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Karyotypes, Nucleoli, And Amphiplasty In Hybrids Between Hordeum Vulgare L. And H. Bulbosum L.

W. Lange, G. Jochemsen
Published 2004 · Biology

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Chromosome measurements were carried out in Hordeum vulgare, H. bulbosum, and their diploid, triploid, and tetraploid hybrids. The chromosomes were classified by using relative values, and thus karyotypes were established. For comparison of these karyotypes both relative and absolute values were used. It was concluded that differential amphiplasty occurred, whereas neutral amphiplasty could not be demonstrated. In the hybrids the relative length of the parts of the chromosomes (long arm, short arm, satellite) was not changed in comparison with these lengths in the pure species. The karyotypes of both species had considerable similarities. From comparing the mean absolute genome lengths, it was, however, concluded that in the pure species, as well as in all hybrid types, the chromosomes of H. vulgare were longer than those of H. bulbosum. In the diploid and tetraploid hybrids the mean genome lengths were shorter than those in the pure species and the triploid hybrids. The differential amphiplasty was such that the secondary constriction of chromosome 6 of H. bulbosum, did not show up in the hybrids. This could be related to the suppression of nucleolar formation in the genome of H. bulbosum, because the maximum number of nucleoli in root tip cells equalled the number of satellite chromosomes. Finally it was found that the pattern of nucleolar fusion in diploid and triploid hybrids deviated from the expectation. The results were discussed in relation to chromosomal disturbances that occurred in the hybrid tissues and that resulted in elimination of chromosomes and other effects.
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