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The Biochemistry Of Orbiviruses

R. P. Spence, N. F. Moore, P. Nuttall
Published 2005 · Biology

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Orbiviruses, some of which are important pathogens of livestock, were classified historically as arboviruses, tha t is viruses which multiply in both vertebrates and their arthropod vectors (7). Most arboviruses possess a lipid envelope and are, therefore, susceptible to lipid solvents and detergents (67). Orbiviruses were considered resistant and hence were regarded as an unclassified group of arboviruses. Subsequent work on the structure of orbiviruses permitted proper classification into genus and family. The most studied orbiviruses are those of the bluetongue virus group or complex which presently comprises 20 serotypes; other groups contain viruses of both veterinary and medical importance and these will be mentioned to emphasise the diverse nature of the orbivirus genus. S~VI)DEI~T et al. (63) showed a strain of bluetongue virus, originally isolated from an outbreak of bluetongue on the Isle of Cyprus, to be structurally similar to the reoviruses. VEI~WOEI~I) (70) demonstrated a double stranded I~NA genome in bluetongue virus type 10 which could be separated into at least three components in sucrose gradients. He suggested bluetongue virus be classified with reoand other double stranded RNA viruses in a new group, the diplornaviruses (71). The results of morphological studies by M~u~PH¥ et al. (44) and physicochemieal and serological studies by BOlCDE?¢ et al. (3) led to the formation of a new virus group, with bluetongue virus as the type species. Based on the appearance of the virus as seen by electron microscopy, BORDE~ et at. (3) proposed the name orbivirus, derived from the Latin OI~BIS, meaning ring or circle. Orbiviruses are now classified as
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