← Back to Search
Changes In Masculine And Feminine Traits Over Time: A Meta-analysis
Published 1997 · Psychology
Save to my Library
Download via 🐼 PaperPanda Download via oaDOI Download via OAB Download via LibKey Download via Google Google ScholarAnalyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Sixty-three samples providing single-sex means on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory [BSRI; S. L. Bem (1974) “The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,”Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. 155–162] and 40 reporting similar data on the Personal Attributes Questionnaire [PAQ; J. T. Spence and R. L. Helmreich (1978)Masculinity and Feminity, Austin University of Texas Press] for American undergraduates were located and analyzed. Women’s scores on the BSRI-M and PAQ-M (masculine) scales have increased steadily over time (r’s = .74 and .43, respectively). Women’s BSRI-F and PAQ-F (feminine) scale scores do not correlate with year. Men’s BSRI-M scores show a weaker positive relationship with year of administration (r = .47). The effect size for sex differences on the BSRI-M has also changed over time, showing a significant decrease over the twenty-year period. The results suggest that cultural change and environment may affect individual personalities; these changes in BSRI and PAQ means demonstrate women’s increased endorsement of masculine-stereotyped traits and men’s continued nonendorsement of feminine-steretyped traits.
This paper references
Statistical abstract of the United States
D. Commerce (1878)
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
E. Goffman (1959)
Social Psychology as History
K. Gergen (1973)
The measurement of psychological androgyny.
S. Bem (1974)
Decade Differences in Personality of Junior College and University Freshmen
M. Southern (1974)
A subcultural change of MMPI norms in the 1960s due to adolescent role confusion and glamorization of alienation.
D. S. Schubert (1975)
Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity.
J. Spence (1975)
Patterns of self-disclosure in homosexual and heterosexual college students
V. L. Bender (1976)
Attitudes toward Women, Sex-Role-Stereotyping and Locus of Control
F. A. Minnigerode (1976)
Maternal Employment and Androgyny
R. Hansson (1977)
A factor analysis of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.
C. Whetton (1977)
The measurement of psychological androgyny: an extended replication.
H. Hogan (1977)
On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny.
S. Bem (1977)
Sex-Role Attitude as a Moderator in the Relationship between Locus of Control and N Achievement
A. Bedeian (1977)
Cross-Validation of Item Selection on the Bem Sex Role Inventory
H. Walkup (1978)
Further evidence that M-F is bipolar and multidimensional.
M. Russell (1978)
Masculinity and femininity as factors in feminism.
D. Baucom (1978)
Participation in competitive amateur sports as a function of psychological androgyny
A. Myers (1978)
The relationship of women's sex-role identity to self-esteem and ego development.
E. Schiff (1978)
Nursing Students: Stereotypically Feminine
J. Vandever (1978)
Multivariate analysis of male and female professional career choice correlates.
Edward G. Wertheim (1978)
German and American Responses to the Bem Sex Role Inventory
H. Hogan (1979)
Psychological androgyny and sex role flexibility: A test of two hypotheses
R. Helmreich (1979)
Self-rated adjustment and sex-typing on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Is masculinity the primary predictor of adjustment?
L. Silvern (1979)
Relationships between Sex-Role Orientation and Attitudes toward Women as Managers
M. Collins (1979)
Relationship of Sex Role to Male- and Female-Dominated Professions
Z. E. Tyer (1979)
Sex Role Identity and Its Relationships to Sex Role Attributes and Sex Role Stereotypes.
Michael D. Storms (1979)
Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Personality Attributes and Sex-Role Attitudes Across Age Groups.
J. Spence (1979)
Machiavellianism and Women's Grade Point Averages
M. Ames (1979)
Theoretical and Operational Conceptualizations of Psychological Androgyny: Implications for Measurement
Nancy E. Downing (1979)
A Comparison Of The Adjective Check List, Bem Sex Role Inventory, And Personal Attributes Questionnaire Masculinity And Femininity Subscales.
K. E. O’grady (1979)
Sex-role androgyny and patterns of causal attribution for academic achievement
M. Brewer (1979)
Psychological androgyny, feminine gender identity and self‐esteem in homosexual and heterosexual males
Robert E. Hooberman (1979)
Bem Sex Role Inventory: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique.
E. Pedhazur (1979)
Type of Menstrual Discomfort and Psychological Masculinity in College Women
D. Woods (1979)
Multivariate analysis of new sex role formulations and personality.
L. C. Bernard (1980)
Menstrual Distress and Sex-Role Attributes
Paul R. Good (1980)
Theories of sexual orientation.
Michael D. Storms (1980)
Correlates of female athletic participation: Masculinity, femininity, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women
R. Colker (1980)
Correlations of Masculinity and Femininity to Sensation Seeking
J. Tobacyk (1980)
Masculine Instrumentality and Feminine Expressiveness: Their Relationships with Sex Role Attitudes and Behaviors
J. Spence (1980)
Desirable and undesirable masculine and feminine traits in counseling clients and unselected students.
C. Holahan (1980)
The relationship of sex role to self-concept.
C. Erdwins (1980)
Comparison of Factors from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory for Male and Female College Students
T. M. Kimlicka (1980)
The multidimensional aspects of masculinity–femininity.
L. C. Bernard (1981)
Sex-role and need configuration
Batlis Nc (1981)
Traditionality of Choice and Sex-Role Identification as Moderators of the Congruence of Occupational Choice in College Women.
L. K. Wolfe (1981)
Concern over the negative consequences of success
R. Ho (1981)
Sex-role development in late adolescence and adulthood
J. Fischer (1981)
Relationship between Sex, Sex-Role Characteristics and Coronary-Prone Behavior in College Students
J. Nix (1981)
Categorization Agreement of the Personality Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex Role Inventory.
J. Gaa (1981)
Impact of Maternal Employment on Daughters' Sex-Role Orientation and Fear of Success
F. D. Gilroy (1981)
Sex-Role Identity across Two Cultures
J. Gackenbach (1981)
Psychological Masculinity and Femininity: Relationship to Striving and Self-Concept in the Achievement and Interpersonal Domains
J. L. Orlofsky (1981)
Relationship between sex role attitudes and personality traits and the sex role behavior scale-1: A new measure of masculine and feminine role behaviors and interests.
J. L. Orlofsky (1981)
The relationship between sex-role identity and beliefs in personal control
S. J. Johnson (1981)
The "Self-Disclosure" and "Self-Presentation" Views of Item Response Dynamics and Personality Scale Validity
J. A. Johnson (1981)
Sex-gender differences in level of androgyny
A. B. Heilbrun (1982)
Female Career Preference and Androgyny.
Joanne H. Clarey (1982)
Defense mechanisms in females as a function of sex-role orientation
R. G. Evans (1982)
Are Masculine Trait-Factors in Women a Help or a Hindrance in Dealing with Fear of Success?
M. Kearney (1982)
Sex-Role Identity and Sex: An Important Distinction for Research on Women in Management
G. Powell (1982)
“Masculinity,” “femininity,” and adjustment in college men
F. D. Payne (1983)
A Comparison of Androgynous, Feminine, Masculine, and Undifferentiated Women on Self-Esteem, Body Satisfaction, and Sexual Satisfaction
T. M. Kimlicka (1983)
Career choice considerations and sex role self-concept of male and female undergraduates in nontraditional majors
C. Strange (1983)
Gender jeopardy: The effects of gender, assessed femininity and masculinity, and false success/failure feedback on performance in an experimental quiz game.
R. Lippa (1983)
The Effects of Early Parental Divorce on the Sex Role Development of College Students.
James D. Vess Jr. Ma (1983)
Sex-Role Orientation, Stress, and Subsequent Health Status Demonstrated by Two Scoring Procedures for Bem's Scale
B. A. Wech (1983)
Causes and consequences of sex-role attitudes and attitude change.
A. Thornton (1983)
The effects of self-monitoring on the expressive display of masculinity-femininity
R. Lippa (1983)
The relationship of sex-role characteristics to self-report and role-play measures of assertiveness in women
J. Nix (1984)
Sex differences in problem solving.
E. Johnson (1984)
Masculinity, femininity, psychological androgyny, and the structure of values.
N. Feather (1984)
If “good managers” are masculine, what are “bad managers”?
G. Powell (1984)
Seductive father-daughter relationships and sex roles in women
Joseph D. LaBarbera (1984)
Hostility and sex guilt: Perceptions of self and others as a function of gender and sex-role orientation
R. G. Evans (1984)
Sex role attributes, symptom distress, and defensive style among college men and women.
S. Frank (1984)
The relationship between sex-role orientation and the type A behavior pattern: a test of the main effect hypothesis.
M. J. Stevens (1984)
Working wives, working husbands
J. Pleck (1985)
Sex Role Orientation
J. S. St. Lawrence (1985)
Shifts in Sex-Role after a Decade of Cultural Change
D. M. Pedersen (1985)
Factors Affecting the Sex of One's Friends
Diane Donio (1985)
Volunteer bias in erotica research: Effects of intrusiveness of measure and sexual background
S. Wolchik (1985)
Not Just Another Pretty Face
T. Cash (1985)
Sexual identification and gender identity among father-absent males
S. Kagel (1985)
BSRI Scores: Stability Over Four Years for College Women
Barbara J. Yanico (1985)
Multidimensional self-concepts, masculinity, and femininity as a function of women's involvement in athletics
H. W. Marsh (1986)
Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: Assessment and Behavioral Consequences
Mary E. Kite (1986)
Sex role perceptions and social anxiety in opposite-sex and same-sex situations
C. Robins (1986)
The masculinity-femininity of women who study college mathematics
S. Blackman (1986)
Gender-role conflict scale: College men's fear of femininity
J. O'neil (1986)
Gender-related traits and helping behaviors.
F. M. Siem (1986)
Validity of Using Bem Sex-Role Inventory Norms on other Samples: Analysis of a Southern Sample
P. J. Faulkender (1987)
Masculinity, femininity, life stress, and depression
J. Stoppard (1987)
Norms for college undergraduates for the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and the Wiggins Interpersonal Behavior Circle.
P. Yarnold (1987)
Gender role identity and dating behavior: What is the relationship?
J. L. Delucia (1987)
Contrast of the Gender-Identity Scale with Bem's Sex-Role Measures and the MF Scale of the MMPI
R. V. Alumbaugh (1987)
The relationship of sex-role orientation to heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals
B. Whitley (1987)
Sex differences in social behavior : a social-role interpretation
A. Eagly (1987)
“Masculinity,” “femininity,” and the complex construct of adjustment
F. D. Payne (1987)
Stereotypic and nonstereotypic sex role trait and behavior orientations: Implications for personal adjustment.
J. L. Orlofsky (1987)
Narcissism, sex roles, and self-functioning
P. Watson (1987)
Sex Differences in Moral Judgments? A Test of Gilligan's Theory
W. J. Friedman (1987)
Correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals in heterosexual college students
L. A. Kurdek (1988)
A theoretical analysis of sex differences in same-sex friendships
Robert J. Barth (1988)
Relations between instrumental and expressive personality characteristics and behaviors: A test of spence and Helmreich's theory ☆
G. Holmbeck (1988)
Field dependence, sex role self-perceptions, and mathematics achievement in college students: A closer examination☆
Malcolm L. Van Blerkom (1988)
The relation of gender-role orientation to sexual experience among college students
B. Whitley (1988)
Gender Self-Concepts in the USA and Yugoslavia
T. Novaković (1988)
Polls and Surveys: Understanding What They Tell Us.@@@Trends in Public Opinion: A Compendium of Survey Data.
Lawrence D Bobo (1989)
Linking Individual Development and Social Changes
A. Stewart (1989)
Sex-Role Orientation of College Students and Their Same-Sex Parents
J. J. Karylowski (1989)
The Second Shift
A. Hochschild (1989)
Adolescent girls' sex role development: Relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche
J. Butcher (1989)
Interactive effects of social context and sex role identity on female self-disclosure during the acquaintance process
D. Shaffer (1991)
Relationships between Achievement and Affiliation Needs and Sex-Role Orientation of College Women Whose Fathers Were Absent from Home
S. M. Harris (1991)
The Effects of Sexually Violent Rock Music on Males' Acceptance of Violence Against Women
J. S. St. Lawrence (1991)
Sexually Aggressive Tactics in Dating Relationships: Personality and Attitudinal Correlates
J. Spence (1991)
Some psychometric characteristics of gender diagnosticity measures: reliability, validity, consistency across domains, and relationship to the big five.
R. Lippa (1991)
The relation of gender and sexual orientation to measures of masculinity, femininity, and androgyny: a further analysis.
B. Finlay (1991)
Women's Sports: A History.
P. Adler (1991)
Fashion, culture, and identity
F. Davis (1991)
Gender role, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being in men
Mark J. Sharpe (1991)
Gender characteristics and adjustment: a longitudinal study.
J. Aubé (1992)
Overcoming the masculine mystique : preferences for alternative forms of assistance among men who avoid counseling
J. M. Robertson (1992)
Depression, gender, gender role traits, and the wish to be held
M. Sanfilipo (1993)
Intercorrelations of attitudes, personality, and sex role orientation in a college sample
C. Nagoshi (1993)
Hemodynamic adjustments to laboratory stress: the influence of gender and personality.
M. T. Allen (1993)
Gender-related traits and gender ideology: Evidence for a multifactorial theory.
J. T. Spence (1993)
Love Styles, Masculinity/Femininity, Physical Attractiveness, and Sexual Behavior: A Test of Evolutionary Theory
A. Walsh (1993)
The relationship of gender, self-esteem, and instrumentality to depressive symptomatology.
N. Russo (1993)
Sexual aggression and love styles: An exploratory study
D. Sarwer (1993)
Sex differences in depression across the high school to college transition
T. Gladstone (1994)
Relative Fairness and the Division of Housework: The Importance of Options
M. Lennon (1994)
Care-oriented moral reasoning and prosocial behavior: A question of gender or sex role orientation
I. Söchting (1994)
Stressful life events: Moderators of the relationships of gender and gender roles to self-reported depression and suicidality among college students
L. Waelde (1994)
Housework in Marital and Nonmarital Households
S. South (1994)
Identity in three cohorts of midlife women.
R. Helson (1995)
Do Sex Differences Define Gender-Related Individual Differences within the Sexes? Evidence from Three Studies
R. Lippa (1995)
The differential role of instrumentality, expressivity, and social support in predicting problem-solving appraisal in men and women
P. Heppner (1995)
Gender Roles and Self-Esteem: A Consideration of Environmental Factors
J. Burnett (1995)
Attitudes Toward Women, 1970–1995
J. Twenge (1997)
Masculinity and femininity
E. V. D. Vliert (1998)
This paper is referenced by
Gendered fitness interests: A method partitioning the effects of family composition on socio-political attitudes and behaviors
R. Brooks (2021)
Bystander Reactions to Workplace Incivility: The Role of Gender and Discrimination Claims
Samantha Sinclair (2021)
The era of #MeToo and what managers should do about it
L. Atwater (2021)
Think scientists—Think male: Science and leadership are still more strongly associated with men than with women in Germany
Nadine Nett (2021)
Gender role identity and gender intensification: Agency and communion in adolescents’ spontaneous self-descriptions
Selma Korlat (2021)
Gender Roles and Date Context in Hypothetical Scripts for a Woman and a Man on a First Date in the Twenty-First Century
J. J. Cameron (2020)
What a Difference a Decade Makes. The Evolving Gender Gap in Students’ Goal Endorsement and STEM Career Choice
Chen Chen (2020)
The psychology of maternal politics: priming and framing effects of candidates’ appeals to motherhood
Grace Deason (2020)
Gender at Work Across Nations: Men and Women Working in Male‐Dominated and Female‐Dominated Occupations are Differentially Associated with Agency and Communion
Laura Froehlich (2020)
Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis: A Conceptual and Empirical Critique
C. Rudolph (2020)
Use of Social Media for Political Participation by Youths in Oyo State, Nigeria
F. Omotayo (2020)
The acceptance of critical courses: A case study of a fair trade-related course
Yeong-Shyang Chen (2020)
Estimating the Prevalence of Gender-Biased Language in Undergraduates’ Everyday Speech
H. MacArthur (2020)
Gender, Sex, and Trust in Government
Monika L. McDermott (2020)
Ideological Bias in the Psychology of Sex and Gender
M. D. Giudice (2020)
Women in innovation processes as a solution to climate change: A systematic literature review and an agenda for future research
Séverine Le Loarne-Lemaire (2020)
How gender stereotypes shape venture growth expectations
A. Martiarena (2020)
PARENTAL LEAVE INEQUITY 1 Running Head: PARENTAL LEAVE INEQUALITY Predictors of Parental Leave Support: Bad News for (Big) Dads and a Policy Plan for Equality
J. L. Gloor (2020)
Investigating the Effects of Interrupting Gender-Related Schematic Encoding and Memory Recall in an Adult Population
K. Hansford (2020)
Gender, technology and decision-making: insights from an experimental conjoint analysis
B. Bendell (2020)
Symbolisme phonétique du genre dans les prénoms français (Sex-biased sound symbolism in French first names)
A. Suire (2020)
An Inductive Analysis of Young Adults’ Conceptions of Femininity and Masculinity and Comparison to Established Gender Inventories
Mike C. Parent (2020)
Changes over time in young adults' harmful alcohol consumption: A cross-temporal meta-analysis using the AUDIT.
Rachel Visontay (2020)
Salesperson authenticity and gender-based perceptions: an international study
M. Štros (2020)
White Evangelical Activism and the Gender Divide in the 2016 Presidential Election
Elizabeth Monk-Turner (2020)
Gender, gender self-perceptions, and workplace leadership
H. Wolfram (2020)
Masculine defaults: Identifying and mitigating hidden cultural biases.
S. Cheryan (2020)
Changes in Gender Stereotypes Over Time: A Computational Analysis
Nazli M. Bhatia (2020)
Why are Women Less Likely to Negotiate? The Influence of Expectancy Considerations and Contextual Framing on Gender Differences in the Initiation of Negotiation
Julia A. M. Reif (2020)
Social change and birth cohort decrease in social support for older adults in China: A cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1994-2018.
Zhang Zhao (2020)
Detecting Gender Stereotypes: Lexicon vs. Supervised Learning Methods
J. Cryan (2020)
Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values? Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox
Filip Fors Connolly (2020)See more