Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Role Of Tachykinins In Neurogenic Inflammation Of The Skin And Other External Surfaces

A. Rawlingson, S. K. Costa, S. Brain
Published 2004 · Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
There is evidence for the presence of tachykinins at neuronal and non-neuronal sites in skin. The major mammalian peripheral tachykinins, substance P and neurokinin A, are best known for their localization in the cutaneous sensory nerves. Their release from these nerves to mediate neurogenic inflammation is well documented and the contribution of tachykinins to the acute inflammatory components of oedema formation, increased blood flow and skin diseases is further discussed, including the major involvement of the tachykinin NK1 receptor and the range of toxins and venoms that contain or can release tachykinin-like peptides. Although substance P may have a transient role in mediating increased blood flow in the skin, the more prominent effect in acute situations is that of mediating inflammatory oedema formation, although the relevance of this to pathophysiological situations is poorly understood. Evidence for the involvement of the tachykinins in more chronic inflammatory events, including inflammatory cell accumulation, is detailed and emphasis put on the range of mechanisms by which substance P acts to influence polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation and activity in the skin. In addition, the concept that tachykinins from non-neuronal sources may be involved in influencing the inflammatory response, especially that involving immune cells, is raised. Possible roles for the tachykinins in human skin diseases and the evidence for an involvement in specific conditions are also given.
This paper references
10.1034/j.1600-0625.2002.110307.x
Sebaceous glands in acne patients express high levels of neutral endopeptidase
M. Toyoda (2002)
10.1016/S0306-3623(97)00078-5
Neurogenic vasodilatation and plasma leakage in the skin.
P. Holzer (1998)
10.1038/313316A0
Charybdotoxin, a protein inhibitor of single Ca2+-activated K+ channels from mammalian skeletal muscle
C. Miller (1985)
10.1111/j.1600-0625.1998.tb00307.x
Neuropeptides in the skin: interactions between the neuroendocrine and the skin immune systems
T. Scholzen (1998)
10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00376-X
Delay of neutrophil apoptosis by the neuropeptide substance P: involvement of caspase cascade
S. Böckmann (2001)
10.1172/JCI114295
Substance P-induced augmentation of cutaneous vascular permeability and granulocyte infiltration in mice is mast cell dependent.
Hiroshi Yano (1989)
Distribution of substance P receptors on murine spleen and Peyer's patch T and B cells.
A. Stanisz (1987)
10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00322-4
Involvement of neurokinins in antidromic vasodilatation in hairy and hairless skin of the rat hindlimb
H. Häbler (1999)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1990.tb06261.x
Neuropeptides in skin from patients with atopic dermatitis: an immunohistochemical study
C. Pincelli (1990)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1989.tb12639.x
Modulation of the vasodepressor actions of acetylcholine, bradykinin, substance P and endothelin in the rat by a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide formation
B. Whittle (1989)
10.1210/MEND.8.8.7997236
Cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the amphibian bombesin-like peptides Phe8 and Leu8 phyllolitorin from Phyllomedusa sauvagei: potential role of U to C RNA editing in generating neuropeptide diversity.
S. R. Nagalla (1994)
10.1007/BF00373436
Substance P stimulates murine epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and dermal mast cell degranulation in situ
R. Paus (2004)
10.1016/0014-2999(93)90027-F
In vitro and in vivo biological activities of SR140333, a novel potent non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist.
X. Emonds-Alt (1993)
10.1046/j.1365-2133.1998.1390s3013.x
Staphylococcus aureus colonization in atopic dermatitis and its therapeutic implications
Abeck (1998)
Modulation of the mRNAs encoding substance P and its receptor in rat macrophages by LPS.
K. Bost (1992)
10.1016/0196-9781(90)90086-K
Six novel tachykinin- and bombesin-related peptides from the skin of the Australian frog Pseudophryne güntheri
M. Simmaco (1990)
10.1152/ajpcell.1998.275.6.C1580
Neuropeptide regulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression and function.
K. L. Quinlan (1998)
10.1111/J.1476-5381.1967.TB01984.X
Direct evidence for neurogenic inflammation and its prevention by denervation and by pretreatment with capsaicin.
N. Jancsó (1967)
10.1248/CPB.28.689
Physalaemin- and bombesin-like peptides in the skin of the Australian leptodactylid frog Uperoleia rugosa.
T. Nakajima (1980)
10.1016/0026-2862(90)90024-L
Substance P stimulates neovascularization in vivo and proliferation of cultured endothelial cells.
M. Ziche (1990)
Pharmacology of cotransmission in the autonomic nervous system: integrative aspects on amines, neuropeptides, adenosine triphosphate, amino acids and nitric oxide.
J. M. Lundberg (1996)
10.1046/J.1087-0024.2000.00013.X
Neural Regulation of Endothelial Cell-Mediated Inflammation
Kimberly Quinlan Lindsey (2000)
Neuropeptides induce rapid expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and elicit granulocytic infiltration in human skin.
C. Smith (1993)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb15402.x
The effect of a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, SR140333, on oedema formation induced in rat skin by venom from the Phoneutria nigriventer spider
R.T. Palframan (1996)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1985.tb11107.x
Inflammatory oedema induced by synergism between calcitonin gene‐related peptide (CGRP) and mediators of increased vascular permeability
S. Brain (1985)
10.1126/science.242075
Substance p: localization in the central nervous system and in some primary sensory neurons
T. Hokfelt (1975)
10.1097/00001756-199509000-00016
Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve alters neuropeptide content and lymphocyte migration in the subcutaneous tissue of the rat hind paw
U. Herzberg (1995)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP13071340
Quantification of cutaneous sensory nerves and their substance P content in psoriasis.
A. Naukkarinen (1989)
10.1038/NEWBIO232086A0
Amino-acid sequence of substance P.
M. Chang (1971)
10.4049/jimmunol.164.10.5424
Neurokinin-1 Receptor Agonists Are Involved in Mediating Neutrophil Accumulation in the Inflamed, But Not Normal, Cutaneous Microvasculature: An In Vivo Study Using Neurokinin-1 Receptor Knockout Mice1
T. Cao (2000)
10.1016/S0167-0115(96)02102-7
Involvement of calcium-activated potassium channels in the inhibitory prejunctional effect of morphine on peripheral sensory nerves
N. Yonehara (1997)
10.1016/S0190-9622(86)70201-6
Effects of topically applied capsaicin on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris.
J. Bernstein (1986)
10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04722.x
Experimental itch in sodium lauryl sulphate‐inflamed and normal skin in humans: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study of histamine and other inducers of itch
J. Thomsen (2002)
10.1016/0165-5728(94)90164-3
Eosinophils within the healthy or inflamed human intestine produce substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide
A. Metwali (1994)
Modulation of T lymphocyte function by neuropeptides. Evidence for their role as local immunoregulatory elements.
D. A. Nio (1993)
10.1016/S0162-3109(97)00055-6
Sensory neuropeptides: their role in inflammation and wound healing.
S. Brain (1997)
10.1002/cne.10241
Skin blood vessels are simultaneously innervated by sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic fibers
I. Ruocco (2002)
Substance P induction of itch-associated response mediated by cutaneous NK1 tachykinin receptors in mice.
T. Andoh (1998)
10.1016/S0304-3940(97)00494-1
Plasma extravasation and neuropeptide release in human skin as measured by intradermal microdialysis
M. Schmelz (1997)
10.1093/GERONA/51A.5.B354
Sensory peptides as neuromodulators of wound healing in aged rats.
Z. Khalil (1996)
10.1111/J.1474-8673.1993.TB00266.X
Failure of L-nitroarginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to affect hypotension and plasma protein extravasation produced by tachykinin NK-1 receptor activation in rats.
P. Santicioli (1993)
10.1210/JCEM-54-5-980
Bombesin: action on gut hormones and calcium in man.
M. Ghatei (1982)
10.1073/pnas.071052298
Substance P antagonist (CP-96,345) inhibits HIV-1 replication in human mononuclear phagocytes
J. Lai (2001)
10.1124/pr.54.2.285
The Tachykinin Peptide Family
C. Severini (2002)
10.1161/01.RES.66.5.1178
Substance P is released from the endothelium of normal and capsaicin-treated rat hind-limb vasculature, in vivo, by increased flow.
V. Ralevic (1990)
10.1046/J.0022-202X.2001.01498.X
The neurosensory tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A directly induce keratinocyte nerve growth factor.
G. Burbach (2001)
10.1016/0167-4889(93)90024-J
Activation and priming of the human neutrophil oxidase response by substance P: distinct signal transduction pathways.
D. Lloyds (1993)
10.1002/jlb.65.6.834
Substance P primes the formation of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in human neutrophils
A. Sterner-Kock (1999)
10.1007/s004030050167
Density and fine structure of peripheral nerves in various skin lesions of atopic dermatitis
H. Sugiura (1997)
10.1016/0167-0115(93)90041-6
Role of leukotriene B4 in substance P-induced granulocyte infiltration in mouse skin
I. Iwamoto (1993)
10.1016/0143-4179(95)90007-1
Exogenous but not endogenous substance P releases histamine from isolated human skin fragments
F. Tausk (1995)
10.1038/sj.bjp.0705022
Involvement of tachykinin receptors in Clostridium perfringens beta‐toxin‐induced plasma extravasation
M. Nagahama (2003)
10.1016/S0014-2999(00)00375-7
Involvement of kinins, mast cells and sensory neurons in the plasma exudation and paw oedema induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B in the mouse.
A. Linardi (2000)
10.1007/s004030000149
Immunolocalization of substance P in human skin mast cells
M. Toyoda (2000)
10.1152/AJPCELL.1993.264.1.C229
Maintenance of contractility in dissociated smooth muscle: low-density cultures in a defined medium.
C. Bowers (1993)
10.1034/j.1398-9995.1999.00726.x
Cutaneous responses to substance P and calcitonin gene‐related peptide in chronic urticaria: the effect of cetirizine and dimethindene
R. Borici-Mazi (1999)
10.1046/J.1365-2885.2001.00329.X
Inflammatory mediators induce endothelium-dependent adherence of equine eosinophils to cultured endothelial cells.
S. Bailey (2001)
10.1007/BF00169165
The tachykinin NK1 receptor mediates the migration-promoting effect of substance P on human skin fibroblasts in culture
A. Parenti (2004)
10.1016/S0065-1281(97)80024-4
Immunohistochemical detection of human skin nerve fibers.
E. Schulze (1997)
10.1046/J.1523-1747.2000.00142.X
Acute effects of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in human skin--a microdialysis study.
C. Weidner (2000)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1986.tb16246.x
Histamine is released from skin by substance P but does not act as the final vasodilator in the axon reflex
P. Barnes (1986)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1987.tb11381.x
Sensory neuropeptide effects in human skin
R. Fuller (1987)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1992.tb09013.x
The non‐peptide tachykinin antagonist, CP‐96,345, is a potent inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation
F. Lembeck (1992)
10.1126/SCIENCE.2457950
Effect of neuropeptides on production of inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes
M. Lotz (1988)
10.1007/BF00495297
Neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity in rat primary sensory neurons; coexistence with substance P
C. Dalsgaard (2004)
10.1007/BF00222193
Regulatory peptides in the gastrointestinal tract of Alligator mississipiensis
A. Buchan (2004)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb16698.x
Involvement of sensory neuropeptides in the development of plasma extravasation in rat dorsal skin following thermal injury
L. Siney (1996)
10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01486.x
The release of leukotriene B4 from human skin in response to substance P: evidence for the functional heterogeneity of human skin mast cells among individuals
T. Okabe (2001)
Substance P enhances IL-2 expression in activated human T cells.
C. F. Calvo (1992)
10.1046/J.0022-202X.2001.01585.X
Involvement of leukotriene B(4) in substance P-induced itch-associated response in mice.
T. Andoh (2001)
10.1016/0041-0101(92)90045-7
Phoneutria nigriventer (armed spider) venom induces increased vascular permeability in rat and rabbit skin in vivo.
E. Antunes (1992)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12263603
The regeneration of substance P-containing nerve fibers in the process of burn wound healing in the guinea pig skin.
S. Kishimoto (1984)
10.1073/PNAS.88.22.10208
Pharmacological properties of a potent and selective nonpeptide substance P antagonist.
C. Garret (1991)
10.1046/j.1468-2982.1991.1104175.x
Pain, Tenderness, Wheal and Flare Induced by Substance-P, Bradykinin and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Humans
K. Jensen (1991)
10.1038/sj.bjp.0701793
Ovalbumin‐induced neurogenic inflammation in the bladder of sensitized rats
A. Ahluwalia (1998)
In vivo immunomodulation by the neuropeptide substance P.
R. Scicchitano (1988)
10.1152/ajpregu.1999.277.2.R476
Use of NK1 knockout mice to analyze substance P-induced edema formation.
T. Cao (1999)
10.1046/J.1523-1747.2002.19626.X
Substance P enhances the production of interferon-induced protein of 10 kDa by human keratinocytes in synergy with interferon-gamma.
N. Kanda (2002)
10.1016/S0165-5728(02)00169-8
Substance P receptor expression on lymphocytes is associated with the immune response to respiratory syncytial virus infection
R. Tripp (2002)
10.1016/S0167-0115(97)00029-3
The effects of tachykinins on inflammatory and immune cells
C. Maggi (1997)
10.1111/j.1460-9568.1995.tb01147.x
Involvement of Substance P in Ultraviolet Irradiation‐induced Inflammation in Rat Skin
C. Eschenfelder (1995)
10.1002/JCP.1041560318
Substance P: A competence factor for human fibroblast proliferation that induces the release of growth‐regulatory arachidonic acid metabolites
C. Kaehler (1993)
10.1016/S0165-5728(98)00025-3
Human lymphocytes express substance P and its receptor
J. Lai (1998)
10.1001/jama.1928.02690310067037
The blood vessels of the human skin and their responses
T. Lewis (1927)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1983.tb06811.x
Peptidergic (neurotensin, VIP, substance P) nerve fibres in the skin. Immunohistochemical evidence of an involvement of neuropeptides in nociception, pruritus and inflammation
W. Hartschuh (1983)
10.1038/32897
Primary afferent tachykinins are required to experience moderate to intense pain
Yu Cao (1998)
10.1038/SJ.JIDSP.5640237
Peribulbar innervation and substance P expression following nonpermanent injury to the human scalp hair follicle.
M. Hordinsky (1999)
10.1007/BF00413281
Occurrence of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and calcitonin gene-related peptide in dermographism and cold urticaria
J. Wallengren (2004)
10.1016/S0165-5728(98)00173-8
Neurokinin type-1 receptor antagonist inhibits enhancement of T cell functions by substance P in normal and neuromanipulated capsaicin-treated rats
G. Santoni (1999)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb48155.x
Neurokinin Receptors
D. Regoli (1997)
10.1016/0167-0115(95)00055-G
Neuropeptide immunoreactivity and co-existence in cardiovascular nerves and autonomic ganglia of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, and cardiovascular effects of neuropeptides
P. Karila (1995)
10.1038/sj.bjp.0704436
Interactive contribution of NK1 and kinin receptors to the acute inflammatory oedema observed in response to noxious heat stimulation: studies in NK1 receptor knockout mice
A. Rawlingson (2001)
10.1159/000138190
Histamine release and local responses of rat and human skin to substance P and other mammalian tachykinins.
P. Devillier (1986)
10.1046/j.1365-2133.1997.18001893.x
The epidermal nerve fibre network: characterization of nerve fibres in human skin by confocal microscopy and assessment of racial variations
D. Reilly (1997)
10.1161/01.CIR.77.5.1072
Vasodilatation by calcitonin gene-related peptide and by substance P: a comparison of their effects on resistance and capacitance vessels of human forearms.
J. Mcewan (1988)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12455620
Potent vasodilator activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide in human skin.
S. Brain (1986)
10.1007/BF02145873
Isolation and structure of bombesin and alytesin, two analogous active peptides from the skin of the european amphibiansBombina andAlytes
A. Anastasi (2005)
10.1111/j.1600-0781.1997.tb00125.x
Effect of UVB 311 nm irradiation on normal human skin
J. Viac (1997)
10.1080/000155598433386
Modulation of cutaneous SP receptors in atopic dermatitis after UVA irradiation.
V. Staniek (1998)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12515092
Flare and itch induced by substance P in human skin.
O. Haegermark (1978)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1984.tb16461.x
Substance P in sensory nerve fibres contributes to the development of oedema in the rat hind paw after thermal injury
A. Saria (1984)
10.1152/AJPREGU.1993.264.6.R1229
Caudal hindbrain participation in the suppression of feeding by central and peripheral bombesin.
E. Ladenheim (1993)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1991.tb00591.x
Substance P antagonist inhibits immediate and delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions
J. Wallengren (1991)
10.1093/QJMED/HCG002
Itch: scratching more than the surface.
R. Twycross (2003)
10.1007/BF00371834
Immunohistochemical analysis of sensory nerves and neuropeptides, and their contacts with mast cells in developing and mature psoriatic lesions
A. Naukkarinen (2004)
10.1159/000188949
Hemodialysis-related pruritus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of capsaicin 0.025% cream.
D. Tarng (1996)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1992.tb09008.x
The non‐peptide NK1 receptor antagonist, (±)‐CP‐96,345, produces antinociceptive and anti‐oedema effects in the rat
P. Birch (1992)
10.1111/j.1398-9995.1987.tb02182.x
Capsaicin‐sensitive nerves and the cutaneous allergy reaction in man
L. Lundblad (1987)
10.1002/CNE.902260105
The distribution of substance P in turtle nervous system: A radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical study
A. Reiner (1984)
Neurogenic inflammation, vascular permeability, and mast cells.
M. L. Kowalski (1988)
Stimulation of IL-2 production in murine lymphocytes by substance P and related tachykinins.
P. Rameshwar (1993)
Several mediators appear to interact in neurogenic inflammation.
R. Gamse (1987)
10.1097/00004630-199609000-00004
Substance P has a role in neurogenic mediation of human burn wound healing.
C. Dunnick (1996)
10.1007/BF00319042
Association between histamine-containing mast cells and sensory nerves in the skin and airways of control and capsaicin-treated pigs
K. Alving (2004)
10.1186/rr49
Immunologists getting nervous: neuropeptides, dendritic cells and T cell activation
B. Lambrecht (2001)
10.1016/0190-9622(93)70208-B
A double-blind evaluation of topical capsaicin in pruritic psoriasis.
C. Ellis (1993)
10.1007/s004030050194
Binding and in vitro modulation of human epidermal Langerhans cell functions by substance P
V. Staniek (1997)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12499846
Substance P is diminished and vasoactive intestinal peptide is augmented in psoriatic lesions and these peptides exert disparate effects on the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes.
C. Pincelli (1992)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1989.tb08209.x
Skin reactivity to neuropeptides in atopic dermatitis
A. Giannetti (1989)
10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00642-8
A novel proline rich bombesin-related peptide (PR-bombesin) from toad Bombina maxima
R. Lai (2002)
The modulation of cutaneous inflammatory reactions by peptide-containing sensory nerves.
G. Jancsó (1985)
10.1016/S0306-4522(01)00435-3
Lack of a significant effect of deletion of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor on wound healing in mouse skin
T. Cao (2001)
10.1007/BF00402226
Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide modulate leukocyte infiltration to mouse skin during allergic contact dermatitis
M. Goebeler (2004)
10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01234-6
Comparative effect of Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom and capsaicin on the rat paw oedema.
S. Costa (2001)
10.1067/MJD.2001.110059
Treatment of prurigo nodularis with topical capsaicin.
S. Ständer (2001)
10.1034/j.1600-0625.2000.009001042.x
Substance P induction of murine keratinocyte PAM 212 interleukin 1 production is mediated by the neurokinin 2 receptor (NK‐2R)
I. Song (2000)
10.1113/jphysiol.1982.sp014347
The effects of substance P on histamine and 5‐hydroxytryptamine release in the rat
C. Fewtrell (1982)
10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.03951.x
Expression of neuropeptide‐degrading enzymes in alopecia areata: an immunohistochemical study
M. Toyoda (2001)
10.1203/00006450-198911000-00019
Developmental Changes in Agonist-Mediated Gastric Smooth Muscle Contraction in the Rabbit
T. Tomomasa (1989)
Contribution of substance P to heat-induced edema in rat paw.
N. Yonehara (1987)
10.1111/j.1365-2222.1997.tb01239.x
No release of histamine and substance P in capsaicin‐induced neurogenic inflammation in intact human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study
L. Petersen (1997)
Specific stimulation of human T lymphocytes by substance P.
D. Payan (1983)
10.1007/BF01975711
Mustard oil-induced cutaneous inflammation in the pig
G. Jancsó (2005)
10.1016/S0165-5728(02)00277-1
Substance P up-regulates macrophage inflammatory protein-1β expression in human T lymphocytes
Chang-Jiang Guo (2002)
10.4049/jimmunol.166.2.1285
Neutral Endopeptidase Terminates Substance P-Induced Inflammation in Allergic Contact Dermatitis1
T. Scholzen (2001)
Interleukin-1 beta primes interleukin-8-stimulated chemotaxis and elastase release in human neutrophils via its type I receptor.
L. Brandolini (1997)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12456487
Effects of substance P and substance K on the growth of cultured keratinocytes.
T. Tanaka (1988)
10.1007/s007950100002
Pathogenesis of acne
M. Toyoda (2001)
Neurogenic inflammation, vascular permeability, and mast cells. II. Additional evidence indicating that mast cells are not involved in neurogenic inflammation.
M. L. Kowalski (1990)
Molecular evidence that granuloma T lymphocytes in murine schistosomiasis mansoni express an authentic substance P (NK-1) receptor.
G. A. Cook (1994)
10.1016/0091-6749(89)90383-7
Role of substance P in immediate-type skin reactions induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B in unsensitized monkeys.
G. Alber (1989)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1989.tb01346.x
Calcitonin gene‐related peptide immunoreactivity in prurigo nodularis: a comparative study with neurodermatitis circumscripta
A. Vaalasti (1989)
10.1002/jlb.61.4.445
Involvement of leukotrienes, TNF‐α, and the LFA‐1/ICAM‐1 interaction in substance P‐induced granulocyte infiltration
M. R. Saban (1997)
10.1016/S0140-6736(05)60916-6
Pathophysiology of itching
M. Greaves (1997)
10.1038/72247
Agonists of proteinase-activated receptor 2 induce inflammation by a neurogenic mechanism
M. Steinhoff (2000)
10.1016/S0014-2999(00)00304-6
Substance P induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from human skin via mitogen-activated protein kinase.
T. Okabe (2000)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1992.tb00452.x
Increased sensory neuropeptides in nodular prurigo: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis
F.ABADÍA Molina (1992)
10.1038/270741a0
Pharmacologically induced selective degeneration of chemosensitive primary sensory neurones
G. Jancsó (1977)
VCAM-1 expression on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells is directly and specifically up-regulated by substance P.
K. L. Quinlan (1999)
10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00428-7
Repeated subinflammatory ultraviolet B irradiation increases substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide content and augments mustard oil-induced neurogenic inflammation in the skin of rats
F. Legat (2002)
10.1038/72218
New feelings about the role of sensory nerves in inflammation
S. Brain (2000)
10.1126/science.273.5282.1722
Neurogenic Amplification of Immune Complex Inflammation
C. Bozic (1996)
10.1096/fj.01-0655fje
HIV enhances substance P expression in human immune cells
W. Ho (2002)
10.1189/jlb.69.6.1013
Priming effects of substance P on calcium changes evoked by interleukin‐8 in human neutrophils
C. Dianzani (2001)
10.1016/S0014-2999(97)01387-3
Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom induces oedema in rat skin by activation of capsaicin sensitive sensory nerves.
S. Costa (1997)
10.1007/s004030050249
Intraepidermal nerve fiber expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P in psoriasis
J. Chan (1997)
10.1093/CLINIDS/11.SUPPLEMENT_1.S142
Regulation and control of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1: overview.
M. S. Bergdoll (1989)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NE.12.030189.002201
Spider toxins: recent applications in neurobiology.
H. Jackson (1989)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1991.tb33115.x
Role of Peptidergic Sensory Neurons in Gastric Mucosal Blood Flow and Protection a
P. Holzer (1991)
10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04803.x
Nerve growth factor and substance P are useful plasma markers of disease activity in atopic dermatitis
M. Toyoda (2002)
10.1016/S0190-9622(89)70015-3
Stress and psoriasis: the importance of insight and empathy in prognosis.
R. Seville (1989)
10.1016/S0028-3908(00)00171-4
Interactions of inflammatory mediators stimulating release of calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and prostaglandin E2 from isolated rat skin
B. Averbeck (2001)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb13354.x
Substance P‐induced inflammatory responses in guinea‐pig skin: The effect of specific NK1 receptor antagonists and the role of endogenous mediators
D. Walsh (1995)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12462780
Neuropeptides modulate leukotriene B4 mitogenicity toward cultured human keratinocytes.
M. J. Rabier (1993)
10.1113/jphysiol.1901.sp000831
On the origin from the spinal cord of the vaso‐dilator fibres of the hind‐limb, and on the nature of these fibres 1
W. Bayliss (1901)
10.1016/0024-3205(85)90416-3
IV. Effects of bombesin on behavior
A. Cowan (1985)
10.1046/J.1365-201X.1996.431164000.X
Effects of hCGRP 8-37 and the NK1-receptor antagonist SR 140.333 on capsaicin-evoked vasodilation in the pig nasal mucosa in vivo.
J. Rinder (1996)
10.1111/j.1468-3083.1999.tb00800.x
Characterization of [3H]substance P binding sites in human skin
B. Bianchi (1999)
10.1016/S0923-1811(99)00059-6
Firm stroking of human skin leads to vasodilatation possibly due to the release of substance P.
V. Morhenn (2000)
10.1159/000234808
Neutral endopeptidase modulates tachykinin-induced increase in vascular permeability in guinea pig skin.
I. Iwamoto (1989)
10.1016/0196-9781(85)90379-1
Characterization of substance P-like immunoreactivity in submammalian species by high performance liquid chromatography
F. Lembeck (1985)
10.1016/S0168-0102(99)00107-8
Interaction between nitric oxide and substance P on heat-induced inflammation in rat paw
N. Yonehara (2000)
10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00315-8
The tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR140333 prevents the increase of nerve growth factor in rat paw skin induced by substance P or neurogenic inflammation
R. Amann (2000)
10.1084/JEM.192.3.367
Association between Kinin B1 Receptor Expression and Leukocyte Trafficking across Mouse Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules
Peter G. Mclean (2000)
10.1111/j.1476-5381.1988.tb16555.x
Characterization of neuropeptide‐induced histamine release from human dispersed skin mast cells
M. A. Lowman (1988)
10.1038/315061A0
Stimulation of connective tissue cell growth by substance P and substance K
J. Nilsson (1985)
10.1038/sj.bjp.0705240
Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom activates 5‐HT4 receptors in rat‐isolated vagus nerve
S. Costa (2003)
10.1159/000053571
Human Skin Mast Cells Produce TNF-α by Substance P
Y. Okayama (1998)
10.1016/0006-8993(94)01247-F
Trigeminal ganglion stimulation increases facial skin blood flow in the rat: a major role for calcitonin gene-related peptide
K. J. Escott (1995)
10.1016/S0304-3940(02)00299-9
Inflammation-induced up-regulation of neurokinin 1 receptors in rat glabrous skin
S. Carlton (2002)
10.1016/0190-9622(92)70013-6
Topical capsaicin for treatment of hemodialysis-related pruritus.
D. Breneman (1992)
10.2340/0001555575218221
In vitro T cell response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B superantigen in chronic plaque type psoriasis.
H. Bour (1995)
Human skin mast cells: their dispersion, purification, and secretory characterization.
R. Benyon (1987)
10.1007/BF01967311
Histamine release and vascular changes induced by neuropeptides
John Foreman (2005)
10.3109/08820139709088545
Mechanisms involved in activation of human eosinophil exocytosis by substance P: an in vitro model of sensory neuroimmunomodulation.
A. El-Shazly (1997)
10.1076/apab.105.4.329.9478
Action of physalaemin on the ionic transport across the frog skin.
S. Lobasso (1998)
10.1038/sj.bjp.0704485
Evidence of a role for NK1 and CGRP receptors in mediating neurogenic vasodilatation in the mouse ear
A. Grant (2002)
10.1038/SJ.JIDSP.5640182
Effect of ultraviolet light on the release of neuropeptides and neuroendocrine hormones in the skin: mediators of photodermatitis and cutaneous inflammation.
T. Scholzen (1999)
10.1046/J.1523-1747.1999.00596.X
Neutral endopeptidase expression and distribution in human skin and wounds.
J. Olerud (1999)
10.1006/BBRC.1995.1390
Substance P and bradykinin are natural inhibitors of CD13/aminopeptidase N.
Y. Xu (1995)
10.1016/S0190-9622(97)70240-8
Uremic pruritus: roles of parathyroid hormone and substance P.
Y. L. Cho (1997)
10.1111/j.1365-3083.1990.tb02801.x
The Neuropeptide Substance P Stimulates Production of Interleukin 1 in Human Blood Monocytes: Activated Cells are Preferentially Influenced by the Neuropeptide
M. Laurenzi (1990)
10.3109/13813459408996105
Action of capsaicin and related peptides on the ionic transport across the skin of Rana esculenta.
C. Lippe (1994)
Human monocytes and macrophages express substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor.
W. Ho (1997)
10.1016/S0190-9622(94)70022-2
Treatment of aquagenic pruritus with topical capsaicin cream.
T. Lotti (1994)
10.2340/0001555576205209
Neuropeptide- and capsaicin-induced histamine release in skin monitored with the microdialysis technique.
M. Huttunen (1996)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb27213.x
Neurokinin‐Induced Generation of Interleukin‐1 in a Macrophage Cell Line
E. Kimball (1988)
10.1016/0304-3940(92)90564-N
NK-1, but not NK-2, tachykinin receptors mediate plasma extravasation induced by antidromic C-fiber stimulation in rat hindpaw: Demonstrated with the NK-1 antagonist CP-96,345 and the NK-2 antagonist Men 10207
X. Xu (1992)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12470630
Neuropeptides enhance irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.
J. Gutwald (1991)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MI.43.100189.002111
Genetic analysis of extracellular toxins of Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Iandolo (1989)
10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00054-0
Lack of evidence for tachykinin NK1 receptor-mediated neutrophil accumulation in the rat cutaneous microvasculature by thermal injury.
E. Pintér (1999)
10.1111/j.1600-0536.1988.tb02950.x
Some neuropeptides as modulators of experimental contact allergy
J. Wallengren (1988)
10.1007/BF02252943
Involvement of tachykinin receptors in oedema formation and plasma extravasation induced by substance P, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B in mouse ear
H. Inoue (2005)
Substance P selectively activates TNF-alpha gene expression in murine mast cells.
J. Ansel (1993)
Substance P induces granulocyte infiltration through degranulation of mast cells.
H. Matsuda (1989)
10.1007/s00403-002-0325-z
Bird's eye view observations of the subepidermal nerve network of normal guinea pig skin
Masahiko Ishihara (2002)
10.1309/7AYY-VVH1-GQT5-J4R2
Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors in health and disease.
A. Szallasi (2002)
Activation of human neutrophils by substance P: effect on FMLP-stimulated oxidative and arachidonic acid metabolism and on antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
A. Woźniak (1989)
10.1016/0306-4522(88)90065-6
Substance P content of the skin, neurogenic inflammation and numbers of C-fibres following capsaicin application to a cutaneous nerve in the rabbit
B. Lynn (1988)
10.1016/S0041-0101(01)00156-8
Superantigen bacterial toxins: state of the art.
H. Müller-Alouf (2001)
10.1111/j.1365-2133.1991.tb04948.x
Neuropeptides in skin disease: increased VIP in eczema and psoriasis but not axillary hyperhidrosis
P. Anand (1991)
10.1046/j.1365-2133.1997.19762090.x
Skin, immunity and the nervous system
L. Misery (1997)
10.1016/S0196-9781(98)00080-1
Actions of tachykinins on the ion transport across the frog skin
C. Lippe (1998)
10.1590/S0036-46652000000100003
A clinico-epidemiological study of bites by spiders of the genus Phoneutria.
F. Bucaretchi (2000)
10.1111/1523-1747.EP12330326
Skin-nervous system interactions.
J. Ansel (1996)
10.1152/AJPGI.1992.263.5.G678
Neuropeptides promote neutrophil adherence to endothelial cell monolayers.
B. Zimmerman (1992)
10.1007/BF00500282
Substance P as neurogenic mediator of antidromic vasodilation and neurogenic plasma extravasation
F. Lembeck (2004)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar