Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Anatomy – Biomechanics – Novel Imaging Of The Native PCL

T. Hoof, Michiel Cromheecke, Thomas Tampere, K. D'Herde, J. Victor, P. Verdonk, J. Menetrey, S. Scheffler, P. Djian, K. Makridis, F. Margheritini
Published 2012 · Materials Science

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The PCL is considered an intra-articular and extra-synovial structure and its dimensions have been well described. Its length is 32–38 mm with a cross-sectional area of 11 mm2, and the bony insertion sites are three times larger than its mid-substance [11]. The average area of the femoral footprint of the anterolateral (AL) bundle is 118 ± 23.95 and of the posteromedial (PM) bundle is 90 ± 16.13 [23]. The distance from the medial articular cartilage has been found at 13 mm posteriorly and inferiorly [33]. The average area of the tibial footprint of the AL bundle is 93.1 ± 16.6 and of the PM bundle is 150.8 ± 31 [48]. The distance from the medial articular cartilage has been found at 8 mm posteriorly and 20 mm inferiorly. Both bundles insert as a unique tendon on the posterior aspect of the tibia approximately 1–1.5 cm distal to the joint line and their centre is located, medial to lateral, 48 % of the width of the tibial plateau [8].
This paper references
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2007.04.014
Reducing the "killer turn" in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by fixation level and smoothing the tibial aperture.
Andre Weimann (2007)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2006.11.005
The attachments of the fiber bundles of the posterior cruciate ligament: an anatomic study.
A. Edwards (2007)
10.5435/00124635-199311000-00001
Isolated and Combined Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
D. M. Veltri (1993)
10.2106/00004623-199305000-00008
The effects of sectioning of the posterior cruciate ligament and the posterolateral complex on the articular contact pressures within the knee.
M. Skyhar (1993)
10.1177/0363546507304665
Importance of Tibial Slope for Stability of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament—Deficient Knee
J. Robert Giffin (2007)
10.1002/ar.10030
Gross anatomy in the surgical curriculum in Switzerland: Improved cadaver preservation, anatomical models, and course development
P. Groscurth (2001)
10.1007/s00167-004-0567-8
Assessment of posterior stability in total knee replacement by stress radiographs
S. Louisia (2004)
Single-bundle versus double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: scientific rationale and surgical technique.
A. Chhabra (2006)
10.1016/S0749-8063(97)90029-3
The anatomic origin of the posterior cruciate ligament: where is it? Reference landmarks for PCL reconstruction.
C. Morgan (1997)
The Knee: Form, Function, and Ligament Reconstruction
W. Müller (2011)
10.1016/j.pop.2013.02.004
Ligamentous injuries of the knee: anterior cruciate, medial collateral, posterior cruciate, and posterolateral corner injuries.
V. Morelli (2013)
10.2106/00004623-199309000-00014
Injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament.
C. Covey (1993)
10.1007/s00330-003-2216-x
Ultrasound during dissection of cadaveric specimens: a new method for obtaining ultrasound–anatomic correlations in musculoskeletal radiology
M. de Maeseneer (2003)
10.1177/0363546509333479
Long-term Results of Isolated Anterolateral Bundle Reconstructions of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Stijn Hermans (2009)
10.1177/036354658701500606
Isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries in athletes
P. Fowler (1987)
10.1177/03635465020300011901
Fixed Posterior Subluxation in Posterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees
M. Strobel (2002)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.174.2.2296661
Posterior cruciate ligament: MR imaging.
J. S. Grover (1990)
10.1177/03635465030310021101
Codominance of the Individual Posterior Cruciate Ligament Bundles: An Analysis of Bundle Lengths and Orientation
C. Ahmad (2003)
10.1016/0021-9290(91)90172-J
A geometric theory of the equilibrium mechanics of fibers in ligaments and tendons.
J. Sidles (1991)
10.1177/0363546504265005
The Effect of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency on Knee Kinematics
M. Logan (2004)
10.1007/s00167-006-0137-3
Stress radiography to measure posterior cruciate ligament insufficiency: a comparison of five different techniques
T. Jung (2006)
10.2106/00004623-200204000-00002
Cyclic Loading of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Replacements Fixed with Tibial Tunnel and Tibial Inlay Methods
K. Markolf (2002)
10.1016/j.arthro.2009.11.006
Biomechanical comparison of figure-of-8 versus cylindrical tibial inlay constructs for arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
Ramon A Ruberte Thiele (2010)
10.2106/JBJS.H.00991
Morphology of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament.
Goro Tajima (2009)
10.1007/s00167-006-0086-x
Full arthroscopic inlay reconstruction of posterior cruciate ligament
P. Mariani (2006)
10.1177/0363546508325664
Posterolateral Structures of the Knee in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency
M. Kozánek (2009)
Surgery of the knee
J. Insall (2001)
10.1053/J.OTSM.2012.03.008
Isometry of the lateral collateral and popliteofibular ligaments and techniques for reconstruction using a free semitendinosus tendon graft
R. V. Larson (2001)
10.1177/036354659302100314
Posterior subluxations of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments
F. Noyes (1993)
10.1177/03635465980260032301
Evaluation and Treatment of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
C. Harner (1998)
10.1177/036354658601400107
Long-term results of nonoperative treatment of isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries in the athlete
J. M. Parolie (1986)
10.2106/00004623-197658030-00015
The sub-deltoid approach to the metaphyseal region of the humerus.
M. Martini (1976)
10.1177/036354659702500510
Diagnosis of Complete and Partial Posterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures
T. Hewett (1997)
Allograft reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments: report of ten-year experience and results.
Noyes Fr (1993)
10.1016/s0278-5919(20)30313-6
Operative treatment of posterolateral instability of the knee.
D. M. Veltri (1994)
10.1177/036354659302100313
Biceps tendon tenodesis for posterolateral instability of the knee
D. Wascher (1993)
10.1177/0363546510396182
Comparison of 5 Different Methods for Measuring Stress Radiographs to Improve Reproducibility During the Evaluation of Knee Instability
Y. S. Lee (2011)
10.1177/0363546511416316
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
J. Voos (2012)
10.1177/03635465000280011801
Biomechanical Analysis of a Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
C. Harner (2000)
10.1016/J.RCL.2007.08.007
Advanced MR imaging of the cruciate ligaments.
C. Roberts (2007)
10.2106/00004623-198365030-00004
Treatment of knee joint instability secondary to rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament. Report of a new procedure.
W. Clancy (1983)
10.1007/s00167-011-1469-1
Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an arthroscopic femoral inlay technique
F. Margheritini (2011)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.183.3.1584944
Three-dimensional gradient-echo MR imaging of the knee: comparison with arthroscopy in 100 patients.
C. Heron (1992)
10.2106/00004623-199173010-00002
Accuracy of diagnoses from magnetic resonance imaging of the knee. A multi-center analysis of one thousand and fourteen patients.
S. P. Fischer (1991)
10.1007/s00167-005-0633-x
Biomechanical comparison of posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques using cyclic loading tests
Yasuharu Hiraga (2005)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.12.020
Tensioning of remnant posterior cruciate ligament and reconstruction of anterolateral bundle in chronic posterior cruciate ligament injury.
Y. B. Jung (2006)
10.1177/0363546504273487
Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using Autogenous Hamstring Tendons
S. Yoshiya (2005)
10.1177/036354659502300617
The Human Posterior Cruciate Ligament Complex: An Interdisciplinary Study
C. Harner (1995)
10.1302/0301-620X.72B2.2312560
Posterior instability of the knee near extension. A clinical and stress radiographic analysis of acute injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament.
H. Staeubli (1990)
10.2106/JBJS.G.01366
Double compared with single-bundle open inlay posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a cadaver model.
D. Whiddon (2008)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.08.057
Comparison of tibial inlay versus transtibial techniques for isolated posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: minimum 2-year follow-up.
J. Macgillivray (2006)
10.1097/00003086-198909000-00030
Natural history of the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.
J. Torg (1989)
10.1177/036354658401200307
Acute combined posterior cruciate and posterolateral instability of the knee
C. Baker (1984)
10.1302/0301-620X.84B4.12934
Intraoperative blood loss during cervical laminoplasty correlates with the vertebral intraosseous pressure.
M. Kakiuchi (2002)
10.2106/JBJS.C.00834
Distribution of posterior tibial displacement in knees with posterior cruciate ligament tears.
M. S. Schulz (2007)
10.2106/00004623-199305000-00014
Comparison of tibiofemoral joint forces during open-kinetic-chain and closed-kinetic-chain exercises.
G. Lutz (1993)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.154.3.3969476
Acute injury of the ligaments of the knee: magnetic resonance evaluation.
D. Turner (1985)
10.1177/036354658100900203
Acute posterior cruciate ligament injuries
W. Loos (1981)
10.1177/0363546506293704
Posterolateral Knee Reconstruction with an Anatomical Bone–Patellar Tendon–Bone Reconstruction of the Fibular Collateral Ligament
F. Noyes (2007)
10.1177/03635465010290020401
A Biomechanical Comparison of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques *
J. Bergfeld (2001)
10.1177/03635465030310050701
Effects of Bone Block Position and Orientation within the Tibial Tunnel for Posterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Reconstructions
K. Markolf (2003)
10.1177/0363546504273046
A Biomechanical Comparison of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions Using Single- and Double-Bundle Tibial Inlay Techniques
J. Bergfeld (2005)
10.1007/BF00441621
Dorsal approach for reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament
Y. R. Thomann (2004)
10.2106/00004623-198870010-00014
Limits of movement in the human knee. Effect of sectioning the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral structures.
E. Grood (1988)
10.1097/JSA.0b013e318219149c
Combined PCL-ACL Lateral and Medial Side Injuries: Treatment and Results
G. Fanelli (2011)
10.1177/03635465990270030201
The Natural History of Acute, Isolated, Nonoperatively Treated Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
K. Shelbourne (1999)
10.5435/00124635-200907000-00004
Surgical Treatment of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: An Evolving Technique
M. Matava (2009)
10.1016/j.carj.2009.11.003
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cruciate Ligament Injuries of the Knee
C. Kam (2010)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.06.017
Biomechanics of initial tibial fixation in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
F. Margheritini (2005)
MR imaging of the knee ligaments and the postoperative knee.
J. Irizarry (1997)
10.5435/00124635-200109000-00003
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: Evaluation and Management
A. Cosgarea (2001)
10.1002/ar.20735
3D Computerized Model for Measuring Strain and Displacement of the Brachial Plexus Following Placement of Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis
T. Van Hoof (2008)
10.1016/j.arthro.2007.09.012
Comparison of a double bundle arthroscopic inlay and open inlay posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using clinically relevant tools: a cadaveric study.
Chad T. Zehms (2008)
10.2106/JBJS.H.01514
Topography of the femoral attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament. Surgical technique.
B. Forsythe (2009)
10.1177/0363546503261717
Biomechanical Comparison of Tibial Inlay versus Transtibial Techniques for Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
F. Margheritini (2004)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.12.003
Anatomic reconstructive surgery for posterolateral instability of the knee.
K. H. Yoon (2006)
10.1016/0749-8063(95)90091-8
Posterior cruciate ligament tibial inlay reconstruction.
E. Berg (1995)
10.2106/00004623-198870020-00005
The accuracy of selective magnetic resonance imaging compared with the findings of arthroscopy of the knee.
D. Polly (1988)
10.2106/00004623-198769020-00010
The role of the posterolateral and cruciate ligaments in the stability of the human knee. A biomechanical study.
D. Gollehon (1987)
The posterior cruciate ligament injured knee: principles of evaluation and treatment.
M. Miller (1999)
Combined anterior and posterior cruciate and medial collateral ligament injury: nonsurgical and delayed surgical treatment.
Shelbourne Kd (2003)
10.1177/03635465000280020201
Biomechanical Analysis of a Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction*
C. Harner (2000)
10.1016/S0749-8063(05)80424-4
Posterior cruciate ligament injuries in trauma patients
G. Fanelli (1993)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2006.05.018
Changes in knee laxity and ligament force after sectioning the posteromedial bundle of the posterior cruciate ligament.
K. Markolf (2006)
10.2165/00007256-199112020-00004
Injuries to the Posterior Cruciate Ligament of the Knee
P. Kannus (1991)
10.1016/S0035-1040(07)79309-1
Les lésions du ligament croisé postérieur : définition, classification et algorithme de traitement
J. Menetrey (2007)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.11.011
Arthroscopic femoral tensioning and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in chronic posterior cruciate ligament injury.
J. H. Ahn (2006)
[Definition, classification, rationale and treatment for PCl deficient knee].
J. Menetrey (2007)
10.2106/JBJS.H.01819
Comparison of the clinical results of three posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques.
Sung-Jae Kim (2009)
10.1302/0301-620x.80b1.0800173
PCL reconstruction. In vitro biomechanical comparison of 'isometric' versus single and double-bundled 'anatomic' grafts.
A. Race (1998)
10.1097/01.jsa.0000212301.80496.dc
Surgical Treatment of Acute Medial Collateral Ligament and Posteromedial Corner Injuries of the Knee
G. Fanelli (2006)
10.1177/0363546504269723
Reliability of Stress Radiography for Evaluation of Posterior Knee Laxity
M. S. Schulz (2005)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.05.004
Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: double-loop hamstring tendon autograft versus Achilles tendon allograft--clinical results of a minimum 2-year follow-up.
J. H. Ahn (2005)
10.1016/j.arthro.2008.10.015
The biomechanical performance of bone block and soft-tissue posterior cruciate ligament graft fixation with interference screw and cross-pin techniques.
H. Lim (2009)
10.2165/00007256-200636080-00001
Biomechanical Analysis of Tibial Torque and Knee Flexion Angle
C. Senter (2006)
10.1097/JSA.0b013e3181fbaf38
Initial Evaluation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: History, Physical Examination, Imaging Studies, Surgical and Nonsurgical Indications
E. López-Vidriero (2010)
10.1097/00003086-197501000-00033
The cruciate ligaments of the knee joint. Anatomical, functional and experimental analysis.
F. Girgis (1975)
10.2106/JBJS.G.01365
A clinically relevant assessment of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner injuries. Evaluation of isolated and combined deficiency.
J. Sekiya (2008)
10.2106/JBJS.H.00177
Analysis of tibiofemoral cartilage deformation in the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.
Samuel K Van de Velde (2009)
10.1177/0363546503262687
An Analysis of an Anatomical Posterolateral Knee Reconstruction
R. LaPrade (2004)
A CLINICAL AND STRESS RADIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ACUTE INJURIES OF THE POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT
R. Jakob (1990)
10.1016/J.ARTHRO.2005.09.023
Analysis of meniscofemoral ligament tension during knee motion.
C. Moran (2006)
10.1177/0363546506287825
The Incidence and Cross-sectional Area of the Meniscofemoral Ligament
S. Nagasaki (2006)
10.1097/00002281-200203000-00011
Posterior cruciate ligament injuries
C. Allen (1993)



Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar