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Cathepsins D, B, And L In Transformed Human Breast Epithelial Cells

Tamara T. Lah, G. Calaf, E. Kálmán, B. G. Shinde, R. Somers, S. Estrada, E. Salero, J. Russo, I. Daskal
Published 2005 · Biology, Medicine

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To investigate the regulation of lysosomal enzymes during carcinogenesis, we measured cathepsins (Cats) D, B, and L in MCF-10F, which is a human breast epithelial cell line, and cells evolved after treatment with carcinogen and transfected with c-Ha-ras oncogene. The clones used in this study, MCF-10FTras, D3, D3-1, and D3-1Tras, expressed no estrogen receptors and gradually increased invasive potential, while oncogenetransfected lines were also tumorigenic in SCID mice [16,19]. Cats D, B, and L were determined in the cells and in cell media using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), specific enzyme activity measurements, and immunocytochemistry. The major intra- and extracellular lysosomal proteinase in these cells was Cat D (30–180 pm/mg), followed by Cat B (2–10 pm/mg) and Cat L (1–5 pm/mg). An inverse relationship between intracellular Cat D levels and invasive potential of carcinogen-treated and c-Ha-ras oncogene-transfected cell lines was observed. No significant changes in extracellular concentration of Cat D precursor in this series of cell lines was observed. Intracellular levels of Cats B and L were unchanged or slightly lower in carcinogentreated D3 and D3-1 cells, as well as in MCF-10FTras. On the other hand, in D3-1Tras cell line, evolving from c-Ha-ras transfected D3-1 line, 3.5 fold and 4.4 fold increases in Cat B and Cat L, respectively, but a 2 fold decrease in Cat D, were observed compared to the parental cell line. Immunocytochemical staining showed a granular, polarized perinuclear and cytoplasmic staining of cathepsins in all cell lines. Cysteine proteinases stained more frequently and more intensely in D3-1Tras compared to other lines, confirming the immunochemical assays. We hypothesize that several molecular events, caused by a carcinogen and an oncogene such as c-Ha-ras, are needed to increase Cat B and Cat L, but not Cat D, expression. Therefore, the cysteine and aspartic lysosomal proteinases are differentially expressed in the breast cell lines with more invasive phenotype.
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