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Anatomy And Physiology Of The Adrenal Gland

Phillip Yeoh
Published 2019 · Medicine

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The adrenal glands are important endocrine organ that produces corticosteroids including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and androgens. These are important hormones that regulate sodium retention, blood pressure, fluid volume, the immune system, metabolism and behaviour. The adrenals also exert negative feedback mechanism in the hypothalamus and pituitary through the hormone cortisol. High levels of cortisol suppress the pituitary hormone ACTH whereas low cortisol stimulates ACTH secretion by increasing the release of hypothalamic hormones CRH and AVP. The adrenal medulla, which is located in the central part of the adrenal, forms part of the sympathetic nervous system and is referred as the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. It secrets epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine in response to stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system.
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