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Pathological Diagnostic Criteria For Dementia Associated With Cortical Lewy Bodies: Review And Proposal For A Descriptive Approach.

J. Lowe, D. Dickson
Published 1997 · Biology, Medicine

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In recent years dementia histologically characterised by the presence of cortical Lewy bodies has been increasingly recognised. There is now need for a scheme for an internationally acceptable scheme for pathological diagnosis and classification so that clinical, pathological and molecular features of disease can be correlated. Recent observations made by different groups in large patient series have used slightly different pathological criteria resulting in at least seven different diagnostic terms. In some patients the only cortical pathology is the presence of Lewy bodies, while in the majority of patients there are coexisting pathological changes which either overlap with those seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cortical Lewy bodies can also be present in patients who do not have any obvious cognitive abnormality. A problem with equating studies from different groups is that different criteria have been used to define AD, so that establishing the relevance of cortical Lewy bodies themselves to cognitive decline and separating this from the contribution which may be related to the AD pathology is problematic. The lesions which appear to be of most relevance to potential cognitive decline in DLB are cortical Lewy bodies, Lewy-related neurites, senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic loss, spongiform change, and cortical cholinergic deficits. It is possible to operationally classify patients with cognitive decline and cortical Lewy bodies into three main groups, Cortical Lewy body disease, Cortical Lewy body disease with plaques, and Cortical Lewy body disease with plaques and tangles. There are frequent cases which overlap these groups making operational classification difficult in practice. A descriptive classification, in which the severity of different pathological changes is rated, is easy to use in practice. As new molecular risk factors for AD or DLB are revealed they will need to be related to morphological and clinical features. A descriptive diagnostic assessment for DLB will facilitate such studies and makes no judgements as to what these relationships will be.
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