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Experience With Autogenous Arteriovenous Access For Hemodialysis In Children And Adolescents

W. Gradman, G. Lerner, M. Mentser, H. Rodriguez, E. Kamil
Published 2005 · Medicine

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The National Kidney Foundation’s DOQI-NKF recommendation to construct an autogenous arteriovenous access (AAVA) for chronic hemodialysis whenever possible can be a challenge in the pediatric population. This report reviews recent surgical experience in this patient subgroup. From March 1999 to April 2004, 47 consecutive children requiring permanent vascular access had construction of AAVA. There were 16 girls and 31 boys, with a mean age of 14.6 years (range 5-20). The surgeon preoperatively mapped veins with ultrasound in all patients. Access sites were radial-cephalic (n = 16), upper arm brachial-cephalic (n = 15), transposed upper arm brachial-basilic (n = 7), and transposed femoral vein (n = 9). An operating microscope was used to construct three radial-cephalic accesses in individuals with small arteries. Three forearm cephalic veins were transposed (one at the original surgical procedure and two postoperatively). Five upper arm cephalic veins were transposed (three at the original surgical procedure and two postoperatively). Femoral vein accesses were constructed for either exhausted access in the upper extremities (n = 7) or patient preference (n = 2). Primary patency at 1 and 2 years was 100% and 96%, respectively. Secondary patency at 1 and 2 years was 100%. One individual with a radial-cephalic AAVA and severe radial artery calcification required an inflow procedure. Thirty-five accesses are currently in use (functionally patent), eight are in individuals with successful renal transplants, and two are maturing; one individual declines using the access. Two accesses are secondarily patent (thrombosed and repaired 12 and 29 months after construction, respectively), and one access thrombosed after 27 months (abandoned). Construction of an AAVA is possible in virtually all pediatric age individuals if attention is given to preoperative vein mapping, selective use of an operating microscope, and creation of a transposed femoral vein when upper extremity access is neither possible nor desired.
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