The National Population Policy (NPP) Of Ethiopia: Achievements, Challenges And Lessons Learned, 1993–2010
Published 2011 · Political Science
This chapter assesses the implementation of the 1993 National Population Policy (NPP) of Ethiopia. Policy documents, censuses, survey results, research findings, development plans and program reports are used as sources of data in writing the chapter. It is shown that considerable progress has been made in the areas of reproductive health service delivery, population data collection and research, training and population information, education and communication. The population growth rate declined from 2.9% during the intercensal period 1984–1994 to 2.6% during the period 1994–2007; total fertility rate declined from 6.4 children per woman in 1990 to 5.4 in 2005; contraceptive prevalence (CPR) increased from less than 5% in 1990 to about 15% in 2005; infant mortality (IMR) decreased from 97/1,000 in 2000 to 77/1,000 in 2005; and maternal mortality declined from over 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births in the late 1980s and early 1990s to 871 in 2000 and it further declined to 673 in 2005. Moreover, steps were taken to remove all legal and customary practices against the social, economic and reproductive health rights of women and legislative measures were designed that are instrumental in eradicating all harmful traditional practices. The failure to establish the National Population Council, absence of legally defined structure at regional level, weak coordination and institutional arrangements, little or no monitoring and evaluation system, and lack of a comprehensive population program are some of the problems that have hindered the enhanced implementation of the policy. Therefore, renewed commitment of policy and decision makers is required to establish these needed coordinating mechanisms for implementing the policy.