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Chromium–Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Interactions: Toxicity And Management
M. S. Khan, A. Zaidi, P. A. Wani
Published 2012 · Chemistry
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Among heavy metals, chromium is a highly toxic nonessential metal found in different environmental settings. Chromium pollution has been reported worldwide, causes undeniable damage to microbes and plant genotypes, and is carcinogenic and genotoxic for humans. Of the two most common oxidative states, hexavalent chromium is relatively more deleterious than the less-mobile trivalent form of chromium. Chromium toxicity, however, can be reduced by employing various physicochemical and biological processes. Among biomaterials, apart from plants, use of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria has been found effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria alleviate the metal toxicity by adopting different strategies like biosorption and bioaccumulation, bioreduction to a less-toxic state, and chromate efflux. Some of these methods have been proposed as effective biological tools for removing chromium from contaminated locations. The interaction of chromium with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterial-based management of chromium toxicity is reviewed and discussed. The detoxification of chromium by plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria is likely to reduce the adversity of chromium to various agroecosystems and may serve as a good candidate for bacterial-based bioremediation of chromium-polluted soils.
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