Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Pathophysiology Of Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Insights Into Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

M. Pasi, A. Viswanathan
Published 2018 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Spontaneous intracerebral, non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results from arterial bleeding and formation of a brain hematoma. While 20% of all ICH cases result from a defined underlying cause (e.g., vascular malformation, coagulopathy, and tumors), the majority of ICHs are related to the rupture of damaged small- and medium-sized arteries of the brain. Pathologies affecting these arteries fall under the broad term cerebral small vessel disease. The two major forms of cerebral small vessel disease that are common in elderly populations are hypertensive small vessel disease (mainly affecting deep perforating arteries supplying the subcortical gray and white matter) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) (characterized by the progressive accumulation of β-amyloid in the leptomeningeal and cortical vessels). Pathologic studies suggest that hypertensive small vessel disease can lead to ICH in deep gray nuclei and white matter, thalamus, and pons, while CAA is responsible for a large majority of ICH in lobar areas. In the first part of the chapter, we will discuss the pathophysiology of ICH in relation to these two subtypes of small vessel disease. In the second part, the dynamic processes related to hematoma evolution and mechanisms of primary and secondary brain injury will be explored.
This paper references
10.1093/JNEN/62.1.104
Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage. Demonstration of the Source of Bleeding
C. Fisher (2003)
10.1002/ana.10160
Cell death in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage: The “black hole” model of hemorrhagic damage
R. Felberg (2002)
10.1177/1747493015607485
The concept of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease: A road map on key definitions and current concepts
A. Charidimou (2016)
10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.05.006
APOE-related biomarker profiles in non-pathological aging and early phases of Alzheimer's disease
I. Reinvang (2013)
10.1007/BF00685305
The arterial lesions underlying lacunes
C. Fisher (2004)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181eee40f
Aspirin and recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
A. Biffi (2010)
10.1093/brain/aws349
Intracerebral haemorrhage profiles are changing: results from the Dijon population-based study.
Y. Béjot (2013)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000002362
White matter hyperintensity patterns in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertensive arteriopathy
A. Charidimou (2016)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000003630
Ischemic lesions, blood pressure dysregulation, and poor outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage
C. Kidwell (2017)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.489807
Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Is a Risk Factor for Hemorrhagic But Not for Ischemic Stroke: The Rotterdam Study
M. Bos (2007)
10.1002/path.4133
Macrophage plasticity and polarization in tissue repair and remodelling.
A. Mantovani (2013)
10.1161/01.STR.30.6.1167
Progression of mass effect after intracerebral hemorrhage.
A. Zazulia (1999)
10.1161/01.STR.24.7.987
Volume of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Powerful and Easy‐to‐Use Predictor of 30‐Day Mortality
J. Broderick (1993)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000002419
Heterogeneous histopathology of cortical microbleeds in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Susanne J. van Veluw (2016)
10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70104-7
Intracerebral haemorrhage: mechanisms of injury and therapeutic targets
R. Keep (2012)
10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.2619
Association of Key Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease With Hematoma Volume and Expansion in Patients With Lobar and Deep Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
G. Boulouis (2016)
10.1016/s1042-3680(18)30641-7
Pathology of hypertensive arteriopathy.
J. García (1992)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e318278b66f
Characteristic distributions of intracerebral hemorrhage–associated diffusion-weighted lesions
E. Auriel (2012)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.013176
Leukocyte Count and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion
A. Morotti (2016)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000003746
MRI-visible perivascular spaces in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertensive arteriopathy
A. Charidimou (2017)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.579078
MRI Markers of Small Vessel Disease in Lobar and Deep Hemispheric Intracerebral Hemorrhage
E. Smith (2010)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000000732
Posterior white matter disease distribution as a predictor of amyloid angiopathy
Sekh Thanprasertsuk (2014)
10.1212/WNL.27.3.217
Thalamic hemorrhage
T. Walshe (1977)
Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood pressure lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack
S. MacMahon (2001)
10.1002/ana.22668
Predictors of highly prevalent brain ischemia in intracerebral hemorrhage
R. Menon (2012)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2806-06.2006
Combination of Thrombin and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Exacerbates Neurotoxicity in Cell Culture and Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice
M. Xue (2006)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000001398
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with and without hemorrhage
A. Charidimou (2015)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000004797
Mixed-location cerebral hemorrhage/microbleeds
M. Pasi (2018)
10.3171/JNS.1998.89.6.0991
Erythrocytes and delayed brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
G. Xi (1998)
10.1111/nan.12342
Systems proteomic analysis reveals that clusterin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 increase in leptomeningeal arteries affected by cerebral amyloid angiopathy
A. Manousopoulou (2017)
10.1212/01.wnl.0000410087.34228.7d
Lacunes: Small, deep cerebral infarcts
C. Fisher (2011)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.623157
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Electrocardiographic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Incidence of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
A. Folsom (2011)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000004665
Cortical superficial siderosis multifocality in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
A. Charidimou (2017)
10.1093/brain/awx047
Emerging concepts in sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
A. Charidimou (2017)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWW229
Microbleed and microinfarct detection in amyloid angiopathy: a high-resolution MRI-histopathology study.
Susanne J. van Veluw (2016)
10.1136/jnnp.73.5.552
Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid measurement studies in suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus, and brain atrophy
A. Tsunoda (2002)
10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.1218
Association Between Hypodensities Detected by Computed Tomography and Hematoma Expansion in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
G. Boulouis (2016)
10.1007/s00415-015-7840-2
Renal dysfunction is associated with deep cerebral microbleeds but not white matter hyperintensities in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage
M Laible (2015)
10.1161/01.STR.0000126827.69286.90
Temporal Profile of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Relationship to Clinical and Radiological Outcome
J. Alvarez-Sabín (2004)
10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.01.020
Estimated GFR and the Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering After Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
D. Zheng (2016)
10.1212/WNL.28.8.754
The Harvard Cooperative Stroke Registry
J. Mohr (1978)
10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70060-7
Mechanisms of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease: insights from neuroimaging
J. Wardlaw (2013)
10.1056/NEJM200105103441907
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
A. Qureshi (2001)
10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.08.024
Deposition of amyloid β in the walls of human leptomeningeal arteries in relation to perivascular drainage pathways in cerebral amyloid angiopathy☆
Abby Keable (2016)
10.1212/01.wnl.0000345666.83318.03
Silent ischemic infarcts are associated with hemorrhage burden in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
W. Kimberly (2009)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dad605
Prevalence of superficial siderosis in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy
J. Linn (2010)
Clinicopathologic studies of primary cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
H. Okazaki (1979)
10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70013-4
Cerebral microbleeds: a guide to detection and interpretation
S. Greenberg (2009)
10.1212/01.wnl.0000278894.44311.0b
CONTRAST EXTRAVASATION ON CT ANGIOGRAPHY PREDICTS HEMATOMA EXPANSION IN INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE
Y. Murai (2007)
10.1136/jnnp-2014-307856
Degree of blood pressure reduction and recurrent stroke: the PROGRESS trial
H. Arima (2014)
10.1007/978-3-211-98811-4_24
Timing of serum active MMP-9 and MMP-2 levels in acute and subacute phases after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
M. Castellazzi (2010)
10.1097/00004647-200107000-00005
Hypoperfusion without Ischemia Surrounding Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
A. Zazulia (2001)
10.1093/brain/awv162
Cortical superficial siderosis: detection and clinical significance in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and related conditions.
A. Charidimou (2015)
10.1056/NEJM200001273420403
Apolipoprotein E genotype and the risk of recurrent lobar intracerebral hemorrhage.
H. O'donnell (2000)
10.1038/jcbfm.2008.95
C3a Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Brain Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage
M. Rynkowski (2009)
10.1097/00005072-197107000-00015
Pathological observations in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage.
Fisher Cm (1971)
10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.08.001
Preclinical and clinical research on inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage
J. Wang (2010)
10.1111/ijs.12035
Transient Focal Neurological Episodes, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk: Looking beyond TIAs
A. Charidimou (2013)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000003220
Synergistic effects of longitudinal amyloid and vascular changes on lobar microbleeds
Y. Kim (2016)
10.3171/JNS.2003.99.1.0065
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentration after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
S. Abilleira (2003)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.493494
Kidney Function Is Related to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
M. Ikram (2008)
10.1016/S1474-4422(16)00130-7
Dementia risk after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study
S. Moulin (2016)
10.1172/JCI88647
TGF-&bgr;1 modulates microglial phenotype and promotes recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage
Roslyn A. Taylor (2017)
Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack
S. Pinto (2001)
10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70038-8
Prediction of haematoma growth and outcome in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage using the CT-angiography spot sign (PREDICT): a prospective observational study
A. Demchuk (2012)
10.1161/JAHA.114.001140
What are White Matter Hyperintensities Made of?
J. Wardlaw (2015)
10.1002/ana.1010
Adenosine A2A receptor activation reduces proinflammatory events and decreases cell death following intracerebral hemorrhage
M. Mayne (2001)
10.1161/01.STR.18.2.531
Primary intracerebral hemorrhage and heart weight: a clinicopathologic case-control review of 218 patients.
M. Bahemuka (1987)
10.1002/ana.20596
Spatial clustering of hemorrhages in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy
J. Rosand (2005)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWL387
Spontaneous brain microbleeds: systematic review, subgroup analyses and standards for study design and reporting.
C. Cordonnier (2007)
10.1212/WNL.32.3.252
Lateral segmental brainstem hemorrhages
L. Caplan (1982)
10.1161/01.STR.0000103140.52838.45
Iron and Iron-Handling Proteins in the Brain After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Jimin Wu (2003)
10.1007/s00401-016-1635-0
Reduced vascular amyloid burden at microhemorrhage sites in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Susanne J. van Veluw (2016)
10.1159/000381223
The Characteristics of Superficial Siderosis and Convexity Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Clinical Relevance in Suspected Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
J. Ni (2015)
10.1016/S0046-8177(77)80076-2
Miliary aneurysms and "fibrinoid" degeneration of cerebral blood vessels.
W. Rosenblum (1977)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000004668
Evolution of DWI lesions in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Susanne J. van Veluw (2017)
10.1212/WNL.50.4.961
Association of apolipoprotein E ϵ2 and vasculopathy in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
S. Greenberg (1998)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566257
Acute Brain Infarcts After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Study
S. Prabhakaran (2010)
10.1001/archneur.1964.00460140086011
SPONTANEOUS HEMORRHAGE IN THE POSTERIOR FOSSA.A STUDY OF PRIMARY CEREBELLAR AND PONTINE HEMORRHAGES WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR PATHOGENESIS.
H. Dinsdale (1964)
10.1002/ana.10553
Intracerebral hemorrhage induces macrophage activation and matrix metalloproteinases
C. Power (2003)
10.1097/00005072-199907000-00005
The Apolipoprotein E ∈2 Allele and the Pathological Features in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-related Hemorrhage
M. McCarron (1999)
10.1002/ana.410380219
Apolipoprotein E ϵ4 and cerebral hemorrhage associated with amyloid angiopathy
Steven M. Greenberg (1995)
10.1161/01.STR.19.5.547
The Stroke Data Bank: design, methods, and baseline characteristics.
M. Foulkes (1988)
10.1161/01.STR.14.1.28
Electron microscopic studies of ruptured arteries in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.
S. Takebayashi (1983)
10.1177/0271678X17700435
Dementia incidence and predictors in cerebral amyloid angiopathy patients without intracerebral hemorrhage
L. Xiong (2018)
10.1161/01.STR.14.6.915
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: incidence and complications in the aging brain. I. Cerebral hemorrhage.
J. Gilbert (1983)
10.1161/01.STR.0000149615.51204.0b
Molecular Signatures of Vascular Injury Are Associated With Early Growth of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Y. Silva (2005)
10.1111/j.1750-3639.2011.00512.x
MMP‐2/MMP‐9 Plasma Level and Brain Expression in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy‐Associated Hemorrhagic Stroke
M. Hernández-Guillamon (2012)
10.1161/01.STR.28.11.2222
Nonhypertensive cerebral small-vessel disease. An autopsy study.
G. A. Lammie (1997)
10.1093/brain/86.3.425
OBSERVATIONS ON INTRACEREBRAL ANEURYSMS
R. R. Russell (1963)
10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70283-0
Mechanisms of brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage
G. Xi (2006)
10.1136/jnnp.31.6.616
Fatal hypertensive intracerebral haematomas: a survey of the pathological anatomy of 393 cases.
E. Freytag (1968)
10.1161/01.HYP.0000168052.00426.65
Relationship between aortic stiffening and microvascular disease in brain and kidney: cause and logic of therapy.
M. O'Rourke (2005)
10.1212/WNL.52.2.266
No evidence for an ischemic penumbra in massive experimental intracerebral hemorrhage
A. Qureshi (1999)
10.1136/jnnp-2013-306485
APOE associations with severe CAA-associated vasculopathic changes: collaborative meta-analysis
K. Rannikmäe (2013)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009090
White Matter Perivascular Spaces on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Marker of Cerebrovascular Amyloid Burden?
A. Charidimou (2015)
Histopathologic analysis of foci of signal loss on gradient-echo T2*-weighted MR images in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: evidence of microangiopathy-related microbleeds.
F. Fazekas (1999)
10.1161/01.STR.17.6.1078
Hypertension as a risk factor for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
T. Brott (1986)
10.1136/jnnp.30.1.61
Pseudo-aneurysms in relationship to massive cerebral haemorrhage
F. M. Cole (1967)
10.1016/j.jalz.2015.04.009
Diagnostic value of lobar microbleeds in individuals without intracerebral hemorrhage
S. Martínez-Ramírez (2015)
10.3171/JNS.2001.95.4.0680
Attenuation of intracerebral hemorrhage and thrombin-induced brain edema by overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.
T. Masada (2001)
10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.98
Predictors of hematoma volume in deep and lobar supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage.
G. Falcone (2013)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e31824e8e7f
Staging and natural history of cerebrovascular pathology in dementia
V. Deramecourt (2012)
10.1002/nbm.3306
Assessment of blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries with 7‐T quantitative flow MRI
W. Bouvy (2016)
10.1002/ana.21097
Hematoma resolution as a target for intracerebral hemorrhage treatment: Role for peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ in microglia/macrophages
X. Zhao (2007)
10.1136/jnnp.2006.089292
Is hypertension a more frequent risk factor for deep than for lobar supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage?
C. Jackson (2006)
10.3988/jcn.2011.7.1.1
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Systematic Review
A. Biffi (2011)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015062
Noncontrast Computed Tomography Markers of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion.
G. Boulouis (2017)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.486977
Evidence Against a Perihemorrhagic Penumbra Provided by Perfusion Computed Tomography
C. Herweh (2007)
10.1136/jnnp-2012-304434
Enlarged perivascular spaces as a marker of underlying arteriopathy in intracerebral haemorrhage: a multicentre MRI cohort study
A. Charidimou (2013)
10.1007/s00415-011-6218-3
Distribution of white matter hyperintensity in cerebral hemorrhage and healthy aging
Y. Zhu (2011)
10.1001/archneur.1963.00460060074008
MASSIVE CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE. CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS.
N. Mutlu (1963)
10.1007/BF00687740
Vascular changes underlying cerebral lesions in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
J. Ogata (1981)
10.1093/BRAIN/AWM095
Heme oxygenase-1 exacerbates early brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage.
J. Wang (2007)
10.1161/01.STR.27.3.490
Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage model in pigs: rapid edema development in perihematomal white matter.
K. Wagner (1996)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.563932
Effects of Perindopril-Based Lowering of Blood Pressure on Intracerebral Hemorrhage Related to Amyloid Angiopathy: The PROGRESS Trial
H. Arima (2010)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.019286
Cerebellar Hematoma Location: Implications for the Underlying Microangiopathy
M. Pasi (2018)
10.1093/brain/awr172
Acute ischaemic brain lesions in intracerebral haemorrhage: multicentre cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging study.
S. Gregoire (2011)
10.1161/01.STR.24.1.49
Lobar Hemorrhage in the Elderly: The Undiminishing Importance of Hypertension
J. Broderick (1993)
10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0832
Total Magnetic Resonance Imaging Burden of Small Vessel Disease in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: An Imaging-Pathologic Study of Concept Validation.
A. Charidimou (2016)
10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70325-2
Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders
P. Verghese (2011)
10.1001/jama.2015.10082
Association Between Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
A. Biffi (2015)
10.1161/01.STR.28.1.1
Early hemorrhage growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
T. Brott (1997)
10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70148-X
APOE genotype and extent of bleeding and outcome in lobar intracerebral haemorrhage: a genetic association study
A. Biffi (2011)
10.1111/j.1750-3639.2002.tb00449.x
Sporadic and Familial Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathies
T. Revesz (2002)
10.1002/ana.22516
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the elderly
A. Viswanathan (2011)
10.1177/1747493017730907
Context is everything: From cardiovascular disease to cerebral microbleeds
A. Charidimou (2018)
10.1111/j.1750-3639.2006.tb00559.x
The Cerebral β‐Amyloid Angiopathies: Hereditary and Sporadic
Sandy Zhang-Nunes (2006)
10.7326/0003-4819-140-4-200402170-00006
Retinal Arteriolar Diameter and Risk for Hypertension
T. Wong (2004)
10.1212/01.wnl.0000194267.09060.77
Antiplatelet use after intracerebral hemorrhage
A. Viswanathan (2006)
10.1007/978-3-319-02411-0_21
High resolution imaging of cerebral small vessel disease with 7 T MRI.
Susanne J. van Veluw (2014)
10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70104-6
Cerebral small vessel disease: from pathogenesis and clinical characteristics to therapeutic challenges
L. Pantoni (2010)
10.1161/01.STR.0000014774.88027.22
Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Preliminary Results of a Population-Based Study
D. Woo (2002)
10.1007/s00415-016-8040-4
Impaired renal function is related to deep and mixed, but not strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds in patients with ischaemic stroke and TIA
Gargi Banerjee (2016)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000003866
Cortical superficial siderosis and first-ever cerebral hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy
A. Charidimou (2017)
10.1161/01.STR.18.2.311
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy. A critical review.
H. Vinters (1987)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000003281
Cortical superficial siderosis predicts early recurrent lobar hemorrhage
D. Roongpiboonsopit (2016)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.501213
Association Between Serum Ferritin Level and Perihematoma Edema Volume in Patients With Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
M. Mehdiratta (2008)
10.1212/WNL.56.4.537
Clinical diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy: Validation of the Boston Criteria
K. Knudsen (2001)
10.1212/WNL.0000000000004007
Distribution of lacunes in cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertensive small vessel disease
M. Pasi (2017)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.016833
Cortical Superficial Siderosis in Different Types of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
F. Wollenweber (2017)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.014425
Noncontrast Computed Tomography Hypodensities Predict Poor Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients
G. Boulouis (2016)
10.1002/ana.410300503
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy without and with cerebral hemorrhages: A comparative histological study
Jean Paul G. Vonsattel (1991)
10.1111/j.1365-2990.2010.01137.x
Review: sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
J. Attems (2011)
10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.548974
Microbleeds Versus Macrobleeds: Evidence for Distinct Entities
S. Greenberg (2009)
10.1016/0022-510X(93)90317-R
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: A significant cause of cerebellar as well as lobar cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly
Y. Itoh (1993)
10.1212/01.wnl.0000307750.41970.d9
Prevalence and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds
M. W. Vernooij (2008)
10.1212/WNL.41.12.1881
Clinical discriminators of lobar and deep hemorrhages
A. Massaro (1991)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828f1876
Topography of dilated perivascular spaces in subjects from a memory clinic cohort
S. Martínez-Ramírez (2013)
10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.174938
Ambulatory Versus Home Versus Clinic Blood Pressure: The Association With Subclinical Cerebrovascular Diseases: The Ohasama Study
A. Hara (2012)
10.1073/pnas.90.20.9649
Increased amyloid beta-peptide deposition in cerebral cortex as a consequence of apolipoprotein E genotype in late-onset Alzheimer disease.
D. Schmechel (1993)
10.1056/NEJMP068043
Small vessels, big problems.
S. Greenberg (2006)
10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70124-8
Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration
J. Wardlaw (2013)
10.1093/brain/90.4.759
Intracerebral microaneurysms and small cerebrovascular lesions.
F. Cole (1967)
10.1097/00005053-196501000-00004
ACUTE HYPERTENSIVE CEREBELLAR HEMORRHAGE: DIAGNOSIS AND SURGICAL TREATMENT
C. Fisher (1965)
10.1002/ana.410010209
Hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage
D. Hier (1977)
10.1212/WNL.58.4.624
Molecular signatures of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage
J. Castillo (2002)



Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar