of Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus group isolation in 95 patients.
Jakko van Ingen (2009)
Molecular identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Zambia
Grace Mwikuma (2014)
Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oman
Sara H. Al-Mahruqi (2009)
Insidious Risk of Severe Mycobacterium chimaera Infection in Cardiac Surgery Patients
Meera A. Chand (2017)
Increase in non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from humans in Tuscany, Italy, from 2004 to 2014
Laura Rindi (2015)
A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia
Michael P Chou (2014)
Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Clinics, United Kingdom, 2009
Paul Seddon (2013)
Are pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria of concern in the Western Pacific Region?
Wing-wai Yew (2015)
Changing Epidemiology of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections
Rachel M Thomson (2010)
Prognostic factors of 634 HIV-negative patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.
Makoto Hayashi (2012)
[Epidemiological and bacteriological studies on atypical mycobacteriosis in Japan (author's transl)].
Michio Tsukamura (1980)
The first case of Mycobacterium sherrisii disseminated infection in a child with AIDS.
Enrico Tortoli (2007)
Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens at a tertiary care hospital: a cross-sectional study
Imran Ahmed (2013)
Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease, Germany, 2009–2014
Felix C Ringshausen (2016)
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010-2012.
Serej D Ley (2015)
Incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in New Zealand, 2004.
Joshua T. Freeman (2007)
Identification and partial characterization of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare by using DNA probes.
Hitoshi Saito (1989)
Clinical significance and antibiotic susceptibilities of nontuberculous mycobacteria from patients in Crete, Greece.
Zoe Gitti (2011)
Failing a re-treatment regimen does not predict MDR/XDR tuberculosis: is “blind” treatment dangerous?
Gisèle Badoum (2011)
Epidemiology of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease, Japan1
Ho Namkoong (2016)
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV-negative patients with pulmonary disease in Lisbon, Portugal
Antônio Amorim (2010)
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the main driver of the rise in non-tuberculous mycobacteria incidence in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2007–2012
Neeraj M. Shah (2016)
Clinical and Therapeutic Features of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Karla Gripp Couto de Mello (2013)
The prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in mainland China: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Xia Yu (2016)
Mycobacterium kansasii infection in an endemic area of Czechoslovakia.
Milan Kubín (1980)
Occurrence of potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria in Mexican household potable water: a pilot study
Iza Perez-Martinez (2013)
Clinical significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from respiratory specimens in Korea.
Won-Jung Koh (2006)
Spread of nontuberculous mycobacteria from 1993 to 2006 in Koreans.
Sung Weon Ryoo (2008)
Mycobacterium xenopi pulmonary disease - epidemiology and clinical features in non-immunocompromised patients.
Ante Marušić (2009)
Rapid increase of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea.
Yong Seog Park (2010)
Comparing the harmful effects of nontuberculous mycobacteria and Gram negative bacteria on lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis☆
Tavs Qvist (2016)
High prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease among non-HIV infected individuals in a TB endemic country – experience from a tertiary center in Delhi, India
Sarika Jain (2014)
Invasive Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Tanzania
John A Crump (2009)
A Laboratory‐based Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease in Japan from 2012 to 2013
Kozo Morimoto (2017)
Distinguishing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, China
Kaijin Xu (2014)
Non-tuberculous pulmonary infections in Scotland: a cluster in Lothian?
F G Böllert (1995)
[Studies on lung disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Japan (Report for the year 1984 of the Mycobacteriosis Research Group of the Japanese National Chest Hospitals)--the same trend in the epidemiological state as seen in the preceding year].
Michio Tsukamura (1986)
Isolation and characterization of non tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and animals in Namwala District of Zambia
Sydney Malama (2013)
Identification and Characterization of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Tuberculosis Suspects in Southern-Central China
Xiaoli Yu (2014)
Non tuberculosis mycobacteria isolates among new and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Nigeria
Olusoji James Daniel (2011)
Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater–Cooler Units in Denmark Related to Isolates from the United States and United Kingdom
Erik Svensson (2017)
Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from pastoral ecosystems of Uganda: Public Health significance
Clovice Kankya (2011)
Prevalence and Drug Resistance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Northern China, 2008–2011
Xiaobo Wang (2014)
Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in southern Taiwan.
Wang ChinChou (2009)
Epidemiology and clinical significance of mycobacterial respiratory infections in Central Greece.
Irini Gerogianni (2008)
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in Children – Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Management at a Tertiary Center
Marc Tebruegge (2016)
Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Sputum in a Gold Mining Workforce in South Africa: An Observational, Clinical Study
Clare L. van Halsema (2015)
Failure to Recognize Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Leads to Misdiagnosis of Chronic Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Mamoudou Maiga (2012)
Increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006
Jonathan E. Moore (2010)
Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from clinical samples.
Paola Molicotti (2013)
Five-year outbreak of community- and hospital-acquired Mycobacterium porcinum infections related to public water supplies.
Barbara A. Brown-Elliott (2011)
Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in French Polynesia.
Michael Phelippeau (2015)
Species identification of neglected nontuberculous mycobacteria in a developing country.
Hasan Shojaei (2011)
Emergence of Clinically Relevant Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in Saudi Arabia
Bright Varghese (2013)
A laboratory-based study to identify and speciate non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from specimens submitted to a central tuberculosis laboratory from throughout KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.
Lisha Sookan (2014)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria: defining disease in a prospective cohort of South African miners.
Elizabeth L Corbett (1999)
Prevalence and factors associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a multicenter observational study
Luis Máiz (2016)
Reemergence of Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater–Cooler Units despite Intensified Cleaning and Disinfection Protocol
Peter Werner Schreiber (2016)
Species and genotypic diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from children investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Uganda
Benon B. Asiimwe (2013)
Acid-Fast Bacilli Other than Mycobacteria in Tuberculosis Patients Receiving Directly Observed Therapy Short Course in Cross River State, Nigeria
Benjamin D Thumamo Pokam (2012)
Clinical relevance of Mycobacterium malmoense isolation in the Netherlands
Wouter Hoefsloot (2009)
Species diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from humans, livestock and wildlife in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania
Bugwesa Z. Katale (2014)
Prevalence of Mycobacterium lentiflavum in cystic fibrosis patients, France
Michael Phelippeau (2015)
Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater–Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System
Rami Sommerstein (2016)
Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in the State of Para, an Endemic Region for Tuberculosis in North of Brazil
Ana Roberta Fusco da Costa (2012)
Human pulmonary infections with bovine and environment (atypical) mycobacteria in jos, Nigeria.
J J Mawak (2006)
Mycobacterium kansasii infections in Western Australia (1962-1987).
Sook Cheng Pang (1991)
Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease with Different Radiographic Patterns
Chin-Chung Shu (2011)
Distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria by multigene sequence-based typing and clinical significance of isolated strains.
Mi-Ae Jang (2014)
Contamination during production of heater-cooler units by Mycobacterium chimaera potential cause for invasive cardiovascular infections: results of an outbreak investigation in Germany, April 2015 to February 2016.
Sebastian Haller (2016)
Prevalence and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in cattle, African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and their environments in South Africa.
Nomakorinte Gcebe (2013)
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance
Ali Akbar Velayati (2015)
Estudo descritivo da freqüência de micobactérias não tuberculosas na Baixada Santista (SP)
Liliana Aparecida Zamarioli (2008)
Geographical distribution and clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Croatia.
Mateja Jankovic (2013)
Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection in an Endemic Area of Tuberculosis
Ana Roberta Fusco da Costa (2013)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates among patients with recent HIV infection in Mozambique.
Elizabete Abrantes Nunes (2008)
Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria in Africa. 1. Isolation and identification.
M. P. Zykov (1967)
Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease prevalence at four integrated health care delivery systems.
D. Rebecca Prevots (2010)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory specimens: clinical significance at a tertiary care hospital in the north of Portugal
Hans Dabó (2015)
Hsp65 phylogenetic assay for molecular diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated in Mexico.
Noé Escobar-Escamilla (2014)
Predictors of 5-year mortality in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease.
Yosuke Ito (2012)
Prevalence and associated risk factors of mycobacterial infections in slaughter pigs from Mubende district in Uganda
Adrian Muwonge (2009)
Isolation of mycobacteria from patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in south east England: 1984-92.
Malcolm D. Yates (1993)
Mycobacterium abscessus isolated from municipal water - a potential source of human infection
Rachel M Thomson (2013)
Nontuberculous pulmonary mycobacteriosis in Denmark: incidence and prognostic factors.
Claire Andréjak (2010)
The changing pattern of clinical Mycobacterium avium isolation in the Netherlands.
Jakko van Ingen (2010)
Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteriosis in Nagasaki, Japan
Shotaro Ide (2015)
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Zambia: prevalence, clinical, radiological and microbiological characteristics
Pascalina Chanda-kapata (2015)
Clinical significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates in elderly Taiwanese patients
C.-C. Lai (2011)
Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a general respiratory population.
Sy Giin Chong (2014)
Large-restriction-fragment analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii genomic DNA and its application in molecular typing.
Yoshitsugu Iinuma (1997)
Recent Trends in Clinically Significant Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolates at a Korean General Hospital
Hyun Soo Kim (2014)
An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases.
David E. Griffith (2007)
Mycobacteria and disease in southern Africa.
Louise Botha (2013)
Nontuberculosis mycobacteria at a multiresistant tuberculosis reference center in Bahia: clinical epidemiological aspects.
Eliana Dias Matos (2004)
Diagnostic delay of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in China
Hui Jing (2014)
Mycobacterium xenopi Clinical Relevance and Determinants, the Netherlands
Jakko van Ingen (2008)
Prolonged Outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Open-Chest Heart Surgery.
Hugo Sax (2015)
The Ecology of Mycobacteria
Jindrich Kazda (2000)
Clinical significance of isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from respiratory specimens.
Meng-Chuan Shen (2010)
Diversity of nontuberculoid Mycobacterium species in biofilms of urban and semiurban drinking water distribution systems.
S M September (2004)
Molecular characterization of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from human cases of disseminated disease in the USA, Thailand, Malawi, and Tanzania.
Jason Ballard (2007)
Isolation of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Children Investigated for Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Mark Hatherill (2006)
Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in northern Australia: a case series and review of the literature.
Daniel P. O'Brien (2000)
Heterogeneity of clinical and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum using repetitive element sequence-based PCR: municipal water an unlikely source of community-acquired infections.
Rachel M Thomson (2014)
Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria at three rural settings in Zambia; a pilot study.
P.C.A.M. Buijtels (2009)
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Tract Infections, Eastern Asia
Sami O. Simons (2011)
Frequency and clinical significance of respiratory isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Abdullah Alharbi (2016)
Mycobacterium avium complex sputum isolates from patients with respiratory symptoms in Guinea-Bissau.
Tuija Koivula (1996)
Epidemiology and clinical significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary specimens.
Eyal Braun (2013)
Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea
Won-Jung Koh (2013)
Sentinel site surveillance of nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary diseases in Zhejiang, China, 2011-2013.
Sheng Bi (2015)
Non tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens at a tertiary care hospital in South India.
Mary Vijaya Jesudason (2005)
Time to identify and define non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a tuberculosis-endemic region.
Shubhada Shenai (2010)
Molecular Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Sources of a Metropolitan City
Ali Akbar Velayati (2014)
Trends of mycobacterial clinical isolates in Taiwan.
Chin-Feng Tsai (2011)
Mycobacterium sherrisii: a new opportunistic agent in HIV infection?
Pierre Loulergue (2007)
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: patterns of isolation. A multi-country retrospective survey.
Núria Martín-Casabona (2004)
Increasing patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease and associated underlying diseases in Japan.
Yutaka Ito (2015)
Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union
Marieke J van der Werf (2014)
Multicenter study of prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis in france.
Anne-Laure Roux (2009)
Nosocomial pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae associated with a hospital's water supply contamination: a case series of 135 patients.
Marija Zlojtro (2015)
Frequency of Mycobacterium chimaera among Belgian patients, 2015.
Karine Soetaert (2016)
This paper is referenced by
Differential Responses by Human Macrophages to Infection With Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria
Zhihong Feng (2020)